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1.
Elife ; 92020 11 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143847

RESUMEN

Scientific conferences have an important role in the exchange of ideas and knowledge within the scientific community. Conferences also provide early-career researchers with opportunities to make themselves known within their field of research. Although the COVID-19 pandemic has brought traditional in-person conferences to a halt for the foreseeable future, the growth of virtual conferences has highlighted many of the disadvantages associated with the in-person format and demonstrated the advantages of moving these events online. Here, based on data from in-person and virtual conferences in a range of subjects, we describe how virtual conferences are more inclusive, more affordable, less time-consuming and more accessible worldwide, especially for early-career researchers. Making conferences more open and inclusive will provide both immediate and long-term benefits to the scientific community.


Asunto(s)
Acceso a la Información , Congresos como Asunto , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Difusión de la Información , Relaciones Interprofesionales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Aislamiento Social , Realidad Virtual , Congresos como Asunto/economía , Conducta Cooperativa , Difusión de Innovaciones , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional
2.
Soins Psychiatr ; 41(329): 27-30, 2020.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129402

RESUMEN

A collaboration between mental health professionals and an exorcist service in Lyon is not new in France. It is even recommended by the Church, for the well being of sufferers, as long as each party plays its role in line with their own discipline. This requires open-mindedness on both sides which must be developed and cultivated.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Religión y Medicina , Terapias Espirituales , Conducta Cooperativa , Francia , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
3.
Br J Community Nurs ; 25(10): 480-488, 2020 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030369

RESUMEN

People with chronic pain faced potential treatment disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore, as the focus of healthcare shifted. A model of rapid integration of a pain centre with community healthcare teams was implemented to care for vulnerable older patients with chronic pain and multiple comorbidities. Telemedicine and home visits by community nurses were used, with risk-mitigation measures, ensuring comprehensive assessment and treatment compliance. Medications from pain physicians were delivered at home through a hospital pharmacy. A secure national electronic health records system used by all teams ensured seamless access and documentation. Potential emergency department visits, admissions and delayed discharges were thus avoided. Integration of community teams with chronic pain management services can be recommended to ensure pandemic preparedness.


Asunto(s)
Dolor Crónico/terapia , Enfermería en Salud Comunitaria , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Visita Domiciliaria , Clínicas de Dolor , Manejo del Dolor , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Derivación y Consulta , Singapur , Flujo de Trabajo
5.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 73(suppl 2): e20200470, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33111780

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To report the experience of collaborative practices facing the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a report about the experience of collaborative practices conducted by health care teams in emergency service in the Emergency Care Units facing of COVID-19 pandemic in the city of Fortaleza, State of Ceará, in the first semester of 2020. RESULTS: Collaborative actions, cooperation and effective communication among nursing and medical team contribute to the management of mild and complex cases of COVID-19, as well as qualify them in suitable and necessary care and confrontation measures. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: The report shows the need for collaborative practices to minimize negative effects on the population in the face of the new coronavirus pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Relaciones Médico-Enfermero , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Humanos , Pandemias , Insuficiencia Respiratoria/terapia
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22562, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120744

RESUMEN

Simulation and Objective Structured Clinical Examination assessment of learners can teach clinical skills proficiency in a safe environment without risk to patients. Interprofessional simulation-based education (IPSE) contributes to a transformation in students' understanding of teamwork and professional roles. Long term outcomes for stimulation and IPSE sessions, are less well studied. We hypothesized that a progressive interprofessional education simulation program incorporating both faculty and interprofessional student collaboration would improve medical students' knowledge retention, comfort with procedural skills, positive teamwork and respectful interaction between students.An Obstetrics and Gynecology IPSE for medical and nursing students (NS) was developed in collaboration between a school of medicine and a school of nursing from 2014 to 2017. By 2017, content includedFrom 2014 to 2016, medical students completed attitude, knowledge, and perception surveys both pre and immediately post simulation, at 4 months, and 8 months. In 2017; all students completed self-assessments and received faculty-assessments.The program trained 443 medical and 136 NS. Medical students' knowledge, comfort, and interest increased significantly post simulation. Outcome scores decreased but were still significantly improved at 4 months but nearly dissipated by 8 months. There were no significant differences between medical and NS self-assessment or faculty-assessment scores regarding IUD insertion, cervical examination, or contraception quiz scores. Medical students' birth simulation self-assessment versus faculty-assessment scores were 8.6 vs 8.9, P < .001.Simulation improved students' short-term medical knowledge, comfort, and perception with some long-term persistence at 4-8 months. Medical and NS learned obstetrics and gynecology skills in a collaborative environment and in role-specific situations. Medical students had the opportunity to learn from NS. Positive teamwork and respectful interaction occurred between the students.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología/educación , Obstetricia/educación , Entrenamiento Simulado , Estudiantes de Medicina , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Competencia Clínica , Estudios de Cohortes , Conducta Cooperativa , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina , Educación en Enfermería , Humanos , Relaciones Interprofesionales
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114350

