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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 53-66, 2021.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686015

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have investigated the relationship between personality and psychoactive substance use. Researches of personality and marijuana use suggests that certain personality traits differentiate between occasional and regular marijuana consumers. Understanding the relationship between individual persona - lity traits and marijuana use is a key step in the development of prevention and treatment methods. In the current study, we present the development of emotion regulation difficulties, coping with stress, impulsivity, external-internal control and sensation seeking in occasional and regular marijuana users. METHODS: 322 people participated in our study, within this 51 occasional and 56 regular marijuana users and 215 non-marijuana users who formed the control group. The examined personality traits were measured with the Diffi - culties in Emotion Regulation Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, the Internal-External Locus of Control Scale and the Sensation Seeking Scale. RESULTS: Varying levels of marijuana use increased difficulty in emotion regulation as well as impulsivity. Addi tio nally, the use of emotion-oriented coping strategies were most common in occasional and regular marijuana use. Regular marijuana users were more likely to have external control than occasional users. Non-marijuana users were less sen - sation seekers that the two groups of marijuana users, however, we did not find significant difference between occasio nal and regular users.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Cannabis/efectos adversos , Regulación Emocional , Conducta Impulsiva , Control Interno-Externo , Uso de la Marihuana/psicología , Personalidad , Sensación , Humanos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología
2.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(4): 15, 2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656641

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sport-related concussion (SRC) is a significant public health problem. Understanding the behavioral and personal factors that influence risk and incidence of SRC is critically important for appropriate care and management. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity have been posited to be two such factors that may be significantly associated with SRC. We performed a focused review of recent evidence of the relationships between sensation-seeking and impulsivity in athletes with SRC. RECENT FINDINGS: While the research is relatively limited, extant findings demonstrate a significant relationship between sensation-seeking and contact sport participation and risk of prior and future SRC. Impulsivity appears to be common among athletes competing in high contact sports and may contribute to neural and functional brain changes following SRC; however, causal relationships between impulsivity, contact sport participation, and SRC have not been demonstrated. Both sensation-seeking and impulsivity are significantly associated with SRC in collegiate athletes. Interventions designed to ameliorate high levels of these constructs may prove to be beneficial avenues to reducing SRC risk and improving patient care and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Conmoción Encefálica , Atletas , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conmoción Encefálica/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Sensación
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673396

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption and associated harms are an issue among emerging adults, and protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are actions with potential to minimize these harms. We conducted two studies aimed at determining whether the associations of at-risk personality traits (sensation-seeking [SS], impulsivity [IMP], hopelessness [HOP], and anxiety-sensitivity [AS]) with increased problematic alcohol use could be explained through these variables' associations with decreased PBS use. We tested two mediation models in which the relationship between at-risk personality traits and increased problematic alcohol use outcomes (Study 1: Alcohol volume; Study 2: Heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related harms) was partially mediated through decreased PBS use. Two samples of college students participated (N1 = 922, Mage1 = 20.11, 70.3% female; N2 = 1625, Mage2 = 18.78, 70.3% female). Results partially supported our hypotheses, providing new data on a mechanism that helps to explain the relationships between certain at-risk personality traits and problematic alcohol use, as these personalities are less likely to use PBS. In contrast, results showed that AS was positively related to alcohol-related harms and positively related to PBS, with the mediational path through PBS use being protective against problematic alcohol use. This pattern suggests that there are other factors/mediators working against the protective PBS pathway such that, overall, AS still presents risks for alcohol-related harms.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Masculino , Personalidad , Estudiantes , Universidades
4.
J Youth Adolesc ; 50(5): 827-840, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745073

RESUMEN

Heterogeneity in development of imbalance between impulse control and sensation seeking has not been studied until now. The present study scrutinized this heterogeneity and the link between imbalance and adolescent risk. Seven-wave data of 7,558 youth (50.71% males; age range from 12/13 until 24/25) were used. Three developmental trajectories were identified. The first trajectory, "sensation seeking to balanced sensation seeking", included participants with a higher level of sensation seeking than impulse control across all ages. The second trajectory, "moderate dominant control", included participants showing moderate and increasing impulse control relative to sensation seeking across all ages. The third trajectory, "strong late dominant control", included participants showing the highest level of impulse control which was about as strong as sensation seeking from early to middle adolescence and became substantially stronger from late adolescence to early adulthood. Although the systematic increase of impulse control in all subgroups is in line with both models, neither of these combined trajectories of control and sensation seeking was predicted by the Dual Systems Model or the Maturational Imbalance Model. Consistent with both models the "sensation seeking to balanced sensation seeking" trajectory showed the highest level of substance use. It can be concluded that, even though both theories adequately predict the link between imbalance and risk, neither the Dual Systems Model nor the Maturational Imbalance Model correctly predict the heterogeneity in development of imbalance between impulse control and sensation seeking.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Asunción de Riesgos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Sensación
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573341

