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1.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530570

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is a worldwide health emergency. In many cases, it is directly linked to inappropriate eating habits and a sedentary lifestyle. During lockdown aimed at containing the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) spread, children have been forced to stay at home. The present study aimed at investigating the lifestyles of outpatients (aged 5-17 years) with complicated obesity enrolled in the day-hospital food education program at the Children's Hospital Bambino Gesù in Rome. A survey was performed based on a structured questionnaire, investigating dietary habits and lifestyles. The questionnaire answers were rated as "yes/no/sometimes" or "often/never/sometimes". Eighty-eight families correctly completed the questionnaire between March and May 2020. The results highlighted that 85.2% (N = 75) of the patients ate breakfast regularly, and 64.3% (N = 72) consumed fruit as an afternoon snack. However, 21.6% (N = 19) did just "often" home workouts, and 50.0% (N = 44) reported an increase of feeling hungry with "sometimes" frequency. There is a significant relationship of feeling hungry with gender (p < 0.0001) and age (p = 0.048) and, also, between gender with having breakfast (p = 0.020) and cooking (p = 0.006). Living a healthy lifestyle during lockdown was difficult for the outpatients, mainly due to the increase in a sedentary lifestyle and the increase in feeling hungry, but some healthy eating habits were maintained, as advised during the food education program provided before lockdown.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Dieta Saludable , Conducta Alimentaria , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control , Cuarentena , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572068

RESUMEN

The aim of the study was to examine whether, and to what extent, fear of contracting Covid-19 and compliance with the mandatory rules of isolation affected Polish adults' nutritional behaviors. The online study was carried out during the first wave of the pandemic on a sample of 926 adults. Through cluster analysis, three groups of respondents were isolated: 1. People who fear a Covid-19 infection and follow the isolation rules (FFR), 2. People moderately afraid of the disease and following the rules loosely (MFFR), 3. People who are not afraid of the infection and do not follow the rules of isolation. (NFFR). The clusters were profiled with consideration of different aspects of eating behaviors as well as socio-demographic and economic features. The results of the study show a close relationship between the level of fear of contracting Covid-19 and the degree to which isolation rules are followed. These two factors were found to have a significant impact on eating behaviors, such as food purchases, eating patterns, and levels of consumption. It was stated that the FFR group changed their eating behaviors the most in terms of food purchasing, eating habits (excluding diversity and quality of diet), and food product consumption. The greatest stability in the majority of the analyzed areas of nutritional behaviors was observed in the MFFR cluster. The NFFR group shown the greatest decrease both in regularity and quality of their meals. This group also exhibited a significant increase in the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The results of the study can be useful in the decision making process when introducing restrictions or managing information. They also point to the need for extensive nutritional education focused on explaining the relationship between nutrition and health during a pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Miedo , Conducta Alimentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Polonia , Adulto Joven
3.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572863

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the already high levels of stress that higher education students experience. Stress influences health behaviors, including those related to dietary behaviors, alcohol, and sleep; yet the effects of stress can be mitigated by resilience. To date, past research studying the connections between dietary behaviors, alcohol misuse, sleep, and resilience commonly investigated singular relationships between two of the constructs. The aim of the current study was to explore the relationships between these constructs in a more holistic manner using mediation and moderation analyses. METHODS: Higher education students from China, Ireland, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan, the Netherlands, and the United States were enrolled in a cross-sectional study from April to May 2020, which was during the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic for most participants. An online survey, using validated tools, was distributed to assess perceived stress, dietary behaviors, alcohol misuse, sleep quality and duration, and resilience. RESULTS: 2254 students completed the study. Results indicated that sleep quality mediated the relationship between perceived stress and dietary behaviors as well as the relationship between perceived stress and alcohol misuse. Further, increased resilience reduced the strength of the relationship between perceived stress and dietary behaviors but not alcohol misuse. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, higher education students are likely to benefit from sleep education and resilience training, especially during stressful events.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo , Dieta , Sueño , Estrés Fisiológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Asia/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Masculino , América del Norte/epidemiología , Resiliencia Psicológica , Estudiantes , Universidades , Adulto Joven
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579021