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been intense interest in political leaders' nonverbal communicative structures (NCS) during televised appearances. This study analyzes the effect of gender on leaders' NCS and presents theoretical and analytical frameworks of gendered NCS. We analyzed 20 televised appearances by 10 heads of state (five males and five females) from democratic Western countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. The findings revealed that gender had a significant effect on leaders' NCS, indicating that leaders presented NCS that corresponded to their gender. Male leaders' masculine NCS included competition, warning, threatening, and scaring behavior, broad proxemics, tension leakage, and illustrative gestures, while female leaders presented feminine NCS of cooperativeness, emotional communication, empathy, optimism, eye contact, and flexible expressions. Furthermore, the effect of gender on leaders' NCS had an interaction effect with the situation of the pandemic, indicating that countries with a female leader had fewer diseased and severe cases and more calmness and healing NCS. The conclusions present theoretical and analytical frameworks that explain the central effect of gender on contemporary leaders' NCS. This study develops advanced distinctive profiles for male versus female leaders' NCS of emotions, cognition, and behavior during a crisis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Identidad de Género , Liderazgo , Comunicación no Verbal , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5161, 2020 10 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33057001

RESUMEN

Humans establish public goods to provide for shared needs like safety or healthcare. Yet, public goods rely on cooperation which can break down because of free-riding incentives. Previous research extensively investigated how groups solve this free-rider problem but ignored another challenge to public goods provision. Namely, some individuals do not need public goods to solve the problems they share with others. We investigate how such self-reliance influences cooperation by confronting groups in a laboratory experiment with a safety problem that could be solved either cooperatively or individually. We show that self-reliance leads to a decline in cooperation. Moreover, asymmetries in self-reliance undermine social welfare and increase wealth inequality between group members. Less dependent group members often choose to solve the shared problem individually, while more dependent members frequently fail to solve the problem, leaving them increasingly poor. While self-reliance circumvents the free-rider problem, it complicates the governing of the commons.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Toma de Decisiones Conjunta , Procesos de Grupo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Teoría del Juego , Humanos , Masculino , Motivación
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20201023, 2020 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900314

RESUMEN

Within cooperatively breeding societies, individuals adjust cooperative contributions to maximize indirect fitness and minimize direct fitness costs. Yet, little is known about the physiological costs of cooperation, which may be detrimental to direct fitness. Oxidative stress, the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (by-products of energy production) and antioxidant protection, may represent such a cost when cooperative behaviours are energetically demanding. Oxidative stress can lead to the accumulation of cellular damage, compromising survival and reproduction, thus mediating the trade-off between these competing life-history traits. Here, we experimentally increased energetically demanding cooperative contributions in captive Damaraland mole-rats (Fukomys damarensis). We quantified oxidative stress-related effects of increased cooperation on somatic and germline tissues, and the trade-off between them. Increased cooperative contributions induced oxidative stress in females and males, without increasing somatic damage. Males accumulated oxidative damage in their germline despite an increase in antioxidant defences. Finally, oxidative damage accumulation became biased towards the germline, while antioxidant protection remained biased towards the soma, suggesting that males favour the maintenance of somatic tissues (i.e. survival over reproduction). Our results show that heightened cooperative contributions can ultimately affect direct fitness through oxidative stress costs, which may represent a key selective pressure for the evolution of cooperation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Ratas Topo/fisiología , Estrés Oxidativo , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Animales , Cruzamiento , Femenino , Masculino
12.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1934): 20200487, 2020 09 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900316

