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1.
Vet Res Commun ; 43(4): 239-247, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31760569

RESUMEN

Sickness behavior (SB) is considered part of the adaptive behavioral and neuroimmune changes that occur in response to inflammatory processes. However, SB is a motivational state modulated by the environmental context. The objective of this study was to evaluate if selenium could ameliorate symptoms of SB and if stress would affect these responses. We induced SB in rats using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We choose selenium based on our findings of LPS-exposure decreasing selenium levels in rats. We exposed these rats to a psychogenic stress and studied motivational modulation paradigms, such as cure of the organism, preservation of the species, and fight or flight. We studied ultrasonic vocalizations, open-field behaviors, body weight, and IL-1 beta and IFN-gamma serum levels. LPS-induced SB was evidenced by decreased motor/exploratory activity and increased proinflammatory mediators' levels. Selenium treatment did not exert beneficial effects on SB, revealing that probably the selenium deficiency was not related to SB. When analyzed with the stress paradigm, the behavior of rats was differentially affected. LPS did not affect behavior in the presence of stress. SB was abrogated during stressor events to prioritize survival behaviors, such as fight-or-flight. Contrarily, the association of LPS, selenium, and stress induced SB even during stressor events, revealing that this combination induced a cumulative toxic effect.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Conducta de Enfermedad/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Animales , Lipopolisacáridos/toxicidad , Ratas , Selenio/farmacología
2.
Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract ; 35(3): 575-588, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672203

RESUMEN

Donkeys and mules often are misunderstood because of their behavioral differences compared with horses. Working with these animals requires more patience and ability to notice the slightest changes in behavior to diagnose disease. Mules and donkeys form strong bonds and trust with familiar people and other equids. Training mules and hinnies from an early age is key to modifying behavior and acceptance of unfamiliar people. Reproductive behavior is different from that of horses and requires more patience when collecting jacks. Practitioners working with mules and donkeys should take a methodological approach and get to know the animal before performing examinations.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Equidae/fisiología , Animales , Enfermedades de los Caballos/diagnóstico , Caballos
3.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 1986-1999, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719672

RESUMEN

The importance of neuronal ensembles, termed engram cells, in storing and retrieving memory is increasingly being appreciated, but less is known about how these engram cells operate within neural circuits. Here we tagged engram cells in the ventral CA1 region of the hippocampus (vCA1) and the core of the nucleus accumbens (AcbC) during cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) training and show that the vCA1 engram projects preferentially to the AcbC and that the engram circuit from the vCA1 to the AcbC mediates memory recall. Direct activation of the AcbC engram while suppressing the vCA1 engram is sufficient for cocaine CPP. The AcbC engram primarily consists of D1 medium spiny neurons, but not D2 medium spiny neurons. The preferential synaptic strengthening of the vCA1→AcbC engram circuit evoked by cocaine conditioning mediates the retrieval of cocaine CPP memory. Our data suggest that the vCA1 engram stores specific contextual information, while the AcbC D1 engram and its downstream network store both cocaine reward and associated contextual information, providing a potential mechanism by which cocaine CPP memory is stored.


Asunto(s)
Región CA1 Hipocampal/fisiología , Cocaína/farmacología , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Clozapina/análogos & derivados , Clozapina/farmacología , Potenciales Postsinápticos Excitadores/fisiología , Ratones Transgénicos , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Optogenética , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/fisiología
4.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8441, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721904