RESUMEN

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a common neurodevelopmental disorder, often persists into adulthood. In Malaysia, the prevalence rate of hyperactivity symptoms is highest among Chinese Malaysians. There are limited evidence-based treatment options targeting the core symptoms of ADHD, as well as executive functioning. In addition, conventional psychotherapeutic approaches for adults with ADHD have been found to be highly labor-intensive. The present study will evaluate the effectiveness of an online mindfulness-based intervention to reduce inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity and improve executive functioning among Chinese Malaysian college emerging adults with ADHD. Informed by established literature, we will design an 8-week online mindfulness-based intervention (i.e., iMBI). We will conduct a two-arm randomized controlled trial comparing an iMBI plus treatment-as-usual group (n = 54) and an enhanced treatment-as-usual control group (n = 54). Outcome measures of inattention, hyperactivity-impulsivity, and executive functioning will be collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 1-month post-intervention. The findings of the present study will not only demonstrate the implementation of iMBI as a new treatment modality but also inform practitioners on the effectiveness of iMBI in reducing the burden of adults living with ADHD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Atención Plena , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/terapia , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Malasia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
6.
J Affect Disord ; 283: 293-301, 2021 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578341

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Impulsivity and perfectionism are transdiagnostic personality factors that have been studied extensively and shown to relate to externalizing and internalizing pathology respectively. Typically, these personality factors are antithesized, with impulsivity characterized by lack of control and perfectionism characterized by rigid overcontrol. METHODS: The current study (N = 1,353 undergraduate students) used latent profile analysis to identify subgroups based on impulsivity and perfectionism dimensions and tested the relations of these subgroups with the symptomatology of ten prevalent types of psychopathology (depression, worry, social anxiety, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder inattentive subtype, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder impulsive-hyperactive subtype, alcohol use, obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, restrictive eating pathology, and binge eating pathology). RESULTS: The latent profile analysis identified four meaningful subgroups: high perfectionism, high impulsivity, combined impulsivity and perfectionism, and low impulsivity and perfectionism. The combined group was the most prevalent, comprising almost half of the sample. Further, the perfectionism group had the highest scores for obsessive-compulsive disorder, worry, and restrictive eating pathology, the impulsivity group had the highest scores for alcohol use disorder, and the combined group had the highest or second-highest scores across all types of psychopathology. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the undergraduate sample, self-report, cross-sectional study design, and high bivariate residuals. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest impulsivity and perfectionism can co-occur. Further, the co-occurrence of these personality traits may heighten risk for psychopathology and help explain comorbidity across internalizing and externalizing disorders. Future research should continue to investigate the presentation, prevalence, and treatment for individuals high in both perfectionism and impulsivity.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo , Perfeccionismo , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología
7.
Compr Psychiatry ; 106: 152224, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581449

RESUMEN

Adult Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is prevalent but often overlooked and undertreated. Left untreated, it is linked to increased risk of untoward outcomes including unemployment, relationship breakups, substance use, driving accidents and other mental health conditions. Several brief screening tools have been developed for adult ADHD. The most frequently used is the World Health Organization's Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS V1.1). Here, we show in two independent population samples (UK: N = 642, USA: N = 579) that the tool resulted in considerable overestimation of ADHD, indicating probable ADHD in 26.0% and 17.3% of participants, as compared to expected prevalence of 2.5%. The estimated positive predictive value was only ~11.5%. Both samples had normal levels of trait impulsivity as assessed using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. The data indicate that using the ASRS in general population samples will result in 7-10 times over-identification of ADHD. We use these results to highlight how such tools should most appropriately be used. When being used to determine possible cases (such as for onward referral to an ADHD specialist) they should be complemented by clinical assessment - we give examples of how non-specialists might determine this. When measuring ADHD symptoms dimensionally, researchers should be mindful that the ASRS captures impulsive symptoms other than those due to ADHD. Lastly, we note the need to screen for impulse control disorders (e.g., gambling disorder) when using such tools to measure ADHD, be it for onward referral, or for dimensional research studies.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Juego de Azar , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Tamizaje Masivo , Autoinforme
8.
Compr Psychiatry ; 106: 152228, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581450