RESUMEN

Evidence of short-term impacts of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on family life is emerging. Continued research can shed light on potential longer-term impacts. An online survey of U.S. parents with 4- to 8-year-old children (n = 1000) was administered in October 2020. The survey examined parent-reported impacts of COVID-19 on lifestyle (e.g., work, child-care, grocery shopping), as well as current family food acquisition and eating behaviors (e.g., cooking, restaurant use). Descriptive statistics were calculated, incorporating sampling weights based on sociodemographics. In terms of COVID-19 impacts, parents reported increases in working from home, decreased work hours, and increased child care and instruction, with most children attending school or receiving care at home. Parents reported increased home cooking and online grocery shopping; only 33% reported increased take-out or delivery from restaurants. About half of parents reported that their child dined at restaurants, 62% reported getting take-out, and 57% reported delivery from restaurants at least 2-3 times per month. About half viewed dining at restaurants as safe, while take-out and delivery were seen as safe by around three-quarters. Approximately two-thirds reported recent food insecurity. These nationally-representative results illustrate possible longer-lasting shifts in family life, with the potential to impact health and well-being. Sociodemographic differences and research and policy implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Pandemias , Niño , Preescolar , Culinaria , Humanos , Padres , Restaurantes
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 40, 2021 Feb 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618753

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The year 2020 will be remembered as the "year of the COVID-19 pandemic". The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the pandemic, almost all the countries imposed self-isolation and social distancing. We conducted a web-based survey to investigate the behavioural responses during the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Participants were 1860 youth aged 12-18 years attending lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, lifestyle changes during the quarantine period, and the psychological impact of the lock-down on adolescents' life. RESULTS: Most adolescents experienced feelings of fear, discouragement, and anxiety which strongly affected the approach to their daily lifestyles. Most of the surveyed subjects reported having used this period to acquire new skills and to practice physical activities at home. The use of technology was predominant both for recreational activities and educational purposes. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the strong psychological impact of the quarantine, adolescents showed good levels of resilience. Technology played a crucial role during the quarantine for young subjects who have increased the daily use of technological devices to stay connected with the rest of the world.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Pandemias , Cuarentena , Teléfono Inteligente , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Educación , Ejercicio Físico , Miedo , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Libertad , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Aprendizaje , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Recreación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
BMJ ; 372: m4948, 2021 02 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33536317

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice with cardiovascular disease, total mortality, blood lipids, and blood pressure in the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: PURE study in 21 countries. PARTICIPANTS: 148 858 participants with median follow-up of 9.5 years. EXPOSURES: Country specific validated food frequency questionnaires were used to assess intakes of refined grains, whole grains, and white rice. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Composite of mortality or major cardiovascular events (defined as death from cardiovascular causes, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Hazard ratios were estimated for associations of grain intakes with mortality, major cardiovascular events, and their composite by using multivariable Cox frailty models with random intercepts to account for clustering by centre. RESULTS: Analyses were based on 137 130 participants after exclusion of those with baseline cardiovascular disease. During follow-up, 9.2% (n=12 668) of these participants had a composite outcome event. The highest category of intake of refined grains (≥350 g/day or about 7 servings/day) was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratio 1.27, 95% confidence interval 1.11 to 1.46; P for trend=0.004), major cardiovascular disease events (1.33, 1.16 to 1.52; P for trend<0.001), and their composite (1.28, 1.15 to 1.42; P for trend<0.001) compared with the lowest category of intake (<50 g/day). Higher intakes of refined grains were associated with higher systolic blood pressure. No significant associations were found between intakes of whole grains or white rice and health outcomes. CONCLUSION: High intake of refined grains was associated with higher risk of mortality and major cardiovascular disease events. Globally, lower consumption of refined grains should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Carbohidratos de la Dieta/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria , Granos Enteros , Adulto , Anciano , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Ingestión de Energía , Femenino , Salud Global , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oryza/efectos adversos , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1041, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33589633