RESUMEN

The heptapeptide Bj-PRO-7a, isolated and identified from Bothrops jararaca (Bj) venom, produces antihypertensive and other cardiovascular effects that are independent on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, possibly relying on cholinergic muscarinic receptors subtype 1 (M1R). However, whether Bj-PRO-7a acts upon the central nervous system and modifies behavior is yet to be determined. Therefore, the aims of this study were: i) to assess the effects of acute administration of Bj-PRO-7a upon behavior; ii) to reveal mechanisms involved in the effects of Bj-PRO-7a upon locomotion/exploration, anxiety, and depression-like behaviors. For this purpose, adult male Wistar (WT, wild type) and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) received intraperitoneal injections of vehicle (0.9% NaCl), diazepam (2 mg/kg), imipramine (15 mg/kg), Bj-PRO-7a (71, 213 or 426 nmol/kg), pirenzepine (852 nmol/kg), α-methyl-DL-tyrosine (200 mg/kg), or chlorpromazine (2 mg/kg), and underwent elevated plus maze, open field, and forced swimming tests. The heptapeptide promoted anxiolytic and antidepressant-like effects and increased locomotion/exploration. These effects of Bj-PRO-7a seem to be dependent on M1R activation and dopaminergic receptors and rely on catecholaminergic pathways.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Venenos de Crotálidos/química , Depresión , Conducta Exploratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Oligopéptidos/farmacología , Prolina/farmacología , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Masculino , Oligopéptidos/aislamiento & purificación , Prolina/aislamiento & purificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
5.
Evol Anthropol ; 28(6): 321-331, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31691443

RESUMEN

The importance of warfare for human evolution is hotly debated in anthropology. Some authors hypothesize that warfare emerged at least 200,000-100,000 years BP, was frequent, and significantly shaped human social evolution. Other authors claim that warfare is a recent phenomenon, linked to the emergence of agriculture, and mostly explained by cultural rather than evolutionary forces. Here I highlight and critically evaluate six controversial points on the evolutionary bases of warfare. I argue that cultural and evolutionary explanations on the emergence of warfare are not alternative but analyze biological diversity at two distinct levels. An evolved propensity to act aggressively toward outgroup individuals may emerge irrespective of whether warfare appeared early/late during human evolution. Finally, I argue that lethal violence and aggression toward outgroup individuals are two linked but distinct phenomena, and that war and peace are complementary and should not always be treated as two mutually exclusive behavioral responses.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Evolución Cultural/historia , Guerra/etnología , Animales , Antropología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Historia Antigua , Hominidae/fisiología , Humanos , Pan troglodytes/fisiología , Conducta Social/historia
6.
Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci ; 60(14): 4681-4690, 2019 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725167

RESUMEN

Purpose: To compare the effects of reduced inhibitory neuron function in the retina across behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels. Methods: Inhibitory neurons were ablated in larval zebrafish retina. The Ptf1a gene, which determines inhibitory neuron fate in developing vertebrates, was used to express nitroreductase. By exposing larvae to the prodrug metronidazole, cytotoxicity was selectively induced in inhibitory neurons. Visual phenotypes were characterized at behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels using an optomotor response (OMR) assay, electroretinography (ERG), and routine histology, respectively. Nonvisual locomotion was also assessed to reveal any general behavioral effects due to ablation of other nonvisual neurons that also express Ptf1a. Results: Injured larvae showed severely reduced OMR relative to controls. Locomotor assessment showed unaltered swimming ability, indicating that reduced OMR was due to visual deficits. For ERG, injured larvae manifested either reduced (type-I) or absent (type-II) b-wave signals originating from bipolar interneurons in the retina. Histologic analysis showed altered retinal morphology in injured larvae, with reductions in synaptic inner plexiform layer (IPL) thickness and synaptic density more pronounced in type-II than type-I larvae; type-II larvae also had smaller retinae overall. Conclusions: The consequences of inhibitory neuron ablation corresponded closely across behavioral, physiological, and anatomical levels. Inhibitory neuron loss likely increases the ratio of neural excitation to inhibition, leading to hyperexcitability. In addition to modulating visual signals, inhibitory neurons may be critical for maintaining retinal structure and organization. This study highlights the utility of a multidisciplinary approach and provides a template for characterizing other zebrafish models of neurological disease.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/toxicidad , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Metronidazol/toxicidad , Neuronas Motoras/efectos de los fármacos , Retina/fisiología , Visión Ocular/fisiología , Animales , Animales Modificados Genéticamente , Electrorretinografía , Larva , Neuronas Motoras/metabolismo , Nitrorreductasas/metabolismo , Estimulación Luminosa , Transducción de Señal , Factores de Transcripción/metabolismo , Pez Cebra
7.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20190055, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778459

