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1.
J R Soc Interface ; 20(198): 20220808, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596450

RESUMEN

Social insects are among the ecologically most successful collectively living organisms, with efficient division of labour a key feature of this success. Surprisingly, these efficient colonies often have a large proportion of inactive workers in their workforce, sometimes referred to as lazy workers. The dominant hypotheses explaining this are based on specific life-history traits, specific behavioural features or uncertain environments where inactive workers can provide a 'reserve' workforce that can spring into action quickly. While there is a number of experimental studies that show and investigate the presence of inactive workers, mathematical and computational models exploring specific hypotheses are not common. Here, using a simple mathematical model, we show that a parsimonious hypothesis can explain this puzzling social phenomenon. Our model incorporates social interactions and environmental influences into a game-theoretical framework and captures how individuals react to environment by allocating their activity according to environmental conditions. This model shows that inactivity can emerge under specific environmental conditions as a by-product of the task allocation process. Our model confirms the empirical observation that in the case of worker loss, prior homeostatic balance is re-established by replacing some of the lost force with previously inactive workers. Most importantly, our model shows that inactivity in social colonies can be explained without the need to assume an adaptive function for this phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Conducta Social , Humanos , Animales , Conducta Animal , Insectos , Modelos Teóricos
2.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278709, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656912

RESUMEN

Laboratory mice spend most of their lives in cages, not experiments, so improving housing conditions is a first-choice approach to improving their welfare. Despite the increasing popularity of enrichment, little is known about the benefits from an animal perspective. For a detailed analysis, we categorized enrichment items according to their prospective use into the categories 'structural', 'housing', and 'foraging'. In homecage-based multiple binary choice tests 12 female C57BL/6J mice chose between enrichment items within the respective categories over a 46-hour period. A new analyzing method combined the binary decisions and ranked the enrichment items within each category by calculating worth values and consensus errors. Although there was no unequivocal ranking that was true in its entire rank order for all individual mice, certain elements (e.g. lattice ball, second plane) were always among the top positions. Overall, a high consensus error in ranking positions reflects strong individual differences in preferences which could not be resolved due to the relatively small sample size. However, individual differences in the preference for enrichment items highlights the importance of a varied enrichment approach, as there does not seem to be one item that satisfies the wants and needs of all individuals to the same degree. An enrichment concept, in which the needs of the animals are central, contributes to a more specific refinement of housing conditions.


Asunto(s)
Dispositivo de Identificación por Radiofrecuencia , Animales , Ratones , Femenino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Vivienda para Animales , Calidad de la Vivienda , Tamaño de la Muestra , Conducta Animal , Bienestar del Animal , Animales de Laboratorio
3.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1093, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658170

RESUMEN

Animal-robot interaction studies provide outstanding opportunities to understand the principles of social interactions. Here we investigated whether dogs' behaviour toward a cooperative artificial agent (Unidentified Moving Object (UMO)) is influenced by receiving a reward directly from the agent, and by variability in the UMO's location. In a problem-solving task, the UMO either helped dogs to obtain food (Direct Reward Group, DRG) or to fetch an object followed by an indirect reward from the owner/experimenter (Indirect Reward Group, IRG). During the Familiarization, the UMO either started from the same location or changed its starting location in all trials. In the Test phase, dogs faced the same task, but additionally a second, unfamiliar UMO was present. We found that both reward groups gazed at the UMO with decreasing latency during the Familiarization, with the IRG showing more gaze alternations between UMO and hiding location. Dogs showed no preference for either UMO in the Test phase but looked at the familiar UMO sooner if it had changed its location during the Familiarization. Thus, direct reward is not necessary to elicit elements of socially competent behavior in dogs, but variability in its motion may be important to improve the UMO's animacy and promote flexible learning.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Conducta Social , Animales , Perros , Solución de Problemas , Aprendizaje , Recompensa
5.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677821

RESUMEN

B. crassifolia is a species that grows in various areas of Latin America. It was known to be useful for the treatment of different human ailments. The present work evaluated the neuropharmacological and analgesic effects of hydroalcoholic and dichloromethane extracts of B. crassifolia. The effect on the central nervous system (CNS) of both extracts obtained from bark, administered by the intraperitoneal route in mice, was evaluated by different tests: spontaneous motor activity, hole-board, motor coordination, pentobarbital induced hypnosis, and rectal temperature. Analgesic activity was evaluated using a hot plate test. Phytochemical analysis was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using reversed-phase and gradient of elution. The hydroalcoholic extract (dose 0.5 g dry plant/kg weigh) administration caused an important reduction of the head-dipping response in the hole board test. A decrease in spontaneous motor activity test and a disturbance of motor coordination in the rotarod test was observed. The hydroalcoholic extract produced a significant prolongation of pentobarbital induced sleeping time. This extract prevented hot plate test induced nociception. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B12. Therefore, this study revealed that the hydroalcoholic extract of B. crassifolia possesses analgesic and sedative CNS activity.


