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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e249169, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345546

RESUMEN

Abstract The American Barn Owl (Tyto furcata) lives in urban, periurban and wild environments and feeds mainly on small rodents, meaning it has great importance in the biological control of pests. The aim of this work was to describe the reproductive, parental and eating habits of a pair of American barn owls naturally living outside a residence in the urban area of the municipality of Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. A wood box was installed on an outside wall of the home, monitored by a video camera. A spreadsheet was created to keep track of the observations recorded. The female laid four eggs, and after an incubation period of 30-32 days all the eggs hatched, but only two chicks survived after cannibalism among the chicks. Initially, the male provided the food to the chicks and the female remained in the nest caring for the brood. After approximately a month, the female also began to leave the nest and return with prey, which was offered to the chicks, with the male also continuing this behavior. The chicks left the nest in September, 2017. The data obtained show the existence of cooperation and division of tasks between male and female owls during the reproductive period.


Resumo A coruja-das-torres americana (Tyto furcata) vive em ambientes urbanos e se alimenta principalmente de pequenos roedores, sendo de grande importância no controle biológico de pragas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os hábitos alimentares, parentais e reprodutivos de um casal de corujas-das-torres americanas, naturalmente vivendo fora de uma residência na zona urbana do município de Campos dos Goytacazes, estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Uma caixa de madeira foi instalada em uma parede externa da casa, monitorada por uma câmera de vídeo. Uma planilha foi criada para manter o controle das observações registradas. A fêmea pôs quatro ovos, e após período de incubação de 30-32 dias todos os ovos eclodiram, mas apenas dois filhotes sobreviveram após o canibalismo entre os filhotes. Inicialmente, o macho fornecia a comida aos filhotes e a fêmea permanecia no ninho cuidando da ninhada. Depois de cerca de um mês, a fêmea também começou a sair do ninho e voltar com a presa, que era oferecida aos filhotes, com o macho também continuando com esse comportamento. Os filhotes deixaram o ninho em setembro de 2017. Os dados obtidos mostram a existência de cooperação e divisão de tarefas entre corujas machos e fêmeas durante o período reprodutivo.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Estrigiformes , Reproducción , Brasil , Conducta Alimentaria
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMEN

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Ecosistema , Murinae , Pakistán , Productos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Conducta Alimentaria
3.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 13: 904754, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909536

RESUMEN

Ghrelin is considered one of the most potent orexigenic peptide hormones and one that promotes homeostatic and hedonic food intake. Research on ghrelin, however, has been conducted predominantly in males and particularly in male rodents. In female mammals the control of energy metabolism is complex and it involves the interaction between ovarian hormones like estrogen and progesterone, and metabolic hormones. In females, the role that ghrelin plays in promoting feeding and how this is impacted by ovarian hormones is not well understood. Basal ghrelin levels are higher in females than in males, and ghrelin sensitivity changes across the estrus cycle. Yet, responses to ghrelin are lower in female and seem dependent on circulating levels of ovarian hormones. In this review we discuss the role that ghrelin plays in regulating homeostatic and hedonic food intake in females, and how the effects of ghrelin interact with those of ovarian hormones to regulate feeding and energy balance.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Ghrelina , Animales , Metabolismo Energético , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Homeostasis , Masculino , Mamíferos/metabolismo
5.
Front Immunol ; 13: 902114, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35911732

RESUMEN

Background: Eating behaviors contribute to disproportionate energy intake and are linked to the development of obesity. Animal studies support the role of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the regulation of obesity-related eating behaviors and offer a potential target to combat obesity through the modulation of inflammation. However, more complex eating behaviors are present in humans, and their relationships with immune/inflammation markers are unclear. The present study reviewed current literature to synthesize the evidence on the association of immune/inflammation markers with obesity-related eating behaviors in humans. Methods: A systematic search of three electronic databases yielded 811 articles, of which 11 met the inclusion criteria. Results: The majority of the included studies (91%) were either case-control or cross-sectional studies. A variety of immune/inflammation markers and obesity-related eating behaviors have been assessed in the chosen studies. Three out of four studies identified a positive relationship between C-reactive protein (CRP)/high-sensitivity CRP and loss of control eating. Other inflammatory markers that potentially have a positive relationship with obesity-related eating behaviors include fractalkine and fibrinogen. Additionally, immune molecules, including interferon gamma (INF-γ), interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-reactive immunoglobulin G (α-MSH/IgG) immune complex, may have negative associations with obesity-related eating behaviors. However, most findings were identified by single studies. Conclusion: Limited studies have been conducted in humans. Current evidence indicates a potential bi-directional relationship between inflammatory/immune markers and obesity-related eating behaviors. Additional studies with sophisticated research design and comprehensive theoretical models are warranted to further delineate the relationship between immune/inflammation markers and obesity-related eating behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Obesidad , Animales , Biomarcadores , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Inflamación
6.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 19(1): 100, 2022 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922793