RESUMEN

The immune state is an essential component of survival as it directly influences physiological performance and health status. Variation in the leukocyte profile, a significantly increase in body temperature, and a detriment of the eco-physiological performance are among the possible consequences of an unhealthy state. In this study we analyse and discuss how field body temperature, preferred body temperature, the speed for sprint and long runs, locomotor stamina, and body condition can be affected by the immunological state (i.e. leukocyte profile) in a wild population of Liolaemus sarmentoi. Juveniles and adult males with a high percentage of eosinophils, basophils, and a low percentage of monocytes preferred higher body temperatures in a thermal gradient, while pregnant females maintained thermal preferences independently of leukocyte profile. Although juveniles with a high percentage of heterophils showed less locomotor stamina, adult males and pregnant females showed no differences in locomotor performance in relation to leukocyte profile. This study represents a starting point in eco-immunology of a wild lizard population of Liolaemus in cold and temperate environments of Patagonia where the southward shift in the geographic ranges of pathogen populations due to global warming represents a threat to resident host populations.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Temperatura Corporal/inmunología , Lagartos/sangre , Lagartos/inmunología , Actividad Motora/inmunología , Aclimatación , Animales , Temperatura Corporal/fisiología , Femenino , Lagartos/fisiología , Masculino , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Embarazo
8.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2029-2039, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659341

RESUMEN

Motivational states modulate how animals value sensory stimuli and engage in goal-directed behaviors. The motivational states of thirst and hunger are represented in the brain by shared and unique neuromodulatory systems. However, it is unclear how such systems interact to coordinate the expression of appropriate state-specific behavior. We show that the activity of two brain neurons expressing leucokinin neuropeptide is elevated in thirsty and hungry flies, and that leucokinin release is necessary for state-dependent expression of water- and sugar-seeking memories. Leucokinin inhibits two types of mushroom-body-innervating dopaminergic neurons (DANs) to promote thirst-specific water memory expression, whereas it activates other mushroom-body-innervating DANs to facilitate hunger-dependent sugar memory expression. Selection of hunger- or thirst-appropriate memory emerges from competition between leucokinin and other neuromodulatory hunger signals at the level of the DANs. Therefore, coordinated modulation of the dopaminergic system allows flies to prioritize the expression of the relevant state-dependent motivated behavior.


Asunto(s)
Neuronas Dopaminérgicas/fisiología , Drosophila , Hambre/fisiología , Memoria/fisiología , Neuropéptidos/fisiología , Sed/fisiología , Animales , Animales Endogámicos , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Señales (Psicología) , Femenino , Privación de Alimentos/fisiología , Masculino , Cuerpos Pedunculados/fisiología , Inhibición Neural/fisiología , Neuronas/metabolismo , Neuropéptidos/metabolismo , Agua , Privación de Agua/fisiología
9.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(11): e8899, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664307

