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1.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 109(1): 75-83, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33424467

RESUMEN

Objective: There are concerns about nonscientific and/or unclear information on the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that is available on the Internet. Furthermore, people's ability to understand health information varies and depends on their skills in reading and interpreting information. This study aims to evaluate the readability and creditability of websites with COVID-19-related information. Methods: The search terms "coronavirus," "COVID," and "COVID-19" were input into Google. The websites of the first thirty results for each search term were evaluated in terms of their credibility and readability using the Health On the Net Foundation code of conduct (HONcode) and Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), Gunning Fog, and Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRE) scales, respectively. Results: The readability of COVID-19-related health information on websites was suitable for high school graduates or college students and, thus, was far above the recommended readability level. Most websites that were examined (87.2%) had not been officially certified by HONcode. There was no significant difference in the readability scores of websites with and without HONcode certification. Conclusion: These results suggest that organizations should improve the readability of their websites and provide information that more people can understand. This could lead to greater health literacy, less health anxiety, and the provision of better preventive information about the disease.


Asunto(s)
/enfermería , Comprensión , Información de Salud al Consumidor/métodos , Exactitud de los Datos , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Alfabetización en Salud/métodos , Internet , Autocuidado/métodos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 13: 34-40, jan.-dez. 2021. ilus
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145901

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Conhecer como ocorre a comunicação de notícias difíceis por enfermeiros na atenção básica. Método: pesquisa exploratória, descritiva e de abordagem qualitativa com 15 Enfermeiros de 10 Unidades Básicas de Saúde no sul do país. A coleta de dados foi realizada através de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Os dados foram analisados conforme análise textual discursiva. Resultado: Foram geradas duas categorias: Comunicação como suporte as necessidades do cliente; Comunicação como elemento a suprir a demanda da atenção primária. Conclusão: os enfermeiros adotam alguns aspectos no momento da comunicação de notícia difícil, aspectos esses ancorados, por exemplo, através de empatia, compreensão da realidade do usuário, fala simplificada, privacidade, entre outros, sendo esses essenciais para uma comunicação adequada e humanizada que visa o conforto do usuário nesse momento da comunicação


Objective: To know how the communication of difficult news by nurses in primary care occurs. Method: exploratory, descriptive and qualitative approach with 15 Nurses from 10 Basic Health Units in the south of the country. Data collection was done through semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed according to discursive textual analysis. Result: two categories were generated: Communication as support the client's needs; Communication as an element to supply the demand for primary care. Conclusion: nurses adopt some aspects at the moment of difficult news communication, aspects that are anchored, for example through empathy, understanding of the user's reality, simplified speech, privacy, among others, being essential for adequate and humanized communication that aims at the comfort of the user in this moment of communication


Objetivo: Conocer cómo ocurre la comunicación de noticias difíciles por enfermeros en la atención básica. Método: investigación exploratoria, descriptiva y de abordaje cualitativo con 15 Enfermeros de 10 Unidades Básicas de Salud en el sur del país. La recolección de datos se realizó a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas. Los datos fueron analizados según el análisis textual discursivo. Resultado: se generaron dos categorías: Comunicación como soporte a las necesidades del cliente; Comunicación como elemento a suplir la demanda de la atención primaria. Conclusión: los enfermeros adoptan algunos aspectos en el momento de la comunicación de noticias difícil, aspectos anclados, por ejemplo, a través de empatía, comprensión de la realidad del usuario, habla simplificada, privacidad, entre otros, siendo estos esenciales para una comunicación adecuada y humanizada que, se refiere a la comodidad del usuario en ese momento de la comunicación


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Comunicación , Empatía , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente/ética , Atención Primaria de Salud , Comprensión , Investigación Cualitativa , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Enfermeras y Enfermeros
3.
Am J Bioeth ; 21(1): 34-45, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373556

RESUMEN

Human brain research is moving into a dilemma. The best way to understand how the human brain works is to study living human brains in living human beings, but ethical and legal standards make it difficult to do powerful research with actual human beings. So neuroscientists have developed four types of surrogates for living human brains in human bodies: genetically edited non-human animals, human/non-human brain chimeras, human neural organoids, and living ex vivo human brain tissues. These new and rapidly improving models offer the hope of understanding human brain function better. If we make our models "too good," they may themselves deserve some of the kinds of ethical and legal respect that have limited brain research in human beings. This article is an initial effort to outline that dilemma.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo , Principios Morales , Animales , Comprensión , Humanos , Respeto
4.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 212: 103191, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147538