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infant appetitive traits including eating rate, satiety responsiveness, food responsiveness, and enjoyment of food predict weight gain in infancy and early childhood. Although studies show a strong genetic influence on infant appetitive traits, the association of parent and infant appetite is understudied. Furthermore, little research examines the influence of maternal pregnancy dietary intake, weight indicators, and feeding mode on infant appetite. The present study investigated relations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits. METHODS: Mothers in the Pregnancy Eating Attributes Study (458 mothers enrolled, 367 retained through delivery) completed self-report measures of reward-related eating, and principal component analysis yielded two components: (1) food preoccupation and responsiveness and (2) reinforcing value of food. Mothers completed 24-h dietary recalls across pregnancy, and the standardized NOVA (not an acronym) system categorized recalled foods based on processing level. Maternal anthropometrics were measured across pregnancy. At infant age 6 months, mothers reported on feeding mode and infant appetitive traits. Linear regressions were conducted predicting infant appetitive traits from household income-poverty ratio (step 1); maternal reward-related eating components (step 2); pregnancy ultra-processed food intake (% of energy intake), early pregnancy body mass index, and gestational weight gain (step 3); and exclusive breastfeeding duration (step 4). RESULTS: A 1-SD greater maternal food preoccupation and responsiveness was associated with 0.20-SD greater infant satiety responsiveness (p = .005). A 1-SD greater % energy intake from ultra-processed foods during pregnancy was associated with 0.16-SD lower infant satiety responsiveness (p = .031). A 1-SD longer exclusive breastfeeding duration was associated with 0.18-SD less infant food responsiveness (p = .014). Other associations of maternal reward-related eating, pregnancy ultra-processed food intake and weight indicators, and feeding mode with infant appetitive traits were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Proximal early-life environmental factors including maternal pregnancy dietary intake and feeding mode may facilitate or protect against obesogenic infant appetitive traits, whereas infant appetite may not parallel maternal reward-related eating. Further investigation into the etiology of appetitive traits early in development, particularly during solid food introduction, may elucidate additional modifiable risk factors for child obesity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov. Registration ID - NCT02217462 . Date of registration - August 13, 2014.


Asunto(s)
Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Apetito , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Embarazo , Recompensa , Saciedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Span J Psychol ; 25: e1, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35923152

RESUMEN

The elaborated intrusion theory of desire proposes that craving is a cognitive motivational process involving intrusive thoughts. Changing the way we react to them, cognitive defusion (CD), should limit thought elaboration and craving. We induced chocolate craving in female chocolate cravers before CD (Study 1). A decrease in craving measured by a single-item scale, Visual Analogical Scale (VAS; p < .001, ηp2 = .449) and as a state, State Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ-S; p = .029, ηp2 = .106) were found in the experimental group, while similar results were also found in group control. The reduction in craving (VAS) in group CD correlated negatively with chocolate consumption on a bogus taste test (r = -.439, p = .036), while the correlation was positive in the case of group control (r = .429, p = .047). Food craving as a trait, measured by the Trait Food Craving Questionnaire (FCQ-T), showed negative correlations with measures of CD and mindfulness skills (lowest r = -.313, p = .018). In Study 2 participants made use of a smartphone application implementing the CD procedure in real contexts whenever they experienced food craving. A corresponding decline in self-reported craving was found, as well as in consumption of the craved food (indulgence) compared with the control condition. Our findings indicate that CD may be a promising intervention for tackling the elaboration of intrusive thoughts and eating behavior in young female food cravers, both in a controlled laboratory environment after a cue-food exposure craving induction procedure, as well as responding to naturally occurring food cravings in real-life settings.