Asunto(s)
Pentobarbital , Extractos Vegetales , Humanos , Ratones , Animales , Extractos Vegetales/química , Pentobarbital/farmacología , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Actividad Motora , Corteza de la Planta , Conducta Animal , Analgésicos/farmacología , Modelos Animales
6.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 155, 2023 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599877

RESUMEN

A key step in understanding animal behaviour relies in the ability to quantify poses and movements. Methods to track body landmarks in 2D have made great progress over the last few years but accurate 3D reconstruction of freely moving animals still represents a challenge. To address this challenge here we develop the 3D-UPPER algorithm, which is fully automated, requires no a priori knowledge of the properties of the body and can also be applied to 2D data. We find that 3D-UPPER reduces by [Formula: see text] fold the error in 3D reconstruction of mouse body during freely moving behaviour compared with the traditional triangulation of 2D data. To achieve that, 3D-UPPER performs an unsupervised estimation of a Statistical Shape Model (SSM) and uses this model to constrain the viable 3D coordinates. We show, by using simulated data, that our SSM estimator is robust even in datasets containing up to 50% of poses with outliers and/or missing data. In simulated and real data SSM estimation converges rapidly, capturing behaviourally relevant changes in body shape associated with exploratory behaviours (e.g. with rearing and changes in body orientation). Altogether 3D-UPPER represents a simple tool to minimise errors in 3D reconstruction while capturing meaningful behavioural parameters.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Imagenología Tridimensional , Animales , Ratones , Imagenología Tridimensional/métodos , Movimiento , Conducta Animal
7.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0252002, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602982

RESUMEN

Tail biting is a damaging behaviour that impacts the welfare and health of pigs. Early detection of precursor signs of tail biting provides the opportunity to take preventive measures, thus avoiding the occurrence of the tail biting event. This study aimed to build a machine-learning algorithm for real-time detection of upcoming tail biting outbreaks, using feeding behaviour data recorded by an electronic feeder. Prediction capacities of seven machine learning algorithms (Generalized Linear Model with Stepwise Feature Selection, random forest, Support Vector Machines with Radial Basis Function Kernel, Bayesian Generalized Linear Model, Neural network, K-nearest neighbour, and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis) were evaluated from daily feeding data collected from 65 pens originating from two herds of grower-finisher pigs (25-100kg), in which 27 tail biting events occurred. Data were divided into training and testing data in two different ways, either by randomly splitting data into 75% (training set) and 25% (testing set), or by randomly selecting pens to constitute the testing set. In the first data splitting, the model is regularly updated with previous data from the pen, whereas in the second data splitting, the model tries to predict for a pen that it has never seen before. The K-nearest neighbour algorithm was able to predict 78% of the upcoming events with an accuracy of 96%, when predicting events in pens for which it had previous data. Our results indicate that machine learning models can be considered for implementation into automatic feeder systems for real-time prediction of tail biting events.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Mordeduras y Picaduras , Porcinos , Animales , Cola (estructura animal)/lesiones , Teorema de Bayes , Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bienestar del Animal , Conducta Alimentaria , Algoritmos
8.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 158(1): 35-38, 2023.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596487

RESUMEN

Depression is a common mental disorder and mainly characterized by persistent sadness and a lack of interest or pleasure in previously rewarding or enjoyable activities. Despair is also a common symptom of depression, and the forced swim and tail suspension tests are widely used to measure this behavior in rodents, but the results from these tests can include the effects on stress resistance in addition to depressive-like states. Reduced motivation is an important marker of psychiatric disorders, including depression, and thus we have previously developed the female encounter test, a novel and simple procedure for assessing reward-seeking behavior in adult male mice. Importantly, female mice should be considered in the development of animal models of depression and assessment of mouse behaviors since the lifetime prevalence of a major depressive disorder in women is almost twice that in men, and around one in seven women can develop postpartum depression. In this review, we summarized our recent research on the male encounter test for assessing motivation in adult female mice and introduced new topics on animal models and therapeutic drugs for postpartum depression.