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The tendency to strive for immediate gratification by neglecting potential negative long-term outcomes characterizes addictive behaviors, such as substance use or gaming disorder. Problematic social-network use is currently discussed as another potential addictive behavior, which is considered to result from an imbalance between affective and cognitive processes, indicated by traits such as increased impulsivity and/or decreased executive functions and decision-making abilities. METHODS: This study investigates the respective functions in social-network users by use of the Cards and Lottery Task (CLT) - a decision-making task under risk conditions in which options contain conflicting immediate and long-term outcomes at the same time. A sample of German and Spanish participants (N = 290) performed the CLT as well as the Modified Card Sorting Test (MCST), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), the short Internet Addiction Test specified for social-networking (sIAT-SNS), and screeners on other potentially problematic behaviors. RESULTS: Comparing extreme groups based on sIAT-SNS scores (1SD above/below mean), individuals with problematic social-network use (n = 56), as compared to those with non-problematic social-network use (n = 50), showed increased attentional impulsivity and reduced executive functions. No differences were observed in decision-making performance. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that problematic social-network use is related to attentional rather than general decision-making deficits. Furthermore, problematic social-network use is likely to co-occur with other problematic Internet-use behaviors, particularly gaming or shopping.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Toma de Decisiones , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Internet
9.
Compr Psychiatry ; 106: 152225, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581451

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Problematic Use of the Internet (PUI) is a considerable issue of the modern era, but its risk factors are still poorly understood. Impulsivity and obsessive-compulsive symptoms have been associated with PUI, but this relationship is still debated. In this article we focus on the relationships of PUI with obsessive-compulsive and impulsive symptoms in a cohort of Italian young adults, in order to identify possible vulnerability factors for PUI. METHODS: A sample of 772 Italian individuals aged 18-30 (mean age 23.3 ± 3.3 years old; 38% males and 62% females) was assessed via online survey using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) Screen, the Padua Inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). RESULTS: Ninety-seven subjects (12.6% of the sample) reported IAT scores at risk for PUI. PUI participants reported higher levels of impulsivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and a higher burden of co-occurrent psychiatric symptoms. In a logistic regression model, obsessional impulses to harm (OR = 1.108, p < 0.001), attentional impulsivity (OR = 1.155, p < 0.001) and depressive symptomatology (OR = 1.246, p = 0.012) had significant association with PUI. Finally, higher severity of PUI has been associated with manic/psychotic symptoms and with attentional impulsivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirmed the role of impulsivity in PUI, while also underling the association of obsessional impulses with this pathological behavior. We could hypothesize a trigger role of obsessive impulses for the engagement in PUI, together with factors as negative affective states. Further research is needed with respect to more severe forms of PUI, also for establishing tailored interventions.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Internet , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Conducta Obsesiva/diagnóstico , Conducta Obsesiva/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
10.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 75(1): 31-37, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33393425

RESUMEN

AIM: Discriminant validity of the Attention Deficits/Hyperactive Disorders (ADHD) subtypes/presentations is not yet clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate joint contribution of the strongest factors of the three dimensions, namely psychopathology, neuropsychology and electrophysiology for subtyping of presentations. METHOD: A sample of 104 boys aged 7-12 years was subdivided into three groups with ADHD combined (n = 22), inattentive (n = 25) and hyperactive/impulsive subtype (n = 14), and 43 typically developing controls (TDC). Children were investigated regarding the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), the Integrated Visual and Auditory Test (IVA), and EEG spectral power during eyes closed resting state. Subsequently, statistical analysis included discriminant functional analysis and principle component analysis. RESULTS: Neuropsychological parameters had the highest contribution in classifying of the groups. EEG parameters had no effect on differentiation of the groups, and among the psychopathological parameters, only the oppositional behavioral disorder score contributed to correctly classify 74.3% of the groups. Furthermore, we found four factors with eigenvalues higher than 1 in the ADHD and typical groups, with one factor characterized by four CBCL scales, another one by auditory and visual vigilance, speed and beta band power, the third by auditory and visual prudence, and forth by theta band power. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that ADHD subtypes/presentations can be differentiated from each other at different levels of investigation despite some clinical symptoms overlap. The results suggested that not only psychopathology but also the impairment of sensory processing should be assessed in children with ADHD in order to use this additional information for a jointly multilevel clinical intervention, which may improve treatment success.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Niño , Cognición , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Masculino
11.
Compr Psychiatry ; 105: 152221, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33395591