Asunto(s)
Ansia , Preferencias Alimentarias , Cognición , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Femenino , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807764

RESUMEN

As eating behavior is important to health, this cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze the factors influencing the eating behavior related to overweight and obesity of Chinese residents aged 18~60 based on the Ecological Model of Health Behavior. The short-form of the Eating Behavior Scale (EBS-SF) was applied to evaluate eating behavior. The multivariable linear stepwise regression analysis was used to identify and analyze the influence factors, and the receiver operating characteristic curves analysis to validate the predictive capability of the EBS-SF score in differentiating overweight and obesity. A total of 8623 participants were enrolled. In the personal characteristics, male (ß = -0.03), older [36-45 years (ß = -0.06) or 46-60 years (ß = -0.07)], higher scores of Agreeableness (ß = -0.04), Conscientiousness (ß = -0.14) or Openness (ß = -0.03) contributed to healthy eating behavior. In the individual behaviors, those who smoked (ß = 0.04), drank alcohol (ß = 0.05), exercised frequently (ß = 0.07), had higher PHQ-9 scores (ß = 0.29) may have improper eating habits. As for the interpersonal networks, the residents who were married (ß = -0.04) behaved well when eating, while those who had offspring or siblings tended to have unhealthy eating behavior. At the community level, living in Western China (ß = -0.03), having a monthly household income of 6001-9000 yuan per capita (ß = -0.04), having no debt (ß = -0.02), being retired (ß = -0.03), or having lower PSSS scores (ß = -0.03) led to lower EBS-SF scores. And the EBS-SF score demonstrated a moderate-high accuracy in predicting overweight and obesity.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Sobrepeso , Índice de Masa Corporal , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología
9.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807779

RESUMEN

The Mediterranean diet (MD) is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns. Despite the significance of a healthful diet during the early stage of life, data for young individuals indicate that nutrition problems are common. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine parental factors associated with MD adherence in children and adolescents living in the Mediterranean region in Croatia. In total, 2623 children aged 2 to 18 years and their parents participated in this study. Data were collected during the period from September 2021 to February 2022 by using an anonymous questionnaire. We used KIDMED and MEDAS questionnaires for assessing MD adherence in young individuals and their parents, respectively. To assess the association of children's MD adherence categories with the parental predictors, we performed multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results showed that the children of parents with a low MD adherence are much more likely to have poor MD adherence than good (OR = 47.54 (95% C.I 18.24, 123.87), p < 0.001) or average (OR = 5.64 (95% C.I 3.70, 8.6), p < 0.001) MD adherence. Further, children of fathers with higher BMI (OR = 1.035 (95% C.I 1.0, 1.071)) and those who do not live with both parents (OR = 1.703 (95% C.I 0.994, 2.916), p = 0.053) are more likely to have poor MD adherence than good MD adherence. These results indicate that interventions focusing on enhancing the quality of both parents' diets could effectively improve their children's eating habits.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Mediterránea , Adolescente , Niño , Croacia , Estudios Transversales , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Padres , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807787