Asunto(s)
Depresión Posparto , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Humanos , Ratones , Femenino , Masculino , Animales , Natación/psicología , Roedores , Depresión , Conducta Animal , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
9.
Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi ; 158(1): 39-42, 2023.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36596488

RESUMEN

Chronic exposure to stress can lead to a variety of mental disorders such as depression. There are many treatment-resistant patients who do not respond adequately to the standard pharmacological treatments. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic agents is highly expected. In rodents, socially defeated animals that were exposed to repeated physical aggression from other individuals are widely used in this field of research. The social defeat is considered as a stress that mimics human social stress. On the other hand, emotional stress, but not physical stress, is likely to contribute to the pathogenesis and etiology of depression in human. Therefore, there is a gap between the process of pathogenesis and the animal models, and this is one of the reasons why the development of new psychotropic drugs to treat depression has been difficult. Recently, a novel stress model has been introduced, in which mice are subjected to emotional stress without physical distress by witnessing social defeat scenes of their conspecifics. We have investigated the mechanisms by which emotional stress is transmitted by witnessing social defeat in mice, focusing on the insular cortex. In this article, we summarize and discuss the recent advancements in the neural basis of behavioral changes induced by emotional stress.


Asunto(s)
Distrés Psicológico , Conducta Social , Humanos , Animales , Ratones , Derrota Social , Modelos Animales , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Conducta Animal
10.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0278233, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36595554

RESUMEN

Efficient sampling strategies expedite behavioral data collection. While multiple studies have evaluated sampling strategies for core behaviors in cattle, few have focused on social interactions. To identify sampling strategies that accurately captured cattle social behaviors and brush use feedlot steers (n = 3 pens; 9 steers/pen) were observed from 8:00 to 17:00. Average bout duration (sec), total duration per day (sec), and bout frequency were recorded for allogrooming, bar licking, tongue rolling, and brush utilization. Frequency was recorded for headbutting and mounting. Data was extracted from continuous observation datasets using eight different sampling strategies and the results subsequently compared. Differences among sampling strategies were evaluated using a non-parametric One-Way ANOVA Kruskal-Wallis Test. Pearson correlation evaluated the strength of association between a specific sampling strategy and continuous observations. Bout duration for allogrooming (P > 0.65), bar licking (P > 0.60), tongue rolling (P > 0.99), brush use (P > 0.99), and mounting frequency (P > 0.70) did not differ from continuous observations. Tongue rolling (r2 > 0.95, P <0.0001) and brush use (r2 > 0.70, P < 0.0003) were best captured when cattle were observed from 08:00 to 14:00. When cattle were continuously observed from 08:00 to 14:00 or for 15 minutes every 30 minutes, allogrooming (P > 0.2) (frequency, duration), bar licking (P > 0.95) (frequency, duration), brush use (P > 0.1) (frequency, duration), heat butt (P > 0.30) (frequency), or tongue rolling (P > 0.30) (frequency, duration) did not differ from continuous observations. Observing cattle for 15 minutes every 30 minutes yielded the highest accuracy for all behavioral metrics and was considered the most effective strategy for comprehensively evaluating cattle social behavior (r2 > 75; P < 0.05). These results provide insight into accurate and efficient sampling strategies that expedite social behavior data collection in cattle and will facilitate efficient generation of new knowledge regarding cattle social behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Conducta Social , Bovinos , Animales , Manejo de Especímenes , Calor , Alimentación Animal
11.
Cytokine ; 162: 156115, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599202

RESUMEN

Women with breast cancer (BC) are often combined with psychological disorder such as depression and anxiety. Depression is associated or correlated with increased toxicity and severity of physical symptoms. However, the mechanism of BC progression related to the regulation of emotion-related circuitry remains to be further explored. The study aims to investigate indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway mechanism underlying stress-induced progression of BC. BC cell line 4T1 was subcutaneously inoculated into BALB/c mice, and they then received daily chronic unpredictable mild stressors (CUMS) for 12 weeks. Depression-like behavior tests were conducted, including sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST), and novelty suppressed feeding test (NSF). The levels of 5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and inflammatory factors, IL-6, CXCL1, IL-10 and IL-4 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of mouse serum. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect Ki67- or FOXP3-positive tumor cells. The status of IDO signaling pathway was assessed by immunoblotting analysis. CUMS induced depression-like behaviors, decreased the level of 5-HT, promoted tumor progression, enhanced the immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67, and promoted the activation of IDO signaling pathway in BC mice. The IDO signaling pathway was disrupted in mice by lentiviral transduction of shRAN-IDO. Lentivirus-mediated IDO knockdown attenuated CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors, increased the level of 5-HT, inhibited tumor progression, and reduced the immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 in BC mice. The present study suggests that disruption of IDO signaling pathway alleviates CUMS-induced depression-like behaviors and inhibits tumor progression in BC mice.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Neoplasias , Femenino , Ratones , Animales , Depresión/psicología , Antidepresivos/farmacología , Serotonina/metabolismo , Antígeno Ki-67/metabolismo , Transducción de Señal , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Conducta Animal
12.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114181, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36592494