RESUMEN

The study examined how readers integrate information from and about multiple information sources into a memory representation. In two experiments, college students read brief news reports containing two critical statements, each attributed to a source character. In half of the texts, the statements were consistent with each other, in the other half they were discrepant. Each story also featured a non-source character (who made no statement). The hypothesis was that discrepant statements, as compared to consistent statements, would promote distinct attention and memory only for the source characters. Experiment 1 used short interviews to assess participants' ability to recognize the source of one of the statements after reading. Experiment 2 used eye-tracking to collect data during reading and during a source-content recognition task after reading. As predicted, discrepancies only enhanced memory of, and attention to source-related segments of the texts. Discrepancies also enhanced the link between the two source characters in memory as opposed to the non-source character, as indicated by the participants' justifications (Experiment 1) and their visual inspection of the recognition items (Experiment 2). The results are interpreted within current theories of text comprehension and document literacy.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Memoria , Lectura , Atención , Humanos , Reconocimiento en Psicología
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 212: 103213, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33220614

RESUMEN

Studies investigating the effects of aging on nonliteral language processing have mainly focused on one sensory modality, for example written vignettes. In the current study, we used a video-based task to examine the effect of healthy aging on social communication perception using a novel database called RISC (Relation Inference in Social Communication). By means of an online recruitment platform, we asked young, middle-aged, and older adults between the ages of 18 and 76 (N = 100) to evaluate videos of actors using different forms of literal and nonliteral language, such as sarcasm or teasing. The participants' task was to infer the speakers' belief and the speakers' intention. Older participants demonstrated lower accuracy in discriminating nonliteral from literal interactions compared to younger and middle-aged groups. When evaluating speaker intentions, older adults judged sarcasm as friendlier compared to literal negative utterances. We also found that the older the participant, the more difficulty they have identifying teasing as insincere. Our results expand on age-related similarities and differences in evaluating speaker intentions and demonstrate the practicality of the RISC database for studying nonliteral language across the lifespan.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Lenguaje , Longevidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Comunicación , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Percepción Social , Adulto Joven
6.
J Environ Manage ; 277: 111430, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33075657

RESUMEN

The growth in the number of industries aiming at more sustainable business processes is driving the use of the European Waste Catalogue (EWC). For example, the identification of industrial symbiosis opportunities, in which a user-generated item description has to be annotated with exactly one EWC tag from an a priori defined tag ontology. This study aims to help researchers understand the perils of the EWC when building a recommender system based on natural language processing techniques. We experiment with semantic enhancement (an EWC thesaurus) and the linguistic contexts of words (learned by Word2vec) for detecting term vector similarity in addition to direct term matching algorithms, which often fail to detect an identical term in the short text generated by users. Our in-depth analysis provides an insight into why the different recommenders were unable to generate a correct annotation and motivates a discussion on the current design of the EWC system.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Semántica , Comercio , Comprensión
7.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 21(2): 41-54, jul.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1125730

RESUMEN

A teoria do estresse de minoria (EM) defende que minorias sociais vivenciam estressores específicos adicionais aos estressores cotidianos. Fatores individuais e do meio podem funcionar como fatores de risco e/ou de proteção no comprometimento da saúde mental de pessoas LGB. O objetivo deste estudo é apresentar e discutir a teoria do EM em indivíduos LGB por meio de uma revisão narrativa. Compreender a ocorrência do EM em pessoas LGB pode auxiliar na elaboração de planos interventivos, de ordem clínica ou social, com o objetivo de minimizar os efeitos do preconceito nestes indivíduos.


The minority stress (MS) theory argues that social minorities experience specific stressors added to everyday stressors. Individual and contextual factors can function as risk and/or protective factors without compromising the mental health of LGB people. This study aims to present and discuss the theory of MS in LGB individuals through a narrative review. Understanding the occurrence of MS in LGB people can assist in the elaboration of intervention plans, of a clinical or social nature to minimize the effects of prejudice in these situations.