RESUMEN

Growing evidence supports that pharmacological application of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) suppresses appetite but also promotes sickness-like behaviors in rodents via GDNF family receptor α-like (GFRAL)-dependent mechanisms. Conversely, the endogenous regulation of GDF15 and its physiological effects on energy homeostasis and behavior remain elusive. Here we show, in four independent human studies that prolonged endurance exercise increases circulating GDF15 to levels otherwise only observed in pathophysiological conditions. This exercise-induced increase can be recapitulated in mice and is accompanied by increased Gdf15 expression in the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart muscle. However, whereas pharmacological GDF15 inhibits appetite and suppresses voluntary running activity via GFRAL, the physiological induction of GDF15 by exercise does not. In summary, exercise-induced circulating GDF15 correlates with the duration of endurance exercise. Yet, higher GDF15 levels after exercise are not sufficient to evoke canonical pharmacological GDF15 effects on appetite or responsible for diminishing exercise motivation.


Asunto(s)
Regulación del Apetito/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Receptores del Factor Neurotrófico Derivado de la Línea Celular Glial/genética , Factor 15 de Diferenciación de Crecimiento/genética , Resistencia Física/fisiología , Adulto , Animales , Creatina Quinasa/sangre , Creatina Quinasa/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Receptores del Factor Neurotrófico Derivado de la Línea Celular Glial/deficiencia , Factor 15 de Diferenciación de Crecimiento/sangre , Factor 15 de Diferenciación de Crecimiento/metabolismo , Humanos , Interleucina-10/sangre , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucina-6/administración & dosificación , Leptina/sangre , Leptina/genética , Hígado/efectos de los fármacos , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Noqueados , Motivación/fisiología , Músculo Esquelético/efectos de los fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Miocardio/metabolismo , Condicionamiento Físico Animal , Factores de Tiempo
8.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585926

RESUMEN

Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) (Hemiptera: Miridae) tends to feed on young plant tissues. To explore the relationship between stylet probing behaviors of adult A. lucorum and conditions of cotton leaves, we conducted an experiment using electropenetrography (EPG). Behaviors were recorded on four cotton varieties, in relation to thickness and biochemical traits of differently-aged leaves. Cotton leaf age had a significant effect on the probing behavior of A. lucorum but cotton variety did not. One-day-old leaves of A. lucorum received the highest mean number of stylet probes (penetrations) per insect, and longest mean durations per insect of combined stylet probing or its components, cell rupture and ingestion behaviors. All of the leaf traits (thickness and biochemical substances) were similar among these four cotton varieties. Leaf thickness had a significantly negative effect on the same four variables above. Gossypol and tannin also had a negative impact on combined probing duration. Redundancy analysis showed that the four EPG variables were closely related to nutrient substances (amino acids, sugar, and water) while they had the opposite relationship with plant defense substances (gossypol and tannin). On cotton in the seedling stages, A. lucorum fed more readily on the youngest, thinnest leaves in our no-choice EPG experiments. Nutrients and chemical resistance substances determined the probing duration of A. lucorum. Our findings can contribute to better understanding of patterns of feeding and host consumption by A. lucorum, ultimately improving cotton resistance to A. lucorum.


Asunto(s)
Gossypium , Herbivoria , Heterópteros/fisiología , Hojas de la Planta , Animales , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Gossypium/química , Gossypium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/crecimiento & desarrollo
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23955, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Overweight before pregnancy is independent risk factor for diabetes mellitus. This randomized controlled trial was to investigate the long-term effects of regular exercise during pregnancy on overweight and obese gravidas. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This single-center, prospective, randomized controlled test will be conducted in Wuhan Central Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Overweight and obese pregnant women will be included in our study and randomized into 2 groups: regular exercise and control groups. The informed consent will be acquired in each patient. Body weight, body fat, fasting and 2 h glucose level in 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), insulin resistance index, and lipid profiles were compared. We also evaluated their physical activities with International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), their dietary habits with modified Adult Dietary Behavior Assessment Scale, and depression condition with Postpartum Depression Screen Scale (PDSS). The significance level was defaulted as P < .05. RESULTS: Results will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals. CONCLUSION: Our study aims to systematically assess the effects of regular exercise for overweight and obese gravidas, which will be provided clinical guidance for overweight and obese gravidas.