RESUMEN

Subjects suffering from psychosis frequently experience anxiety. However, mechanisms underlying this comorbidity remain still unclear. We investigated whether neurochemical and neuroendocrine dysfunctions were involved in the development of anxiety-like behavior in a rodent model of psychotic-like symptoms, obtained by exposing male rats to social isolation rearing from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 70. In the elevated zero maze test, isolated rats showed a significant reduction in the time spent in the open arms, as well as an increase in the time spent in the closed arms, compared to controls. An increased grooming time in the open field test was also observed in isolated animals. Isolation-induced anxiety-like behavior was accompanied by a decrease of plasmatic oxytocin, prolactin, ghrelin and melatonin levels, whereas plasmatic amount of Neuropeptide S was not altered. Social isolation also caused a reduction of noradrenaline, serotonin and GABA levels, together with an increase of serotonin turnover and glutamate levels in the amygdala of isolated animals. No significant differences were found in noradrenaline and serotonin levels, as well as in serotonin turnover in hippocampus, while glutamate amount was increased and GABA levels were reduced in isolated rats. Furthermore, there was a reduction in plasmatic serotonin content, and an increase in plasmatic kynurenine levels following social isolation, while no significant changes in serotonin turnover were observed. Taken together, our data provide novel insights in the neurobiological alterations underlying the comorbidity between psychosis and anxiety, and open new perspectives for multi-target therapies acting on both neurochemical and neuroendocrine pathways. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT: The data presented in this study are available on request from the corresponding author.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Serotonina , Ratas , Animales , Masculino , Serotonina/metabolismo , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Aislamiento Social , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Conducta Animal
13.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 186, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604491

RESUMEN

Position within the social group has consequences on individual lifespans in diverse taxa. This is especially obvious in eusocial insects, where workers differ in both the tasks they perform and their aging rates. However, in eusocial wasps, bees and ants, the performed task usually depends strongly on age. As such, untangling the effects of social role and age on worker physiology is a key step towards understanding the coevolution of sociality and aging. We performed an experimental protocol that allowed a separate analysis of these two factors using four groups of black garden ant (Lasius niger) workers: young foragers, old foragers, young nest workers, and old nest workers. We highlighted age-related differences in the proteome and metabolome of workers that were primarily related to worker subcaste and only secondarily to age. The relative abundance of proteins and metabolites suggests an improved xenobiotic detoxification, and a fuel metabolism based more on lipid use than carbohydrate use in young ants, regardless of their social role. Regardless of age, proteins related to the digestive function were more abundant in nest workers than in foragers. Old foragers were mostly characterized by weak abundances of molecules with an antibiotic activity or involved in chemical communication. Finally, our results suggest that even in tiny insects, extended lifespan may require to mitigate cancer risks. This is consistent with results found in eusocial rodents and thus opens up the discussion of shared mechanisms among distant taxa and the influence of sociality on life history traits such as longevity.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Abejas , Animales , Hormigas/fisiología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Conducta Social , Fenotipo , Medio Social , Conducta Animal/fisiología
14.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 224, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604556

RESUMEN

Selection of livestock has not only led to changes in the level of their performance but also modified their behavior. As a result, within a single species, we have to deal with different behaviors of different breeds. In our study, we assumed that the different behaviors within a species are due to differences in the morphology and physiology of behavior-related systems. Two breeds of hens were used as a model: the highly reactive, fearful and high-performance Leghorn breed and proactive, unselected Green-legged Partridge breed. The higher reactivity and fearfulness of Leghorn hens in comparison to the Green-legged Partridge breed may be related to the greater number of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and anterior hypothalamus and the higher content of zinc and iron in the brain, as these elements are involved in neuronal conduction and myelination processes. The reactive behaviours of Green-legged Partridge hens may be associated with the lower number of neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and the anterior hypothalamus and the higher concentration of dopamine and copper ions in the brain. The analyses confirmed the hypothesis of the existence of interbreed differences in the morphology and physiology of behaviour-related systems, which most probably emerged through unintentional and correlated selection towards high production performance. Consequently, attention should be drawn that the selection of a given genotype (breed) towards a specific environment could lead to creation of highly specialised lines that may not achieve homeostasis in every maintenance system.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Pollos , Animales , Femenino , Pollos/genética , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Encéfalo , Núcleo Hipotalámico Paraventricular , Genotipo
15.
Mol Autism ; 14(1): 1, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36604742