La teoría del estrés de minoría (EM) argumenta que las minorías sociales experimentan factores estresantes que se agregan a los factores estresantes cotidianos. Los factores individuales y contextuales pueden funcionar como factores de riesgo o protectores sin comprometer la salud mental de las personas LGB. El objetivo de este estudio es presentar y discutir la teoría de EM en individuos LGB a través de una revisión narrativa. Comprender el EM en personas LGB puede ayudar en la elaboración de planes de intervención, de naturaleza clínica o social, con el objetivo de minimizar los efectos de los prejuicios en estas situaciones.


Asunto(s)
Prejuicio , Estrés Psicológico , Salud Mental , Riesgo , Vulnerabilidad Social , Narración , Comprensión , Factores Protectores , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Distrés Psicológico , Grupos Minoritarios
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45918, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1117684

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a compreensão de estudantes de graduação em enfermagem sobre as Redes de Atenção à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo e exploratório, qualitativo, realizado com 27 estudantes em Enfermagem de uma universidade federal do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas entre agosto e setembro de 2018. Resultados: foi evidenciado o conhecimento dos estudantes em relação ao conceito e objetivo das Redes de Atenção à Saúde, a identificação de fragilidades na comunicação e a falta de conhecimento do usuário como obstáculos na efetivação das mesmas, a dificuldade em ver a atuação do enfermeiro dentro dos variados serviços das redes e a percepção sobre a fragmentação do processo de formação. Conclusão: o estudo contribui para a discussão sobre a inclusão dos estudantes nas Redes de Atenção à Saúde, com intuito de superar as exigências educacionais que buscam favorecer a efetivação do Sistema Único de Saúde e das Redes de Atenção à Saúde.


Objective: to examine undergraduate nursing students' understanding of Health Care Networks (HCNs). Method: in this exploratory, qualitative descriptive study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 Nursing students at a federal University in southern Brazil between August and September 2018. Results: the interviews revealed that the students' knowledge related to the HCNs' concept and purpose, beyond the communication weaknesses and users' lack knowledge as obstacles to effective HCNs, the difficulty in seeing nurses' roles in the various network services, and perceived fragmentation in the training process. Conclusion: the study contributed to discussion of inclusion of students in HCRs, with a view to meeting the educational requirements designed to favor implementation of the national health system (SUS) and the HCNs.


Objetivo: analizar la comprensión de los estudiantes de enfermería de pregrado sobre las redes de atención de la salud (HCN). Método: en este estudio exploratorio, cualitativo descriptivo, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 27 estudiantes de Enfermería de una Universidad federal del sur de Brasil entre agosto y septiembre de 2018. Resultados: las entrevistas revelaron que los conocimientos de los estudiantes relacionados con el concepto y propósito, más allá de las debilidades de comunicación y la falta de conocimiento de los usuarios como obstáculos para una HCN eficaz, la dificultad para ver el rol de las enfermeras en los distintos servicios de la red y la fragmentación percibida en el proceso de formación. Conclusión: el estudio contribuyó a la discusión de la inclusión de los estudiantes en las HCR, con miras a cumplir con los requisitos educativos diseñados para favorecer la implementación del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SUS) y las HCN.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Sistema Único de Salud/organización & administración , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Comprensión , Brasil , Rol de la Enfermera , Investigación Cualitativa , Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería
9.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242967, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33275631

RESUMEN

Thinking about counterfactual conditionals such as "if she had not painted the sheet of paper, it would have been blank" requires us to consider what is conjectured (She did not paint and the sheet was blank) and what actually happened (She painted and the sheet was not blank). In two experiments with adults (Study 1) and schoolchildren from 7 to 13 years (Study 2), we tested three potential sources of difficulty with counterfactuals: inferring, distinguishing what is real vs conjectured (epistemic status) and comprehending linguistic conditional expressions ("if" vs "even if"). The results showed that neither adults nor schoolchildren had difficulty in the comprehension of counterfactual expressions such as "even if" with respect to "if then". The ability to infer with both of these develops during school years, with adults showing great ability. However, the third source factor is critical: we found that the key to young children's difficulty with counterfactual thinking was their inability to differentiate real and conjectured information, while adults showed little difficulty with this.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión/fisiología , Pensamiento/fisiología , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(3): 222-226, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295288