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mealtime television use has been cross-sectionally associated with suboptimal diets in children. This study aimed to assess the two-year prospective association between baseline mealtime television use and subsequent diets in young children, and identify socioeconomic differences. METHODS: Parents reported their child's television use at meals, and fruit, vegetable, and discretionary food intakes. Multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between baseline mealtime television use and follow-up diet outcomes. Differences were assessed by socioeconomic position. RESULTS: Participants were 352 Australian parents of children aged six months to six years. Daily mealtime television use (average frequency/day) was associated with higher daily frequency of discretionary food intakes (ß 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.07-0.67) at the 2-year follow-up. Individually, television use during breakfast and dinner (1-2 days/week compared to never) predicted higher daily intake frequency of discretionary food, ß 0.36 (95% CI 0.12-0.60) and ß 0.19 (95% CI 0.00-0.39), respectively. Similarly, 3-7 days/week of television use during breakfast and lunch predicted higher frequency of discretionary food intake, ß 0.18 (95% CI 0.02-0.37) and ß 0.31 (95% CI 0.07-0.55), respectively. Associations were not socioeconomically patterned. CONCLUSIONS: Investigating mealtime television use motivators across the socioeconomic spectrum could inform interventions targeting the high consumption of discretionary foods in children.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Comidas , Australia , Niño , Preescolar , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Estudios Prospectivos , Televisión
11.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to identify factors related to developmental failure of swallowing threshold in children aged 5-15 years. METHODS: A total of 83 children aged 5-15 years were included in this study. A self-administered lifestyle questionnaire was completed, along with hand grip strength and oral function tests. Swallowing threshold was determined based on the concentration of dissolved glucose obtained from gummy jellies when the participants signaled that they wanted to swallow the chewed gummy jellies. Developmental failure of swallowing threshold was defined as glucose concentrations in the lowest 20th percentile. After univariate analysis, multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with developmental failure of swallowing threshold. RESULTS: Hand grip strength was significantly correlated with masticatory performance (r = 0.611, p < 0.01). Logistic regression analysis revealed factors related to developmental failure of swallowing threshold, i.e., overweight/obesity (Odds ratio) (OR) = 5.343, p = 0.031, 95% CI = 1.168-24.437) and eating between meals at least once a day (OR = 4.934, p = 0.049, 95% CI = 1.004-24.244). CONCLUSIONS: Developmental failure of swallowing threshold was closely associated with childhood obesity in 5- to 15-year-old children.


Asunto(s)
Deglución , Obesidad Pediátrica , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Conducta Alimentaria , Glucosa , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Masticación
12.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807799

RESUMEN

The impact of poor diet quality and nutritional inadequacies on mental health and mental illness has recently gained considerable attention in science. As the opinions and experiences of people living with serious mental illness on dietary issues are unknown, we aimed to understand the role of nutrition in a biopsychosocial approach. In total, 28 semi-structured interviews were conducted with people living with serious mental illness (SMI) in Australia, Germany and Austria, and a generic thematic analysis approach was applied. Four positive (positive effects on the body and mind, therapeutic effects in treating somatic illnesses, pleasure and opportunity for self-efficacy) and three negative (impairment related to mental illness and its treatment, perceived stigma and negative effects on the body and mind) implications of diet were identified. A key issue for most of the participants was the mental burden arising from their body weight. This might indicate that negative implications, such as guilt and stigma, were of primary importance for people with SMI when talking about their dietary behavior. In conclusion, diet-related support is urgently needed for people with SMI. However, especially participants from Germany and Austria reported that this is not yet widely available in mental health settings, leading to hopelessness and resignation.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Ingestión de Alimentos , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental , Investigación Cualitativa
13.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807827

RESUMEN

Several institutions propose responsive feeding (RF) as the caregivers' relational standard when nurturing a child, from breast/formula feeding onwards. Previous systematic reviews (SRs) on caregivers' feeding practices (CFPs) have included studies on populations from countries with different cultures, rates of malnutrition, and incomes, whereas this SR compares different CFPs only in healthy children (4-24 months) from industrialized countries. Clinical questions were about the influence of different CFPs on several important outcomes, namely growth, overweight/obesity, risk of choking, dental caries, type 2 diabetes (DM2), and hypertension. The literature review does not support any Baby Led Weaning's or Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS' (BLISS) positive influence on children's weight-length gain, nor their preventive effect on future overweight/obesity. RF-CFPs can result in adequate weight gain and a lower incidence of overweight/obesity during the first two years of life, whereas restrictive styles and coercive styles, two kinds of non-RF in CF, can have a negative effect, favoring excess weight and lower weight, respectively. Choking risk: failure to supervise a child's meals by an adult represents the most important risk factor; no cause-effect relation between BLW/BLISS/RF/NRCF and choking could be found. Risks of DM2, hypertension, and caries: different CFPs cannot be considered as a risky or preventive factor for developing these conditions later in life.