Asunto(s)
Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Obesidad/terapia , Sobrepeso/terapia , Complicaciones del Embarazo/terapia , Adulto , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Dieta/estadística & datos numéricos , Ayuno/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Humanos , Resistencia a la Insulina , Lípidos/sangre , Obesidad/fisiopatología , Sobrepeso/fisiopatología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Estudios Prospectivos , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
10.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 29-36, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517958

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dietary patterns related to depressive symptoms based on reduced rank regression in people aged 55 and above in 4 provinces of China and the degree of association between this dietary pattern and depressive symptoms. METHODS: Stratified, multi-stage, cluster and random sampling method was used to collect personal information such as demographic characteristics, behavioral lifestyles, disease history and medicine use in Chinese aged 55 and above who participated in the baseline survey of "Community-based Cohort Study on Nervous System Diseases" project conducted in 2018 and 2019 in Hebei, Zhejiang, Shaanxi and Hunan Provinces. Food frequency questionnaire was used to obtain dietary data. Depressive symptom was assessed by geriatric depression scale with a cut-off of 11. Participants who have incomplete demographic information, dietary data or scores of geriatric depression scale, and those whose intake frequency of each food-group >99. 5% were excluded. A total of 11 497 participants, 43. 1% of whom were male, were involved in this study with average age of(67. 3±7. 6) years. The reduced rank regression method was used to extract depressive symptoms-related dietary patterns by gender, and the degree of association between dietary patterns and depressive symptom was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: Among males, the depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern was characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal, and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of liquid milk/milk power/cheese, fresh eggs(except preserved eggs) and nut. Among females, the depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern was characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of coarse cereals, fruits, liquid milk/milk power/cheese and fresh eggs(except preserved eggs). The highest quartile group of the dietary pattern score had a significantly higher risk of depressive symptom than the lowest quartile group(OR=3. 498, 95% CI 2. 624-4. 663, P<0. 001 for males; OR=3. 853, 95% CI 3. 002-4. 944, P<0. 001 for females). CONCLUSION: The depressive symptoms-related dietary pattern is characterized by the higher intake frequency of fried flour-made food, meat, processed meat, animal offal and preserved eggs, and the lower intake frequency of liquid milk/milk power/cheese and fresh eggs(except preserved eggs) in the Chinese aged 55 and above. The score of this dietary pattern is significantly positively correlated with depressive symptom.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Dieta , Anciano , Animales , China/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Depresión/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Frutas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
11.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 116(1): 160-212, Jan. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, CONASS, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1147218

RESUMEN

A Nutrição tem importante papel na gênese das doenças crônicas não transmissíveis (DCNT), consideradas um dos mais importantes problemas de saúde pública da atualidade no mundo e em nosso país. Além da quantidade, a qualidade dos alimentos que consumimos (em particular aqueles que são fonte de gorduras) participa tanto na patogênese das doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) quanto na sua prevenção. Especialistas em todo o mundo têm elaborado, com base em evidências científicas, guias sobre o consumo de gorduras e proposto adequação das quantidades de gorduras, além de limitar o consumo de gorduras saturadas e trans. Tem-se priorizado avaliar e propor padrões alimentares mais saudáveis e não valorizar alimentos individualmente, com uma abordagem muito mais racional na prevenção cardiovascular, adequando-se o consumo calórico, a inclusão de grãos, frutas e hortaliças e a restrição de carboidratos refinados, alimentos ultra processados, priorizando-se gorduras mais saudáveis, em detrimento das saturadas e trans. Tal posicionamento tem por objetivo orientar os profissionais de saúde no entendimento sobre as ações dos diferentes ácidos graxos e propor medidas dietéticas adequadas visando à prevenção e ao controle da DCV. O Departamento de Aterosclerose da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia (SBC-DA) reuniu os maiores especialistas do país para a elaboração deste documento, com o objetivo de transmitir as melhores informações disponíveis para aprimorar a prática clínica em nosso país, de forma clara e objetiva, para a prevenção e o tratamento da DCV.