RESUMEN

The ongoing Covid-19 pandemic is marked not only by rapid spread of the causative virus, SARS CoV-2, but also by the spread of war-like narratives. Leaders of different countries have compared the pandemic response to being at war.
In this argument paper, the authors take the stance that frequent public pronouncements of metaphors of war do more harm than good, especially when they percolate through the societal psyche and the healthcare system. We describe how the narrative of war has further dented social cohesion, an important social determinant of health, and created a rift in the healthcare system at a time of immense crisis. We express concern that such systemic instability threatens to drive a deeper wedge into the already precarious physician-patient relationship, while also putting the future of medicine at stake. Finally, we provide alternative metaphors for use in the communication strategy. The suggested metaphors are gentler, drawn from sports and ecology, and emphasize the need for cooperation and solidarity at multiple levels.
Keywords: Covid-19, war metaphor, stigmatisation, social cohesion, physician-patient relationship

.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Metáfora , Pandemias , Conflictos Armados , Comprensión , Conducta Cooperativa , Coronavirus , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Conducta Social , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud
11.
Indian J Med Ethics ; V(3): 219-221, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33295290

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (Covid-19), which originated in China, is now a full-blown pandemic which has thrown governments and societies off-track in an unprecedented manner. War metaphors have been used widely to describe the scenario, but many critics decry them as harmful narratives. In this piece, we discuss the utility of the war metaphor to build solidarity and fraternity, which will be essential to get through the crisis. We also explain how concerns regarding increased authoritarianism and state excesses due to the use of these narratives are misplaced. We then tease out the colonial era concept of war that guides the arguments against the use of war metaphors in pandemics. We argue that in the post-modern world and in South Asian and African philosophies, wars are seen through the prism of the larger cause of dharma or ubuntu and that individual losses or gains in these contexts are part of a larger cause. The use of war metaphors reflects the need to get together for a societal cause. These metaphors are largely understood across societies while other alternatives are exclusionary, poetic and tangential in nature.

Keywords : Covid-19, pandemics, war metaphors, communication, philosophy, SARS-CoV-2

.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Metáfora , Principios Morales , Pandemias , Conducta Social , Conflictos Armados , Asia , Comprensión , Gobierno , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Filosofía , Sistemas Políticos , Sudáfrica
12.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 429, 2020 12 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33293542

RESUMEN

This resource contains data from 112 Dutch adults (18-29 years of age) who completed the Individual Differences in Language Skills test battery that included 33 behavioural tests assessing language skills and domain-general cognitive skills likely involved in language tasks. The battery included tests measuring linguistic experience (e.g. vocabulary size, prescriptive grammar knowledge), general cognitive skills (e.g. working memory, non-verbal intelligence) and linguistic processing skills (word production/comprehension, sentence production/comprehension). Testing was done in a lab-based setting resulting in high quality data due to tight monitoring of the experimental protocol and to the use of software and hardware that were optimized for behavioural testing. Each participant completed the battery twice (i.e., two test days of four hours each). We provide the raw data from all tests on both days as well as pre-processed data that were used to calculate various reliability measures (including internal consistency and test-retest reliability). We encourage other researchers to use this resource for conducting exploratory and/or targeted analyses of individual differences in language and general cognitive skills.


Asunto(s)
Individualidad , Lenguaje , Adulto , Cognición , Comprensión , Humanos , Memoria a Corto Plazo , Países Bajos , Vocabulario , Adulto Joven
14.
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi ; 76(12): 1281-1286, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342947

RESUMEN

In radiological examinations of patients, we often take stacked images and three-dimensional (3D) images of human bone radiological images such as X-ray images and CT images. In general, learning of bone structure using specialized anatomy books is currently performed at medical radiological technologist education facilities. In the anatomy education of the medical school, in order to understand the structure of human and the individual bone shapes in detail, a real human bone specimen is used to gain knowledge of skeleton, bone shape, bone name and bone function. But it is actually difficult for a radiological technologist to obtain such learning opportunities. Therefore, we had to depend on two-dimensional information from an anatomical atlas so far. Therefore, as a method to solve this, we devised this stereo-paired bone anatomical chart by stereoscopic photography of a real human bone specimen that is available only in the anatomy laboratory. In classical anatomy textbooks, there are no figures that enable us to view 3D structures of human bones. Our stereo-paired bone anatomical charts make it possible to observe accurate bone structures three-dimensionally. In addition, we saved the data as a PDF file and uploaded to an internet server so that we can freely download and readily observe 3D images of human bones at all times and all places with a tablet or a PC monitor.