Asunto(s)
Obstrucción de las Vías Aéreas , Caries Dental , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Hipertensión , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Cuidadores , Niño , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevención & control , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Hipertensión/etiología , Hipertensión/prevención & control , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/etiología , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Sobrepeso/etiología , Aumento de Peso
14.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807838

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis (OP) is the most common bone disease. The genetic and metabolic factors play important roles in OP development. However, the genetic basis of OP is still elusive. The study aimed to explore the relationships between OP and dietary habits. METHODS: This study used large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from the UK Biobank to explore potential associations between OP and 143 dietary habits. The GWAS summary data of OP included 9434 self-reported OP cases and 444,941 controls, and the GWAS summary data of the dietary habits included 455,146 participants of European ancestry. Linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) was used to detect the genetic correlations between OP and each of the 143 dietary habits, followed by Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to further assess the causal relationship between OP and candidate dietary habits identified by LDSC. RESULTS: The LDSC analysis identified seven candidate dietary habits that showed genetic associations with OP including cereal type such as biscuit cereal (coefficient = -0.1693, p value = 0.0183), servings of raw vegetables per day (coefficient = 0.0837, p value = 0.0379), and spirits measured per month (coefficient = 0.115, p value = 0.0353). MR analysis found that OP and PC17 (butter) (odds ratio [OR] = 0.974, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (0.973, 0.976), p value = 0.000970), PC35 (decaffeinated coffee) (OR = 0.985, 95% CI = (0.983, 0.987), p value = 0.00126), PC36 (overall processed meat intake) (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = (1.033, 1.037), p value = 0.000976), PC39 (spirits measured per month) (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = (1.011, 1.015), p value = 0.00153), and servings of raw vegetables per day (OR = 0.978, 95% CI = (0.977, 0.979), p value = 0.000563) were clearly causal. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide new clues for understanding the genetic mechanisms of OP, which focus on the possible role of dietary habits in OP pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Osteoporosis , Causalidad , Conducta Alimentaria , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Humanos , Osteoporosis/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
15.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807842

RESUMEN

Frequency of alcohol drinking is a potential predictor of binge drinking of alcohol, a serious social problem for university students. Although previous studies have identified skipping breakfast as a predictor of various health-compromising behaviors and cardiometabolic diseases, few studies have assessed the association between skipping breakfast and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking. This retrospective cohort study included 17,380 male and 8799 female university students aged 18-22 years admitted to Osaka universities between 2004 and 2015. The association between breakfast frequency (eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually) and the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking, defined as drinking ≥4 days/week, was assessed using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. During the median observational period of 3.0 years, 878 (5.1%) men and 190 (2.2%) women engaged in frequent alcohol drinking. Skipping breakfast was significantly associated with the incidence of frequent alcohol drinking (adjusted hazard ratios [95% confidence interval] of eating every day, skipping occasionally, and skipping often/usually: 1.00 [reference], 1.02 [0.84-1.25], and 1.48 [1.17-1.88] in men; 1.00 [reference], 1.60 [1.03-2.49], and 3.14 [1.88-5.24] in women, respectively). University students who skipped breakfast were at a higher risk of frequent alcohol drinking than those who ate breakfast every day.


Asunto(s)
Desayuno , Conducta Alimentaria , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudiantes , Universidades
16.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807852

RESUMEN

Childhood obesity is considered an epidemic in both developing and developed countries. Children obesity plays a vital role in children's development and has a profound impact on their health in adult life. Although the etiology of obesity is multifactorial, it can be prevented. According to research, feeding practices, developing eating habits, and parenting styles are of primary importance. Despite the widespread access to information on children's nutrition, parents still make many mistakes preparing their meals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of parents' nutritional education on children's selected anthropometric-metabolic parameters during their first year of life. The study comprised a group of parents of 203 Polish infants. Their parents were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the intervention group received intensive mobile nutritional education for a year, while the control group received no intervention. Blood tests and anthropometric measures were performed on both groups at the beginning of the study and one year later. Our study showed that parental nutritional education influences, among others. the BMI Z-score (the difference between the groups was 1.039) and the TG/HDL ratio (p < 0.001) in children. The final results of our study showed that proper nutritional education could improve children's nutritional status at the population level.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Lactante , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres/educación , Obesidad Pediátrica/prevención & control
17.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807861

RESUMEN

myfood24 is an innovative dietary assessment tool originally developed in English for use in the United Kingdom. This online 24 h recall, a tool commonly used in nutritional epidemiology, has been developed into different international versions. This paper aims to describe the creation of its French version. We used a consistent approach to development, aligned with other international versions, using similar methodologies. A nutritional database (food item codes, portion groups and accompaniments, etc.) was developed based on commonly used French food composition tables (CIQUAL 2017). Portion sizes were adapted to French dietary habits (estimation, photographs of French portion sizes, assessment of the photograph series and their angle (aerial vs. 45 degrees)). We evaluated the new tool, which contained nearly 3000 food items with 34 individuals using the System Usability Scale. We validated the French food portion picture series using EFSA criteria for bias and agreement. The results of the picture evaluation showed that the angle with which photos are taken had limited impact on the ability to judge portion size. Estimating food intake is a challenging task. Evaluation showed "good" usability of the system in its French version. myfood24 France will be a useful addition to nutritional epidemiology research in France.