Asunto(s)
Grasas de la Dieta , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Salud Pública , Guía , Conducta Alimentaria
12.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 1: CD013496, 2021 01 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33512717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Lifestyle changes are at the forefront of preventing the disease. This includes advice such as increasing physical activity and having a healthy balanced diet to reduce risk factors. Intermittent fasting (IF) is a popular dietary plan involving restricting caloric intake to certain days in the week such as alternate day fasting and periodic fasting, and restricting intake to a number of hours in a given day, otherwise known as time-restricted feeding. IF is being researched for its benefits and many randomised controlled trials have looked at its benefits in preventing CVD. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of IF in preventing and reducing the risk of CVD in people with or without prior documented CVD. SEARCH METHODS: We conducted our search on 12 December 2019; we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched three trials registers and searched the reference lists of included papers. Systematic reviews were also viewed for additional studies. There was no language restriction applied. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials comparing IF to ad libitum feeding (eating at any time with no specific caloric restriction) or continuous energy restriction (CER). Participants had to be over the age of 18 and included those with and without cardiometabolic risk factors. Intermittent fasting was categorised into alternate-day fasting, modified alternate-day fasting, periodic fasting and time-restricted feeding. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Five review authors independently selected studies for inclusion and extraction. Primary outcomes included all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. Secondary outcomes include the absolute change in body weight, and glucose. Furthermore, side effects such as headaches and changes to the quality of life were also noted. For continuous data, pooled mean differences (MD) (with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)) were calculated. We contacted trial authors to obtain missing data. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence.  MAIN RESULTS: Our search yielded 39,165 records after the removal of duplicates. From this, 26 studies met our criteria, and 18 were included in the pooled analysis. The 18 studies included 1125 participants and observed outcomes ranging from four weeks to six months. No studies included data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, stroke, myocardial infarction, and heart failure at any point during follow-up. Of quantitatively analysed data, seven studies compared IF with ab libitum feeding, eight studies compared IF with CER, and three studies compared IF with both ad libitum feeding and CER. Outcomes were reported at short term (≤ 3 months) and medium term (> 3 months to 12 months) follow-up. Body weight was reduced with IF compared to ad libitum feeding in the short term (MD -2.88 kg, 95% CI -3.96 to -1.80; 224 participants; 7 studies; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain of the effect of IF when compared to CER in the short term (MD -0.88 kg, 95% CI -1.76 to 0.00; 719 participants; 10 studies; very low-certainty evidence) and there may be no effect in the medium term (MD -0.56 kg, 95% CI -1.68 to 0.56; 279 participants; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). We are uncertain about the effect of IF on glucose when compared to ad libitum feeding in the short term (MD -0.03 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.26 to 0.19; 95 participants; 3 studies; very-low-certainty of evidence) and when compared to CER  in the short term: MD -0.02 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.12; 582 participants; 9 studies; very low-certainty; medium term: MD 0.01, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.11; 279 participants; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). The changes in body weight and glucose were not deemed to be clinically significant. Four studies reported data on side effects, with some participants complaining of mild headaches. One study reported on the quality of life using the RAND SF-36 score. There was a modest increase in the physical component summary score. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent fasting was seen to be superior to ad libitum feeding in reducing weight. However, this was not clinically significant. There was no significant clinical difference between IF and CER in improving cardiometabolic risk factors to reduce the risk of CVD. Further research is needed to understand the safety and risk-benefit analysis of IF in specific patient groups (e.g. patients with diabetes or eating disorders) as well as the effect on longer-term outcomes such as all-cause mortality and myocardial infarction.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Ayuno , Adulto , Sesgo , Glucemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Restricción Calórica/métodos , Ayuno/efectos adversos , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Tiempo
13.
Mar Environ Res ; 163: 105218, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385975