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Trichotillomania (TTM) is characterized by recurrent hair pulling and associated hair loss. Skin picking disorder (SPD) is characterized by recurrent skin picking and associated scarring or tissue damage. Both disorders are also accompanied by psychological distress and poor sleep. Very little, however, is known about lifestyle variables that may contribute to symptom severity in these disorders. METHODS: We recruited 87 adults as part of a cross-sectional study of 3 groups (TTM, SPD, and non-affected). Clinical subjects (n=69) were compared with controls (n=18) on sleep quality as measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). We used partial least squares regression to identify which variables were significantly associated with poor sleep quality among those participants with TTM or SPD. RESULTS: Clinical subjects had significantly poorer sleep quality than controls. Sleep quality was significantly related to older age, worse perceived stress, lower distress tolerance and greater impulsivity in adults with BFRBs. Poor sleep quality was associated with worse hair pulling symptom severity but not skin picking severity. Higher levels of comorbid mental disorders was also associated with worse sleep, above and beyond the impact of these other variables. CONCLSUIONS: Poor sleep quality appears to be related to multiple variables. Further research is needed to determine causality and to tailor treatment to specific patient needs.


Asunto(s)
Tricotilomanía , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Sueño , Tricotilomanía/diagnóstico , Tricotilomanía/epidemiología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445815

RESUMEN

Although the construct of impulsivity has generally been found to be associated with obesity and health behaviors in adults, research among adolescents is more limited and studies have yet to elucidate which facets of impulsivity may be most salient with regard to different eating and physical activity behaviors. Therefore, the present cross-sectional study assessed facets of impulsivity, measured by the UPPS-P questionnaire, in relation to health behaviors among adolescents. A sample of 2797 high school students from Los Angeles, California completed self-report measures during the ninth grade. The UPPS-P subscales (i.e., (lack of) premeditation, sensation seeking, (lack of) perseverance, negative urgency, positive urgency) were examined as predictors of unhealthy diet quality (i.e., frequency of consumption of high-fat foods and sweet food and drinks, measured by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quick Food Scan) and frequency of vigorous physical activity (measured by the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System). Greater sensation seeking, positive urgency, and negative urgency was associated with greater unhealthy diet quality (ps < 0.001). Greater negative urgency and lack of perseverance was associated with less frequent vigorous physical activity, whereas greater sensation seeking, lack of premeditation, and positive urgency was associated with more frequent vigorous physical activity (ps < 0.05). While negative urgency (i.e., impulsivity in the context of negative emotions) was consistently associated with poor health behaviors, other facets of impulsivity may potentiate vigorous physical activity in youth. Together these findings underscore the importance of considering the multidimensional nature of impulsivity in relation to adolescents' health behaviors and highlight areas for future longitudinal research.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Impulsiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Humanos , Los Angeles
13.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 9(1): e25018, 2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480854

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The classic Marshmallow Test, where children were offered a choice between one small but immediate reward (eg, one marshmallow) or a larger reward (eg, two marshmallows) if they waited for a period of time, instigated a wealth of research on the relationships among impulsive responding, self-regulation, and clinical and life outcomes. Impulsivity is a hallmark feature of self-regulation failures that lead to poor health decisions and outcomes, making understanding and treating impulsivity one of the most important constructs to tackle in building a culture of health. Despite a large literature base, impulsivity measurement remains difficult due to the multidimensional nature of the construct and limited methods of assessment in daily life. Mobile devices and the rise of mobile health (mHealth) have changed our ability to assess and intervene with individuals remotely, providing an avenue for ambulatory diagnostic testing and interventions. Longitudinal studies with mobile devices can further help to understand impulsive behaviors and variation in state impulsivity in daily life. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop and validate an impulsivity mHealth diagnostics and monitoring app called Digital Marshmallow Test (DMT) using both the Apple and Android platforms for widespread dissemination to researchers, clinicians, and the general public. METHODS: The DMT app was developed using Apple's ResearchKit (iOS) and Android's ResearchStack open source frameworks for developing health research study apps. The DMT app consists of three main modules: self-report, ecological momentary assessment, and active behavioral and cognitive tasks. We conducted a study with a 21-day assessment period (N=116 participants) to validate the novel measures of the DMT app. RESULTS: We used a semantic differential scale to develop self-report trait and momentary state measures of impulsivity as part of the DMT app. We identified three state factors (inefficient, thrill seeking, and intentional) that correlated highly with established measures of impulsivity. We further leveraged momentary semantic differential questions to examine intraindividual variability, the effect of daily life, and the contextual effect of mood on state impulsivity and daily impulsive behaviors. Our results indicated validation of the self-report sematic differential and related results, and of the mobile behavioral tasks, including the Balloon Analogue Risk Task and Go-No-Go task, with relatively low validity of the mobile Delay Discounting task. We discuss the design implications of these results to mHealth research. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the potential for assessing different facets of trait and state impulsivity during everyday life and in clinical settings using the DMT mobile app. The DMT app can be further used to enhance our understanding of the individual facets that underlie impulsive behaviors, as well as providing a promising avenue for digital interventions. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03006653; https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03006653.