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by deficits in social interaction and communication and repetitive behaviors. Known causes of ASD are mutations of certain risk genes like the postsynaptic protein SHANK3 and environmental factors including prenatal infections. METHODS: To analyze the gene-environment interplay in ASD, we combined the Shank3Δ11-/- ASD mouse model with maternal immune activation (MIA) via an intraperitoneal injection of polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) on gestational day 12.5. The offspring of the injected dams was further analyzed for autistic-like behaviors and comorbidities followed by biochemical experiments with a focus on synaptic analysis. RESULTS: We show that the two-hit mice exhibit excessive grooming and deficits in social behavior more prominently than the Shank3Δ11-/- mice. Interestingly, these behavioral changes were accompanied by an unexpected upregulation of postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins at excitatory synapses in striatum, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. LIMITATIONS: We found several PSD proteins to be increased in the two-hit mice; however, we can only speculate about possible pathways behind the worsening of the autistic phenotype in those mice. CONCLUSIONS: With this study, we demonstrate that there is an interplay between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors defining the severity of ASD symptoms. Moreover, we show that a general misbalance of PSD proteins at excitatory synapses is linked to ASD symptoms, making this two-hit model a promising tool for the investigation of the complex pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Trastorno Autístico , Femenino , Embarazo , Ratones , Animales , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/genética , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Trastorno Autístico/genética , Conducta Social , Sinapsis , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Proteínas de Microfilamentos , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética
16.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280078, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36607910

RESUMEN

This study had the aim to demonstrate the midterm effects (three weeks) of weaning on foals' welfare. For this purpose, foals' behavioral changes and fecal levels metabolites of cortisol were evaluated. The observations took place at the state stud farm of Baden-Wuerttemberg in Germany. Ten foals (six colts and four fillies) were observed from one day before weaning up until three weeks after weaning. Weaning was divided into three blocks, the first in September, the second in October, and the last in November. The behavioral observation was done during an eight-hour period between 7:00 a.m. and 5:00 p.m. The observer documented the exact behavior shown by the foal every five minutes during the eight hours. To scale the stress experienced by the foal, the glucocorticoid metabolite 11,17-dioxoandrostane was measured with the 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay, which allows assessing the foal's plasma cortisol level changes throughout the trail through fecal samples. All foals displayed a distinct hormonal stress response to the weaning process through increased fecal cortisol metabolite levels. Their body posture distribution took a shift from mainly moving before weaning to mainly standing during the three weeks after weaning. Compared with the day before weaning, the foals showed less active behavior and significantly increased their resting behavior. Regarding the overall resting behavior, the weaned foals initially increased their time spent resting in a lying position during daytime and then started to decrease the time lying. After weaning, the foals showed a significant increase in resting while standing. In conclusion, the foals showed an expected behavioral development and an expected curve of cortisol metabolite values throughout the study. However, it seemed that the changes had not returned "back to normal" at three weeks after weaning. Therefore, we suggest that weaned foals need a minimum of three weeks to acclimate to the new situation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Hidrocortisona , Animales , Caballos , Femenino , Masculino , Destete , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Alemania
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 53(4): 679-688, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36640069