RESUMEN

The distribution of benthic ecosystems, dominated by filter-feeding communities, is highly influenced by the seabed geomorphology. However, the spatial variation in settlement of these species is also affected by near-bottom currents and any changes in light, nutrient concentration and food quality often associated with increases of suspended sediment concentrations within the water column. Detailed predictions of the geographic distribution of filter-feeder species and a deeper understanding of the physical processes influencing their distribution patterns is key for effective management and conservation. To date, predictive distribution modelling has been derived essentially from geomorphological parameters, mainly using spatially limited observations. In this study, seabed mapping, oceanographic modelling, hydrographic records and biological observations are integrated to provide high-resolution prediction of filter-feeder habitat distribution within Queen Charlotte Sound/Totaranui and Tory Channel/Kura Te Au, South Island of New Zealand. The aim is to evaluate potential suitable habitat areas for filter-feeders to inform where habitat restoration management should focus efforts to recover communities such as the horse mussel (Atrina zelandica) or the green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus), both of which have high economic impact in New Zealand. To accomplish this, Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) predictive modelling was used to produce Habitat Suitability (HS) maps, using geomorphological parameters and seafloor classification information. Final HS maps also incorporated oceanographic and sediment dynamic information, showing that filter-feeder habitat distribution is highly influenced by the hydrodynamics and sedimentary processes apart from the seafloor geomorphology. Filter-feeder communities inhabit quiescent areas, limited by depth, slope and sediment type; and coincide with regions presenting low near-bottom currents and low turbidity levels. Additionally, the obtained results reveal the effects of the coastal settlements and major marine traffic routes, limiting the suitable habitats to areas with less human impact. This study demonstrates that a multidisciplinary approach is crucial to better predict the spatial distribution of benthic communities, which is key to improve benthic habitat restoration and recovery assessments.


Asunto(s)
Organismos Acuáticos , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Conducta Alimentaria , Nueva Zelanda
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 66, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397952

RESUMEN

IL11 is important for fibrosis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) but its role beyond the stroma in liver disease is unclear. Here, we investigate the role of IL11 in hepatocyte lipotoxicity. Hepatocytes highly express IL11RA and secrete IL11 in response to lipid loading. Autocrine IL11 activity causes hepatocyte death through NOX4-derived ROS, activation of ERK, JNK and caspase-3, impaired mitochondrial function and reduced fatty acid oxidation. Paracrine IL11 activity stimulates hepatic stellate cells and causes fibrosis. In mouse models of NASH, hepatocyte-specific deletion of Il11ra1 protects against liver steatosis, fibrosis and inflammation while reducing serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels and limiting obesity. In mice deleted for Il11ra1, restoration of IL11 cis-signaling in hepatocytes reconstitutes steatosis and inflammation but not fibrosis. We found no evidence for the existence of IL6 or IL11 trans-signaling in hepatocytes or NASH. These data show that IL11 modulates hepatocyte metabolism and suggests a mechanism for NAFLD to NASH transition.


Asunto(s)
Hepatocitos/metabolismo , Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Lípidos/toxicidad , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/metabolismo , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/patología , Transducción de Señal , Adulto , Animales , Comunicación Autocrina/efectos de los fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Conducta Alimentaria , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/efectos de los fármacos , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/metabolismo , Células Estrelladas Hepáticas/patología , Hepatocitos/efectos de los fármacos , Hepatocitos/patología , Humanos , Subunidad alfa del Receptor de Interleucina-11/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Ratones Noqueados , Modelos Biológicos , Comunicación Paracrina/efectos de los fármacos , Fenotipo , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos
15.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(1): 76-84, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500111