RESUMEN

Few behavioral tests allow measuring several characteristics and most require training, complex analyses, and/or are time-consuming. We present an apparatus based on rat exploratory behavior. Composed of three different environments, it allows the assessment of more than one behavioral characteristic in a short 3-min session. Factorial analyses have defined three behavioral dimensions, which we named Exploration, Impulsivity, and Self-protection. Behaviors composing the Exploration factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide and apomorphine and decreased by pentylenetetrazole. Behaviors composing the Impulsivity factor were increased by chlordiazepoxide, apomorphine, and both acute and chronic imipramine treatments. Behaviors composing the Self-protection factor were decreased by apomorphine. We submitted Wistar rats to the open-field test, the elevated-plus maze, and to the apparatus we are proposing. Measures related to exploratory behavior in all three tests were correlated. Measures composing the factors Impulsivity and Self-protection did not correlate with any measures from the two standard tests. Also, compared with existing impulsivity tests, the one we proposed did not require previous learning, training, or sophisticated analysis. Exploration measures from our test are as easy to obtain as the ones from other standard tests. Thus, we have proposed an apparatus that measured three different behavioral characteristics, was simple and fast, did not require subjects to be submitted to previous learning or training, was sensitive to drug treatments, and did not require sophisticated data analyses.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/psicología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Investigación Conductal/instrumentación , Conducta Exploratoria/fisiología , Miedo/fisiología , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Animales , Ansiolíticos/farmacología , Antidepresivos Tricíclicos/farmacología , Apomorfina/farmacología , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Clordiazepóxido/farmacología , Agonistas de Dopamina/farmacología , Conducta Exploratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Miedo/efectos de los fármacos , Antagonistas del GABA/farmacología , Conducta Impulsiva/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/efectos de los fármacos , Aprendizaje por Laberinto/fisiología , Modelos Animales , Pentilenotetrazol/farmacología , Ratas Wistar , Factores de Tiempo
10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 189, 2019 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619159

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many living birds exhibit some nocturnal activity, but the genetic basis and evolutionary origins of their nocturnality remain unknown. RESULTS: Here, we used a molecular phyloecological approach to analyze the adaptive evolution of 33 phototransduction genes in diverse bird lineages. Our results suggest that functional enhancement of two night-vision genes, namely, GRK1 and SLC24A1, underlies the nocturnal adaption of living birds. Further analyses showed that the diel activity patterns of birds have remained relatively unchanged since their common ancestor, suggesting that the widespread nocturnal activity of many living birds may largely stem from their common ancestor rather than independent evolution. Despite this evolutionary conservation of diel activity patterns in birds, photoresponse recovery genes were found to be frequently subjected to positive selection in diverse bird lineages, suggesting that birds generally have evolved an increased capacity for motion detection. Moreover, we detected positive selection on both dim-light vision genes and bright-light vision genes in the class Aves, suggesting divergent evolution of the vision of birds from that of reptiles and that different bird lineages have evolved certain visual adaptions to their specific light conditions. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that the widespread nocturnality of extant birds has a deep evolutionary origin tracing back to their common ancestor.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Aves/clasificación , Filogenia , Animales , Aves/genética , Fototransducción/genética , Selección Genética , Programas Informáticos
11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4437, 2019 09 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570726

RESUMEN

Motherhood is characterized by dramatic changes in brain and behavior, but less is known about fatherhood. Here we report that male sticklebacks-a small fish in which fathers provide care-experience dramatic changes in neurogenomic state as they become fathers. Some genes are unique to different stages of paternal care, some genes are shared across stages, and some genes are added to the previously acquired neurogenomic state. Comparative genomic analysis suggests that some of these neurogenomic dynamics resemble changes associated with pregnancy and reproduction in mammalian mothers. Moreover, gene regulatory analysis identifies transcription factors that are regulated in opposite directions in response to a territorial challenge versus during paternal care. Altogether these results show that some of the molecular mechanisms of parental care might be deeply conserved and might not be sex-specific, and suggest that tradeoffs between opposing social behaviors are managed at the gene regulatory level.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/fisiología , Padre , Genética Conductual , Conducta Paterna/fisiología , Smegmamorpha/fisiología , Territorialidad , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Evolución Molecular , Genómica , Masculino , Ratones , Reproducción , Smegmamorpha/genética , Conducta Social , Factores de Transcripción/genética
13.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180597, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618410