RESUMEN

Cooperation among non-kin is well documented in humans and widespread in non-human animals, but explaining the occurrence of cooperation in the absence of inclusive fitness benefits has proven a significant challenge. Current theoretical explanations converge on a single point: cooperators can prevail when they cluster in social space. However, we know very little about the real-world mechanisms that drive such clustering, particularly in systems where cognitive limitations make it unlikely that mechanisms such as score keeping and reputation are at play. Here, we show that Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) use a 'walk away' strategy, a simple social heuristic by which assortment by cooperativeness can come about among mobile agents. Guppies cooperate during predator inspection and we found that when experiencing defection in this context, individuals prefer to move to a new social environment, despite having no prior information about this new social group. Our results provide evidence in non-human animals that individuals use a simple social partner updating strategy in response to defection, supporting theoretical work applying heuristics to understanding the proximate mechanisms underpinning the evolution of cooperation among non-kin.


Asunto(s)
Poecilia/fisiología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Conducta Cooperativa , Heurística
14.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 114, 2020 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32944511

RESUMEN

Solidarity in the general sense means unity or agreement of feeling or action, especially among individuals with a common interest; or mutual support within a group. There are different ways of standing in solidarity in different kinds of literatures. One of the most important ways is to advocate. Advocacy is a win-win strategy and a process of supporting and enabling people to express their views and concerns. In the end, I think sharing different types of solidarity can be one of the drivers that stimulate the solidarity itself, and I call on everyone to contribute to this sharing. I hope that this solidarity, which began in the world with the beginning of COVID-19, will not end with its end and will last forever because our world needs coexistence. This may be the only gift to the world from COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Justicia Social , Betacoronavirus , Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Salud Global/ética , Salud Global/tendencias , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Justicia Social/ética , Justicia Social/tendencias , Responsabilidad Social
15.
Matern Child Health J ; 24(Suppl 2): 232-242, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889682

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Expectant and parenting young people (young parents) need a range of supports but may have difficulty accessing existing resources. An optimally connected network of organizations can help young parents navigate access to available services. Community organizations participating in the Pathways to Success (Pathways) initiative sought to strengthen their network of support for young parents through social network analysis (SNA) undertaken within an action research framework. METHOD: Evaluators and community partners utilized a survey and analysis tool to map and describe the local network of service providers offering resources to young parents. Respondents were asked to characterize their relationship with all other organizations in the network. Following survey analysis, all participants were invited to discuss and interpret the results and plan the next actions to improve the network on behalf of young parents. RESULTS: Scores described the diversity of organizations in the network, density of connections across the community, degree to which the network was centralized or decentralized, which organizations were central or outliers, frequency of contact, levels of collaboration, and levels of trust. Findings were interpreted with survey participants and used by Pathways staff for action planning to improve their network. DISCUSSION: SNA clarified complex relationships and set service providers on a path toward optimizing their network. The usefulness of SNA to impact and improve a network approach to supporting young parents is discussed, including lessons learned from this project.


Asunto(s)
Responsabilidad Parental , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Red Social , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Conducta Cooperativa , Femenino , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo
16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 36(9): e00132120, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965375

RESUMEN

Brazil is the country of the world with the second most COVID-19 cases and deaths, and the pandemic's impacts pose multiple challenges for mental health. This paper reports on experience with the emergency organization of the volunteer and collaborative Working Group (GT, in Portuguese) on mental health and psychosocial care aimed at producing rapid responses for health services in the context of COVID-19. The study involved the identification and systematization of current evidence in the scientific literature on mental health and psychosocial care in public health emergencies and pandemics, with the establishment of a network involving 117 researchers and 25 institutions, and the organization of themes for the elaboration of materials, referenced on the response phases in public health emergencies and pandemics. In less than 60 days, 18 technical documents were produced, ranging from services organization and management for different vulnerable groups. The materials became references in health institutions and services. A national course on mental health and psychosocial care in COVID-19 was also organized, with more than 60,000 people registered. The experience provides food for thought and a contribution for future experiences involving knowledge translation in the current pandemic and in future public health emergencies and pandemics, with the following: (1) combination of volunteer and collaborative work involving professionals with experience in the organization of services and care in past events; (2) reliance on institutional support and resources; (3) speed and credibility of work involving the establishment of networks of professionals and institutions; and (4) responses to the urgent needs with the capacity to shape paths for care in mental health and psychosocial care.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Personal de Salud/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Voluntarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Desarrollo de Programa
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32962172