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have reported that nut consumption is potentially beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease. However, data are insufficient regarding the association between nut consumption and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). METHODS AND RESULTS: In the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study, the participants were 34,617 men and 12,257 women who completed a food-frequency questionnaire for nut consumption and received echocardiography. Nut consumption was evaluated only for peanuts, pine nuts, and almonds defining 15 g as one serving/servings dose. Multivariable adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for LVH were evaluated according to the consumption frequency of one serving dose of nut. The frequency of nut consumption was categorized into five groups (<1/month, 1/month-1/week, 1-2/week, 2-4/week, and ≥4/week). The subgroup analysis was conducted by dividing the participants into the following two groups: the nonhypertensive/nondiabetic group and hypertensive or diabetic group. In women, nut consumption ≥2/week had the lower multivariable adjusted OR and 95% CI for LVH (2-4/week: 0.46 [0.26-0.81] and ≥4/week: 0.48 [0.25-0.92]) when compared with nut consumption <1/month. This association was identically observed in the subgroup analysis for women without hypertension and diabetes mellitus (DM) and women with hypertension or DM. However, men did not show the significant association. CONCLUSION: In women, nut consumption ≥2/week was associated with the decreased probability of LVH. Further research studies should investigate whether the beneficial effect of nut consumption on LV structure results in better cardiovascular prognosis.


Asunto(s)
Arachis , Dieta Saludable , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/prevención & control , Nueces , Pinus , Prunus dulcis , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Encuestas sobre Dietas , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico por imagen , Hipertrofia Ventricular Izquierda/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores Protectores , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Seúl/epidemiología , Tamaño de la Porción de Referencia , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 326, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436607

RESUMEN

Adipose tissue-resident T cells have been recognized as a critical regulator of thermogenesis and energy expenditure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show that high-fat diet (HFD) feeding greatly suppresses the expression of disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), a mitochondria-localized chaperone protein, in adipose-resident T cells, which correlates with reduced T cell mitochondrial function. T cell-specific knockout of DsbA-L enhances diet-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and protects mice from HFD-induced obesity, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. Mechanistically, DsbA-L deficiency in T cells reduces IFN-γ production and activates protein kinase A by reducing phosphodiesterase-4D expression, leading to increased BAT thermogenesis. Taken together, our study uncovers a mechanism by which T cells communicate with brown adipocytes to regulate BAT thermogenesis and whole-body energy homeostasis. Our findings highlight a therapeutic potential of targeting T cells for the treatment of over nutrition-induced obesity and its associated metabolic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Alta en Grasa , Glutatión Transferasa/deficiencia , Interferón gamma/biosíntesis , Linfocitos T/metabolismo , Termogénesis , Adipocitos Marrones/efectos de los fármacos , Adipocitos Marrones/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Pardo/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Regulación hacia Abajo/efectos de los fármacos , Metabolismo Energético/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Alimentaria , Glutatión Transferasa/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Interferón gamma/administración & dosificación , Interferón gamma/farmacología , Masculino , Ratones Noqueados , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/patología , Linfocitos T/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/efectos de los fármacos , Linfocitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Termogénesis/efectos de los fármacos , Termogénesis/genética , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
17.
Health Informatics J ; 27(1): 1460458220976719, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33438501

RESUMEN

Healthy eating is an important issue affecting a large part of the world population, so human diets are becoming increasingly popular, especially with the devastating consequences of Coronavirus Disease (Covid-19). A realistic and sustainable diet plan can help us to have a healthy eating habit since it considers most of the expectations from a diet without any restriction. In this study, the classical diet problem has been extended in terms of modelling, data sets and solution approach. Inspired by animals' hunting strategies, it was re-modelled as a many-objective optimisation problem. In order to have realistic and applicable diet plans, cooked dishes are used. A well-known many-objective evolutionary algorithm is used to solve the diet problem. Results show that our approach can optimise specialised daily menus for different user types, depending on their preferences, age, gender and body index. Our approach can be easily adapted for users with health issues by adding new constraints and objectives. Our approach can be used individually or by dietitians as a decision support mechanism.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Dieta Saludable/métodos , Ingestión de Energía , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Ciencias de la Conducta , Índice de Masa Corporal , Culinaria/economía , Culinaria/métodos , Dieta Saludable/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Factores de Tiempo , Vegetarianos
18.
Appetite ; 160: 105122, 2021 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33453336