RESUMEN

Several parasitoids attacking the same host may lead to competition. Adult parasitoids' abilities to find, parasitize and defend hosts determine resource's retention potential. In soybean, two egg parasitoid species, Telenomus podisi and Trissolcus urichi (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), compete on the egg masses of Piezodorus guildinii (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) one of the major pest of this crop. We evaluated parasitoid's abilities to exploit hosts' footprints; and parasitoid's behavior when competing for the same host. Both arena residence time and retention time were similar for T. podisi and T. urichi on male or female host footprints. In its turn, T. urichi reentered the area contaminated with P. guildinii more times and staid longer in it than T. podisi. Furthermore, when competing for the same egg mass, each parasitoid species won (was in possession of the host by the end of the experiment) half of the replicates, and the number of times each wasp species contacted host in the first place was similar, without affecting replicate outcome (who ultimately won). Both species started agonistic and non-agonistic encounters. This study provides information about the potential interspecific competition between these parasitoids, which contributes to evaluate the compatibility of multiple natural enemies' biological control programs for stink bugs.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros/parasitología , Control Biológico de Vectores/métodos , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Femenino , Hemípteros/fisiología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Masculino , Oviposición , Óvulo/fisiología , Soja , Avispas/parasitología
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(4): e20180332, 2019 Sep 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508655

RESUMEN

This ethnography is about a particular human-animal relationship based on primatological research on groups of wild robust capuchin monkeys living in Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho (Brazil), one of the largest preserved areas of Atlantic Tropical Forest in the world. It emphasizes the complex situations that highlight the difficulty of making this research. This space integrates administrative, scientific and local interests, producing a unique cartography. We reflect on the scientific research considering the relations among primatologist, field assistant and other animals and comparing it with the hunt. "Hunt" is a model inspired in techniques and in some aspects of recreational hunt to expand the comprehension of a complex routine defined to obtain behavior data.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Cebus/fisiología , Bosques , Investigadores , Animales , Antropología Física , Brasil , Conducta Alimentaria , Humanos , Conducta Predatoria/fisiología , Conducta Social , Clima Tropical
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4138, 2019 09 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515512

RESUMEN

The laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) is associated with reward considering that it modulates VTA neuronal activity, but recent anatomical evidence shows that the LDT also directly projects to nucleus accumbens (NAc). We show that the majority of LDT-NAc inputs are cholinergic, but there is also GABAergic and glutamatergic innervation; activation of LDT induces a predominantly excitatory response in the NAc. Non-selective optogenetic activation of LDT-NAc projections in rats enhances motivational drive and shifts preference to an otherwise equal reward; whereas inhibition of these projections induces the opposite. Activation of these projections also induces robust place preference. In mice, specific activation of LDT-NAc cholinergic inputs (but not glutamatergic or GABAergic) is sufficient to shift preference, increase motivation, and drive positive reinforcement in different behavioral paradigms. These results provide evidence that LDT-NAc projections play an important role in motivated behaviors and positive reinforcement, and that distinct neuronal populations differentially contribute for these behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiología , Recompensa , Tegmento Mesencefálico/fisiología , Animales , Neuronas Colinérgicas/fisiología , Femenino , Glutamatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Motivación , Neostriado/fisiología , Optogenética , Ratas Wistar , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
16.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 15(9): e1007354, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518357

RESUMEN

A variety of simple models has been proposed to understand the collective motion of animals. These models can be insightful but may lack important elements necessary to predict the motion of each individual in the collective. Adding more detail increases predictability but can make models too complex to be insightful. Here we report that deep attention networks can obtain a model of collective behavior that is simultaneously predictive and insightful thanks to an organization in modules. When using simulated trajectories, the model recovers the ground-truth interaction rule used to generate them, as well as the number of interacting neighbours. For experimental trajectories of large groups of 60-100 zebrafish, Danio rerio, the model obtains that interactions between pairs can approximately be described as repulsive, attractive or as alignment, but only when moving slowly. At high velocities, interactions correspond only to alignment or alignment mixed with repulsion at close distances. The model also shows that each zebrafish decides where to move by aggregating information from the group as a weighted average over neighbours. Weights are higher for neighbours that are close, in a collision path or moving faster in frontal and lateral locations. The network also extracts that the number of interacting individuals is dynamical and typically in the range 8-22, with 1-10 more important ones. Our results suggest that each animal decides by dynamically selecting information from the collective.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Aprendizaje Profundo , Conducta Espacial/fisiología , Natación/fisiología , Pez Cebra/fisiología , Animales , Biología Computacional , Modelos Estadísticos , Conducta Social
17.
Adv Gerontol ; 32(3): 316-324, 2019.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512416