RESUMEN

With the development of the Internet, social networking sites have empowered the public to directly express their views about social issues and hence contribute to social change. As a new type of voice behavior, public voice on social media has aroused wide concern among scholars. However, why public voice is expressed and how it influences social development and betterment in times of public health emergencies remains unstudied. A key point is whether governments can take effective countermeasures when faced with public health emergencies. In such situation, public voice is of great significance in the formulation and implementation of coping policies. This qualitive study uses China's Health Code policy under COVID-19 to explore why the public performs voice behavior on social media and how this influences policy evolution and product innovation through cooperative governance. A stimulus-cognition-emotion-behavior model is established to explain public voice, indicating that it is influenced by cognitive processes and public emotions under policy stimulus. What is more, as a form of public participation in cooperative governance, public voice plays a significant role in promoting policy evolution and product innovation, and represents a useful form of cooperation with governments and enterprises to jointly maintain social stability under public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Pública , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Betacoronavirus , China , Conducta Cooperativa , Urgencias Médicas , Política de Salud , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237864, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870926

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to identify and characterize the structure and dynamics of global R&D collaboration networks in ICT by analyzing cross-country co-patents, with a special focus on the role of China. We employ a Social Network Analysis (SNA) perspective, using information on more than 77 thousand co-patents from 2001-2015. These co-patents are disaggregated by three time periods and four ICT subsectors. Global measures for the network as a whole, as well as local measures on the positioning of countries in the networks are interpreted. The empirical results are highly interesting. First, international R&D collaboration networks in ICT show a dynamic transformation in becoming larger in magnitude (more countries but also more inter-linkages), less centralized and more densely connected, though with varying degrees across ICT subsectors. Second, the powerful position of the US weakens relatively compared to other, increasingly connected countries, in particular China. While China has already surpassed the US in total patenting in ICT in 2015, China is now also catching up from a network perspective shown by its growing central position over the observed time period.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Internacionalidad , Investigación , China , Tecnología de la Información , Red Social , Estados Unidos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236544, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941442

RESUMEN

A team contest entails both public good characteristics within the teams as well as a contest across teams. In an experimental study, we analyse behaviour in such a team contest when allowing to punish or to reward other team members. Moreover, we compare two types of contest environment: One in which two teams compete for a prize and another one in which we switch off the between-group element of the contest. We find that reward giving, as opposed to punishing, induces higher contributions to the team contest. Furthermore, expenditures on rewarding other co-players are significantly higher than those for punishing.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Competitiva , Conducta Cooperativa , Modelos Psicológicos , Castigo , Recompensa , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos
20.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e039711, 2020 09 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928867

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: High levels of organisational citizenship behaviour can enable nurses to cooperate with coworkers effectively to provide a high quality of nursing care during the outbreak of COVID-19. However, the association between autonomy, optimism, work engagement and organisational citizenship behaviour remains largely unexplored. This study aimed to test if the effect of autonomy on organisational citizenship behaviour through the mediating effects of optimism and work engagement. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital in China. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 242 nurses who came from multiple areas of China to work at the Wuhan Jinyintan hospital during the COVID-19 epidemic participated in this study. METHODS: A serial mediation model (model 6) of the PROCESS macro in SPSS was adopted to test the hypotheses, and a 95% CI for the indirect effects was constructed by using Bootstrapping. RESULTS: The autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour relationship was mediated by optimism and work engagement, respectively. In addition, optimism and work engagement mediated this relationship serially. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study may have implications for improving organisational citizenship behaviour. The effects of optimism and work engagement suggest a potential mechanism of action for the autonomy-organisational citizenship behaviour linkage. A multifaceted intervention targeting organisational citizenship behaviour through optimism and work engagement may help improve the quality of nursing care among nurses supporting patients with COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Infecciones por Coronavirus/enfermería , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Optimismo/psicología , Neumonía Viral/enfermería , Autonomía Profesional , Compromiso Laboral , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Betacoronavirus , China , Humanos , Pandemias , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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