Asunto(s)
Dieta , Evaluación Nutricional , Conducta Alimentaria , Alimentos , Francia , Humanos , Tamaño de la Porción
18.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807910

RESUMEN

The present Special Issue of Nutrients aims to host scientific articles contributing to enriching the knowledge in the field of nutritional habits and intervention in childhood [...].


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Hábitos , Humanos
19.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807911

RESUMEN

A healthy eating environment in the school setting is crucial to nurture the healthy eating pattern for youth. Thus, it helps to combat the obesity issue. However, the impact of healthy school environment on healthy eating habits among Asian adolescents is scarce and less clear. This clustered randomised-control study has two objectives. The first objective was to evaluate the changes in adolescents' dietary intake after the interventions for all arms (control; healthy cooking training only; subsidization with healthy cooking training). The second objective was to compare the effect of subsidization with healthy cooking training and healthy cooking training only with the control arm on adolescents' dietary intakes. This study consisted of 340 secondary school students aged 14 years in rural and urban Malaysia. A total of two arms of intervention and one arm of control were included. Intervention one focused on healthy cooking preparation for the canteen and convenience shop operators. Intervention two included subsidization for fruits and vegetables with a healthy cooking preparation training for the canteen and suggestions on providing healthy options to the convenience shop operators. The outcome measured was changes to dietary intake. It was measured using a three-day dietary history pre- and post-intervention. A paired-t test was used to evaluate the outcome of intervention programmes on dietary changes for all arms (control, intervention one and two). An ANCOVA test was used to investigate the effect of providing subsidization and healthy cooking preparation training to the canteen and convenience shop operators on adolescents' dietary intakes as compared to the control arm. Overall, the reduction in energy and carbohydrates for all arms were observed. Interestingly, fat intake was significantly increased after the four-week intervention programme under healthy cooking intervention but not in the food subsidization group. When comparing between control, healthy cooking training only and subsidization with the healthy cooking training arm, there was no significant changes between arms. A robust intervention to include subsidization of healthy foods for intervention programmes at schools in a larger scale study is needed to confirm this finding.


Asunto(s)
Dieta Saludable , Verduras , Adolescente , Estudios de Factibilidad , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas
20.
Nutrients ; 14(13)2022 Jul 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807942

RESUMEN

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of on-duty mortality among firefighters, with obesity as an important risk factor. However, little is known regarding the dietary patterns which are characteristic in this population and how these patterns relate to cardiometabolic outcomes. The aim of this study was to identify the dietary patterns of US firefighters and examine their association with cardiometabolic outcomes. The participants (n = 413) were from the Indianapolis Fire Department, and were recruited for a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)-sponsored Mediterranean diet intervention study. All of the participants underwent physical and medical examinations, routine laboratory tests, resting electrocardiograms, and maximal treadmill exercise testing. A comprehensive food frequency questionnaire was administered, and dietary patterns were derived using principal component analysis. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 30.0 ± 4.5 kg/m2 and the percentage of body fat was 28.1 ± 6.6%. Using principal component analysis, two dietary patterns were identified, namely a Mediterranean diet and a Standard American diet. Following the adjustment for gender, BMI, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max), max metabolic equivalents (METS), age, and body fat percent, the Mediterranean diet was positively associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (ß = 1.20, p = 0.036) in linear regression models. The Standard American diet was associated with an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (ß = -3.76, p = 0.022). In conclusion, the Mediterranean diet was associated with more favorable cardiometabolic profiles, whereas the Standard American diet had an inverse association. These findings could help in providing adequate nutrition recommendations for US firefighters to improve their health.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Dieta Mediterránea , Bomberos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , HDL-Colesterol , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
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