RESUMEN

An increasing number of studies are devoted to the study of the relationship of mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, in the literature there are practically no publications on the study of the relationship of the features of higher nervous activity, in particular, adaptive behavior, in healthy individuals with the risk of developing age-related dysfunction of the pancreatic islet apparatus (PIA). The purpose of this study was to investigate features of the functioning of the PIA during aging in individuals with normal standard behavior (SB), as well as anxiety- and depressive-like behavior (DAB) in experiments on nonhuman primates. 76 physically healthy young mature and old female rhesus monkeys with SB and DAB were used in the experiments. Old animals were divided into subgroups with normal (NW) and excess (EW) body weight. All young animals were characterized by NW. The function of PIA was assessed using a glucose tolerance test. Intergroup differences in the functioning of the PIA in young animals were revealed, which were characterized by signs of impaired early insulin response, apparently due to a decrease in the sensitivity of ß-cells of the pancreas to glucose. With aging, the function of the PIA was damaged in all animals, but the features of its changes depended on both the affiliation to a particular behavioral group and the animal's body weight. During aging in animals with SB, the development of relative insulin resistance of peripheral tissues was observed, accompanied by impaired glucose tolerance and a compensatory increase in the secretory activity of the PIA, which were more pronounced in animals with EW. Age-related dysfunction of the PIA in animals with DAB and NW was similar with age-related changes in the PIA function in animals with SB and NW. At the same time, with aging, animals with DAB and EW showed a more significant peak concentration of glucose than that of old animals with SB and EW, accompanied by a minimum «disappearance¼ rate of glucose from the circulation and significantly lower insulin secretion than this in animals with SB and EW. Thus, age-related dysfunctions of the PIA in primates with SB and DAB are unidirectional with the development of insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and a compensatory increase in insulin secretion, which, however, in old animals with DAB and EW are accompanied by exhaustion of the PIA function, increasing the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Conducta Animal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Islotes Pancreáticos , Páncreas , Primates , Adaptación Psicológica , Animales , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Femenino , Insulina , Macaca mulatta , Páncreas/fisiología , Primates/fisiología
18.
Nat Med ; 25(9): 1428-1441, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501614

RESUMEN

Psychological distress has long been suspected to influence cancer incidence and mortality. It remains largely unknown whether and how stress affects the efficacy of anticancer therapies. We observed that social defeat caused anxiety-like behaviors in mice and dampened therapeutic responses against carcinogen-induced neoplasias and transplantable tumors. Stress elevated plasma corticosterone and upregulated the expression of glucocorticoid-inducible factor Tsc22d3, which blocked type I interferon (IFN) responses in dendritic cell (DC) and IFN-γ+ T cell activation. Similarly, close correlations were discovered among plasma cortisol levels, TSC22D3 expression in circulating leukocytes and negative mood in patients with cancer. In murine models, exogenous glucocorticoid injection, or enforced expression of Tsc22d3 in DC was sufficient to abolish therapeutic control of tumors. Administration of a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist or DC-specific Tsc22d3 deletion reversed the negative impact of stress or glucocorticoid supplementation on therapeutic outcomes. Altogether, these results indicate that stress-induced glucocorticoid surge and Tsc22d3 upregulation can subvert therapy-induced anticancer immunosurveillance.