Asunto(s)
Evaluación Ecológica Momentánea , Conducta Impulsiva , Aplicaciones Móviles/normas , Telemedicina , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoinforme , Autocontrol
14.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 209(1): 82-84, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33323793

RESUMEN

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUD) are highly comorbid among the veteran population. Impulsivity, particularly negative and positive urgency, are prevalent within this dual-diagnosis population and associated with negative outcomes. One possible correlate of negative/positive urgency is intolerance of uncertainty (IU). IU is associated with exacerbated PTSD symptom severity and increased risk for substance use. However, few studies have examined the link between IU and negative/positive urgency in dual-diagnosis populations. This study aimed to examine whether there was a significant association between trait IU and baseline negative and positive urgency in veterans seeking treatment for both PTSD and SUD. In a sample of 114 veterans from a 6-week residential treatment program, IU was significantly associated with higher negative and positive urgency. Further research is warranted to extend these findings and examine whether IU plays an important role in negative/positive urgency for dual-diagnosis populations.


Asunto(s)
Diagnóstico Dual (Psiquiatría) , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Incertidumbre , Veteranos/psicología , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Hospitales de Veteranos , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tratamiento Domiciliario
15.
J Affect Disord ; 278: 85-98, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The increasing availability of high-potency cannabis-derived compounds and the use of synthetic cannabinoids may be responsible for severe side effects like cognitive impairment, psychosis or self-injurious behaviours (SIB). In particular, SIB like non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and deliberate self-harm (DSH) raise growing concern as a possible consequence of cannabis use. However, the research to date has not addressed the relationship between cannabinoid use and SIB systematically. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on PubMed up to March 2020, using search terms related to cannabinoids and SIB. RESULTS: The search yielded a total of 440 abstracts. Of those, 37 studies published between 1995 and 2020 were eligible for inclusion. Cannabinoid use was significantly associated with SIB at the cross-sectional (OR=1.569, 95%CI [1.167-2.108]) and longitudinal (OR=2.569, 95%CI [2.207-3.256]) level. Chronic use, presence of mental disorders, depressive symptoms, emotional dysregulation and impulsive traits might further increase the likelihood of self-harm in cannabis users. Synthetic cannabinoids may trigger highly destructive SIB mainly through the psychotomimetic properties of these compounds. CONCLUSION: Cannabinoid use was associated with an increased prevalence of self-injury and may act as a causative factor with a duration-dependent manner. Emotional regulation and behavioural impulsivity functions might crucially moderate this association. Future studies should further investigate the mechanisms underlying this association, while exploring potential therapeutic applications of substances modulating the endocannabinoid system.


Asunto(s)
Cannabinoides , Trastornos Psicóticos , Conducta Autodestructiva , Cannabinoides/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Conducta Autodestructiva/inducido químicamente , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología
16.
J Affect Disord ; 281: 117-124, 2021 02 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide is one of the leading causes of death for military personnel and Veterans. Neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities in white matter tracts and brain connectivity in suicide behavior (SB); however, reports of alterations in white matter volume and its association with related behaviors are limited. The current study examined the relationship between cingulate white matter volume (WMV), impulsivity, and SB in Veterans. METHODS: Fifty-two Veterans, ages 18 to 65, underwent magnetic resonance imaging on a 3T Siemens Verio scanner. Morphometric analysis of brain images was performed to evaluate differences in WMV in cingulate regions of interest. Participants completed the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale to assess lifetime suicide behavior and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) to assess impulsivity. RESULTS: Twenty-nine Veterans had a history of suicidal ideation (SI) and 23 had a history of suicide attempts (SA). Controlling for age, sex, handedness and total white matter volume, reduced WMV was observed in the left rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in Veterans with SA relative to Veterans with SI, p = .008. Additionally, non-planning on the BIS was negatively correlated with left rACC WMV for Veterans with a history of SA, p = .04. Other subregions of the ACC WMV were negatively correlated with planning and attention impulsivity (BIS) and omission and commission errors (CPT) for attempters. CONCLUSIONS: Reduction in rACC WMV in Veterans with SA was negatively correlated with nonplanning measures. These findings are consistent with ACC involvement in inhibitory processes and build on evidence that SB is associated with neurobiological abnormalities and suggest that white matter changes may be related to actual attempts.