Asunto(s)
Imagenología Tridimensional , Radiación , Comprensión , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Modelos Anatómicos
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(46): e23116, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181681

RESUMEN

A recent paper in the journal Neuroreport suggested that, upon source localization, the semantic P600 localizes to executive function areas, that is, outside language. But is this true for all types of linguistic P600? We report a cross-sectional source localization study of a classical (agreement) syntactic paradigm.The results show a clear localization to the temporal lobe, in classical language areas.The P600 is probably not a unitary phenomenon in term of source localization, and the question whether it localizes within or outside the language system depends on the type of P600.


Asunto(s)
Mapeo Encefálico/métodos , Potenciales Evocados/fisiología , Lenguaje , Semántica , Lóbulo Temporal , Adulto , Comprensión/fisiología , Electroencefalografía/métodos , Fenómenos Electromagnéticos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Lóbulo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Temporal/fisiopatología , Tomografía/métodos
16.
Codas ; 32(6): e20190193, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237189

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To characterize the performance of 5th grade students from public and private elementary schools in auditory processing, receptive vocabulary, and reading comprehension. METHODS: The study sample was composed of 34 Elementary School (5th grade) students: 16 from public school (PubG) and 18 from private school (PrivG), whose parents and teachers responded to questionnaires on their language development, socioeconomic level, and academic performance. The auditory skills of figure-ground, association between auditory and visual stimuli, figure-ground for linguistic sounds, binaural integration, temporal ordering, and temporal resolution were assessed using the following auditory behavioral instruments: Pediatric Speech Intelligibility (PSI) test, Dichotic Digits Test (DDT), Auditec® Frequency Pattern Test (FPT), and Gaps-in-Noise (GIN) test. Receptive vocabulary and reading comprehension were evaluated using the TVF-usp and PROLEC tests, respectively. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed between the socioeconomic level of students in both schools. Although the results obtained in the applied tests were within the reference values in both groups, there was a tendency to higher scores in the PrivG. Differences between the groups were also verified in the DDT and FPT. Values similar to normality were obtained in the temporal resolution and reading comprehension assessments. On the vocabulary test, most school children in the PrivG were concentrated in the 'high' and 'middle' categories, whereas those in the PubG were in the 'middle' and 'low' categories. CONCLUSION: There are differences in performance between students from private and public schools. Public school children presented right ear advantage in the dichotic task, whereas private school children showed more efficient mechanisms and strategies regarding auditory stimuli for the tasks of binaural integration, temporal ordering, and interhemispheric transfer. Temporal resolution reached values expected for the adult population in both groups. Better vocabulary performance was observed in the most economically favored children. Elementary School (5th grade) students from both school networks present developed reading.


Asunto(s)
Lectura , Vocabulario , Niño , Comprensión , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1635, 2020 Nov 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183297

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The internet is now the first line source of health information for many people worldwide. In the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic, health information is being produced, revised, updated and disseminated at an increasingly rapid rate. The general public are faced with a plethora of misinformation regarding COVID-19 and the readability of online information has an impact on their understanding of the disease. The accessibility of online healthcare information relating to COVID-19 is unknown. We sought to evaluate the readability of online information relating to COVID-19 in four English speaking regions: Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States, and compare readability of website source provenance and regional origin. METHODS: The Google® search engine was used to collate the first 20 webpage URLs for three individual searches for 'COVID', 'COVID-19', and 'coronavirus' from Ireland, the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States. The Gunning Fog Index (GFI), Flesch-Kincaid Grade (FKG) Score, Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) score were calculated to assess the readability. RESULTS: There were poor levels of readability webpages reviewed, with only 17.2% of webpages at a universally readable level. There was a significant difference in readability between the different webpages based on their information source (p < 0.01). Public Health organisations and Government organisations provided the most readable COVID-19 material, while digital media sources were significantly less readable. There were no significant differences in readability between regions. CONCLUSION: Much of the general public have relied on online information during the pandemic. Information on COVID-19 should be made more readable, and those writing webpages and information tools should ensure universal accessibility is considered in their production. Governments and healthcare practitioners should have an awareness of the online sources of information available, and ensure that readability of our own productions is at a universally readable level which will increase understanding and adherence to health guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Información de Salud al Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Internet , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Canadá/epidemiología , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
18.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5999, 2020 11 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33243975