Asunto(s)
Inmunidad Celular , Neoplasias/inmunología , Estrés Psicológico/inmunología , Factores de Transcripción/genética , Animales , Ansiedad/sangre , Ansiedad/inducido químicamente , Ansiedad/inmunología , Ansiedad/psicología , Conducta Animal/fisiología , Carcinógenos/toxicidad , Neoplasias Colorrectales/sangre , Neoplasias Colorrectales/genética , Neoplasias Colorrectales/inmunología , Neoplasias Colorrectales/psicología , Corticosterona/sangre , Células Dendríticas/trasplante , Regulación Neoplásica de la Expresión Génica , Glucocorticoides/farmacología , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangre , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/inmunología , Neoplasias Pulmonares/psicología , Activación de Linfocitos/genética , Ratones , Monitorización Inmunológica/métodos , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/psicología , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/antagonistas & inhibidores , Transducción de Señal/efectos de los fármacos , Neoplasias Gástricas/sangre , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética , Neoplasias Gástricas/inmunología , Neoplasias Gástricas/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/inducido químicamente , Estrés Psicológico/genética , Estrés Psicológico/terapia , Factores de Transcripción/inmunología
19.
J Biosci ; 44(4)2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502584

RESUMEN

The role of genetic relatedness in social evolution has recently come under critical attention. These arguments are here critically analyzed, both theoretically and empirically. It is argued that when the conceptual structure of the theory of natural selection is carefully taken into account, genetic relatedness can be seen to play an indispensable role in the evolution of both facultative and advanced eusociality. Although reviewing the empirical evidence concerning the evolution of eusociality reveals that relatedness does not play a role in the initial appearance of helper phenotypes, this follows simply from the fact that natural selection - of which relatedness is a necessary component - does not play a causal role in the origin of any traits. Further, separating two logically distinct elements of causal explanation - necessity and sufficiency - explains why the debate lingers on: although relatedness plays a necessary role in the evolution of helping and advanced eusociality, relatedness alone is not sufficient for their appearance. Therefore, if the relatedness variable in a given data set is held at a uniformly high value, then it indeed may turn out that other factors occupy a more prominent role. However, this does not change the fact that high relatedness functions as a necessary background condition for the evolution of advanced eusociality.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Aptitud Genética/fisiología , Insectos/fisiología , Selección Genética/genética , Animales , Aptitud Genética/genética , Insectos/genética , Reproducción/genética , Reproducción/fisiología , Selección Genética/fisiología , Conducta Social , Sociobiología
20.
Vet Parasitol ; 273: 112-121, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476666

RESUMEN

Toxoplasma gondii is the parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis, a highly prevalent zoonosis that affects humans and warm-blooded animals. Faeces of infected cats can contain millions of T. gondii oocysts, which remain infectious in the environment for months. Sites repeatedly used by cats for defecation ('latrines') are recognised as hotspots of T. gondii soil contamination, but this contamination varies from one latrine to another. To understand this spatial heterogeneity, camera traps were deployed in 39 cat latrines on three dairy farms with high-density cat populations and programmed to record visits during sixteen 10-day sessions, rotating between three farms over a period of a year. Generalized Linear Mixed Models were used to test the effects of cat sexual maturity, latrine location and season on the number of cat faeces deposited and on the number of cats defecating per latrine, as determined from the analysis of 41,282 video recordings. Sexually immature cats defecated 6.60-fold (95% CI = [2.87-15.25]) more often in latrines located close to a feeding site than in other latrines. This pattern was also observed for mature males (odds ratio [OR] = 9.42, 95% CI = [3.29-26.91]), especially during winter, but not for mature females (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [0.80-3.94]). The number of defecating cats was also 2.67-fold (95% CI = [1.66-4.30], P < 0.001) higher in latrines located close to a feeding point than in those located far from it, regardless of cat category and season. Visits by intermediate T. gondii hosts (micromammals, birds and others) were also recorded. Out of the 39 latrines, 30 (76.92%) were visited by at least one intermediate host during the study period, and some latrines were highly frequented (up to 8.74 visits/day on average). These results provide evidence that the location of food resources in dairy farms influences the latrine use pattern by cats. Highly frequented latrines can be of high risk of T. gondii infection for definitive and intermediate hosts.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/transmisión , Suelo/parasitología , Toxoplasmosis Animal/transmisión , Animales , Gatos , Industria Lechera , Femenino , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Modelos Lineales , Densidad de Población
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