RESUMEN

Due to the spread of COVID 2019, the Italian government imposed a lockdown on the national territory. Initially, citizens were required to stay at home and not to mix with others outside of their household (Phase 1); eventually, some of these restrictions were lifted (Phase 2). To investigate the impact of lockdown on emotional and binge eating, an online survey was conducted to compare measures of self-reported physical (BMI), psychological (Alexithymia), affective (anxiety, stress, and depression) and social (income, workload) state during Phase 1 and Phase 2. Data from 365 Italian residents showed that increased emotional eating was predicted by higher depression, anxiety, quality of personal relationships, and quality of life, while the increase of bingeing was predicted by higher stress. Moreover, we showed that higher alexithymia scores were associated by increased emotional eating and higher BMI scores were associated with both increased emotional eating and binge eating. Finally, we found that from Phase 1 to Phase 2 binge and emotional eating decreased. These data provide evidence of the negative effects of isolation and lockdown on emotional wellbeing, and, relatedly, on eating behaviour.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Pandemias , Distrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Síntomas Afectivos/epidemiología , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Bulimia/epidemiología , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494314

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lockdown due to COVID-19 influenced food habits and lifestyles with potential negative health impact. This study aims to identify patterns of change in eating habits and physical activity during COVID-19 lockdown in Spain and to identify associations with sociodemographic factors and usual habits. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1155 adults recruited online to answer a 10-section questionnaire. The protocol assessed usual diet by means of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, usual physical activity (PA) and supplement use, dietary changes, sedentary time, PA, exposure to sunlight, sleep quality, and smoking during confinement. Patterns of dietary change were identified by factor analysis. Factor scores were included in cluster analysis together with change in PA. RESULTS: Six patterns of dietary change were identified that together with PA changes during lockdown defined three clusters of lifestyle change: a cluster less active, a more active cluster, and a third cluster as active as usual. People who were usually less active were more likely to be classified in the cluster that increased physical activity in confinement. Scores of the Healthy Mediterranean-Style dietary pattern were higher in this group. Conclusions: Different patterns of change in lifestyles in confinement suggest the need to tailor support and advice to different population groups.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , España/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498685

RESUMEN

Nipah virus is a bat-borne paramyxovirus that produces yearly outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in Bangladesh. Understanding the ecological conditions that lead to spillover from bats to humans can assist in designing effective interventions. To investigate the current and historical processes that drive Nipah spillover in Bangladesh, we analyzed the relationship among spillover events and climatic conditions, the spatial distribution and size of Pteropus medius roosts, and patterns of land-use change in Bangladesh over the last 300 years. We found that 53% of annual variation in winter spillovers is explained by winter temperature, which may affect bat behavior, physiology, and human risk behaviors. We infer from changes in forest cover that a progressive shift in bat roosting behavior occurred over hundreds of years, producing the current system where a majority of P. medius populations are small (median of 150 bats), occupy roost sites for 10 years or more, live in areas of high human population density, and opportunistically feed on cultivated food resources-conditions that promote viral spillover. Without interventions, continuing anthropogenic pressure on bat populations similar to what has occurred in Bangladesh could result in more regular spillovers of other bat viruses, including Hendra and Ebola viruses.


Asunto(s)
Quirópteros/virología , Conducta Alimentaria , Infecciones por Henipavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Henipavirus/veterinaria , Virus Nipah/genética , Animales , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Quirópteros/fisiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Bosques , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Estaciones del Año , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/virología
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