RESUMEN

When perceptually available information is scant, we can leverage logical connections among hypotheses to draw reliable conclusions that guide our reasoning and learning. We investigate whether this function of logical reasoning is present in infancy and aid understanding and learning about the social environment. In our task, infants watch reaching actions directed toward a hidden object whose identity is ambiguous between two alternatives and has to be inferred by elimination. Here we show that infants apply a disjunctive inference to identify the hidden object and use this logical conclusion to assess the consistency of the actions with a preference previously demonstrated by the agent and, importantly, also to acquire new knowledge regarding the preferences of the observed actor. These findings suggest that, early in life, preverbal logical reasoning functions as a reliable source of evidence that can support learning by offering a logical route for knowledge acquisition.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Lógica , Conducta Social , Comprensión/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino
19.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 11(22): 681-683, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33249787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A thorough informed consent (IC) process is required before in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments can begin because these treatments are by and large elective and they have expectable and preventable complications, such as ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and multi-fetal pregnancies. OBJECTIVES: To empirically examine whether patient knowledge and understanding of potential hazards associated with IVF treatment are better after the IC process compared to before. The authors hypothesized that patients' better understanding of potential complications would be translated and expressed as rational choices of treatment alternatives. METHODS: Responses of 48 IVF patients after IC process (study group) from two IVF units in northern Israel were compared to those of 46 patients before IVF (control group). Only women undergoing IVF for first time who were older than 18 years of age were eligible for the study. RESULTS: Socio-demographic parameters were found to be quite similar between the study group and the control group. Contrary to our expectations, in the study group 12 women (25.5%) considered delivery of a single baby as their optimal result, compared to 15 (32.6%) in the control group. Furthermore, preferences shifted toward triplets: eight patients (17%) after IC considered this option as their best result, compared to only five patients (11%) before IC. CONCLUSIONS: C process goals are not achieved under current practices, at least as far as IVF treatment are concerned. New tools and incentives should be implemented to meet the requirements dictated by the laws regarding patient rights.


Asunto(s)
Comprensión , Fertilización In Vitro/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consentimiento Informado/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adulto , Femenino , Fertilización In Vitro/efectos adversos , Humanos , Israel , Síndrome de Hiperestimulación Ovárica/etiología , Embarazo , Embarazo Múltiple/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(11): 1389-1396, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33132275

RESUMEN

A questionnaire survey was conducted with pharmacy students to obtain useful information for preparing teaching materials in the field of pharmaceutical laws. We conducted a customer satisfaction (CS) analysis by asking pharmacy students to evaluate whether the teaching materials used in the Pharmaceutical Laws class at Kitasato University were effective in promoting learning and understanding. In addition, we asked them about their impressions of attending the Pharmaceutical Laws class and analyzed their freely described answers. The CS analysis suggested teaching materials that included case studies of pharmaceutical law judgments and violations may have been useful for learning this subject. Furthermore, the text analysis showed many of the participants believed the contents of the teaching materials were difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to redesign the contents so that learning can progress step by step from the basic items. In addition, since some students recognized that the subject could be memorized, it is possible they can convey only what they remember and not what they had learned or what knowledge they could use in other contexts and situations. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly present the learning objectives for each item in lesson's teaching materials.


Asunto(s)
Educación en Farmacia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Legislación Farmacéutica , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Materiales de Enseñanza , Adolescente , Adulto , Análisis por Conglomerados , Comprensión , Femenino , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Satisfacción Personal , Adulto Joven
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