RESUMEN

Trazodone is a dose-dependent serotonin antagonist and agonist used to treat anxiety-related conditions. Trauma has been identified as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in several nondomestic ruminant species and can be exacerbated by stress. In a recent study in domestic goats (Capra aegagrus hircus), trazodone reduced activity levels without adverse effects. Trazodone could allow for safer capture and handling in nondomestic ruminant species. The objectives of this study were to identify a dose of trazodone that decreases activity levels in captive blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and to evaluate its safety and its effects on serum cortisol levels following a routine veterinary procedure. A pilot study using ethograms identified a group fed 15 mg/kg oral dose of trazodone as effective to reduce activity levels. Over 6 h, this dose resulted in a 111% increase in time spent sleeping or resting (P = 0.0003), a 41% increase in time spent lying down (P = 0.0016), a 64% reduction in time spent moving (P= 0.005), and a 65% reduction in time spent being vigilant (P= 0.026). Systemic absorption of trazodone was identified when plasma concentrations were measured after 2 h (95 ± 48 µg/L). Serum cortisol levels during a routine venipuncture event were not significantly different following trazodone administration (P > 0.05). Mild hyporexia was the only adverse effect noted at 15 mg/kg and was absent at a 12 mg/kg dose. Trazodone appears safe and promising to decrease activity in blue wildebeest and might thus have a positive effect on nondomestic ruminant welfare and the safety of veterinary procedures.


Asunto(s)
Antílopes , Trazodona , Animales , Trazodona/farmacología , Hidrocortisona , Proyectos Piloto , Conducta Animal
18.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 1176, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36670123

RESUMEN

Despite playing a pivotal role in the inception of animal culture studies, macaque social learning is surprisingly understudied. Social learning is important to survival and influenced by dominance and affiliation in social animals. Individuals generally rely on social learning when individual learning is costly, and selectively use social learning strategies influencing what is learned and from whom. Here, we combined social learning experiments, using extractive foraging tasks, with network-based diffusion analysis (using various social relationships) to investigate the transmission of social information in free-ranging Barbary macaques. We also investigated the influence of task difficulty on reliance on social information and evidence for social learning strategies. Social learning was detected for the most difficult tasks only, with huddling relations outside task introductions, and observation networks during task introductions, predicting social transmission. For the most difficult task only, individuals appeared to employ a social learning strategy of copying the most successful demonstrator observed. Results indicate that high social tolerance represents social learning opportunities and influences social learning processes. The reliance of Barbary macaques on social learning, and cues of model-success supports the costly information hypothesis. Our study provides more statistical evidence to the previous claims indicative of culture in macaques.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Social , Animales , Conducta Animal , Macaca , Aprendizaje , Conducta Social
19.
J Exp Biol ; 226(1)2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637433

RESUMEN

Odors released from mates and resources such as a host and food are often the first sensory signals that an animal can detect. Changes in locomotion in response to odors are an important mechanism by which animals access resources important to their survival. Odor-modulated changes in locomotion in insects constitute a whole suite of flexible behaviors that allow insects to close in on these resources from long distances and perform local searches to locate and subsequently assess them. Here, we review changes in odor-mediated locomotion across many insect species. We emphasize that changes in locomotion induced by odors are diverse. In particular, the olfactory stimulus is sporadic at long distances and becomes more continuous at short distances. This distance-dependent change in temporal profile produces a corresponding change in an insect's locomotory strategy. We also discuss the neural circuits underlying odor modulation of locomotion.


Asunto(s)
Insectos , Odorantes , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Locomoción , Algoritmos , Olfato/fisiología
20.
Dev Psychobiol ; 65(1): e22357, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36567650

RESUMEN

Animal models are crucial to understanding the mechanisms underlying the deleterious consequences of early-life stress. Here, we aimed to examine the effect of the limited bedding nesting (LBN) paradigm on early life development milestones and anxiety- and/or depression-like behavior in adolescent and adult mice from two inbred mice of both sexes. C57BL/6NCrl and BALB/c litters were exposed to the LBN paradigm postnatal day (PND) 2-9. Maternal behavior recording occurred on PND 3-9, and pups were weighed daily and examined to verify the eye-opening on PND 10-22. The male and female offspring underwent evaluation in the open field test, elevated plus-maze, and the forced swimming test during adolescence (PND 45-49) and adulthood (PND 75-79). We found that LBN impaired the maternal behavior patterns of both strain dams, mainly on C57BL/6NCrl strain. Also, LBN delayed the pup's eye-opening time and reduced body weight gain, impacting C57BL/6NCrl pups more. We also found that LBN decreased anxiety-related indices in adolescent and adult male but not female mice of both strains. Furthermore, LBN decreased depression-related indices only adolescent female and male BALB/c and female but not male C57BL/6NCrl mice. These findings reinforce the evidence that the LBN paradigm impairs the maternal behavior pattern and pup's early developmental milestones but does not induce anxiety- or depressive-like behavior outcomes during later life.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad , Ansiedad , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Animales , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Conducta Materna , Ropa de Cama y Ropa Blanca , Conducta Animal
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