Asunto(s)
Veteranos , Sustancia Blanca , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Cognición , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Persona de Mediana Edad , Ideación Suicida , Sustancia Blanca/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto Joven
17.
Depress Anxiety ; 38(1): 100-106, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326658

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) with comorbid borderline personality disorder (BPD) makes the clinical symptoms of patients more complex and more difficult to treat, so more attention should be paid to the recognition of their clinical features. This study investigated the differences between patients with MDD with and without BPD in clinical traits. METHODS: Propensity score matching was used to analyze the retrospective patients' data from August 2012 to September 2019. Altogether, 1381 patients with MDD were enrolled; 38 patients with MDD were matched to compare demographic data, and scores on the Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA), Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Modified Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS), and the frequency of nonsuicidal self-harm (NSSH). RESULTS: Compared to patients with MDD without BPD, the age of onset of patients with MDD with comorbid BPD was significantly earlier (t = 3.25, p = .00). The scores of HAMA (t = -2.28, p = .03), SDS (t = 9.31, p = .00), MOAS (t = -13.67, p = .00), verbal aggression (t = -3.79, p = .00), aggression against objects (t = -2.84, p = .00), aggression against others (t = -6.70, p = .00), and aggression against self (t = -9.22, p = .00) were significantly higher in patients with MDD with comorbid BPD. Moreover, the frequency of NHSS in these patients was significantly higher (χ2 = 20.13, p = .00). MOAS was an independent influencing factor in these (odds ratio = 7.38, p = .00). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with BPD showed early onset and increased complaints relative to symptoms, accompanied by obvious anxiety symptoms, impulsive behavior, and NSSH. Therefore, patients with MDD with impulsive behavior have comorbid BPD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Puntaje de Propensión , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244319, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347492

RESUMEN

Youth who self-harm report high levels of trait impulsivity and identify impulsive behaviour as a proximal factor directly preceding a self-harm act. Yet, impulsivity is a multidimensional construct and distinct impulsivity-related facets relate differentially to self-harm outcomes. Studies have yet to examine if and how a multidimensional account of impulsivity is meaningful to individual experiences and understandings of self-harm in youth. We explored the salience and context of multidimensional impulsivity within narratives of self-harm, and specifically in relation to the short-term build-up to a self-harm episode. Fifteen community-based adolescents (aged 16-22 years) attending Further Education (FE) colleges in the UK took part in individual face-to-face sessions (involving exploratory card-sort tasks and semi-structured interviews) which explored factors relating to self-harm, impulsivity and the broader emotional, developmental and cognitive context. Session data were analysed thematically. Two overarching themes, and associated subthemes, were identified: 'How I respond to strong negative emotions'; and 'Impulse versus deliberation- How much I think through what I'm doing before I do it'. Self-harm was typically a quick, impulsive act in the context of overwhelming emotion, underpinned by cognitive processing deficits. The dynamic tension between emotion-based impulsivity and controlled deliberation was articulated in the immediate moments before self-harm. However, impulsive responses were perceived as modifiable. Where self-harm patterns were established, these related to habitual behaviour and quick go-to responses. Young people identified with a multidimensional conception of impulsivity and described the impulsive context of a self-harm act as dynamic, contextual, and developmentally charged. Findings have implications for youth-focused work. Card-task frameworks are recommended to scaffold and facilitate discussion with young people, particularly where topics are sensitive, complex and multifactorial.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevista Psicológica/métodos , Masculino , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(3-4): 346-350, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370731

RESUMEN

The comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is widely known. The overall rate of association between BD and OCD is very high and varies, depending on the authors, from 11% to 18%, with peaks of 21% in primarily bipolar patients. Vice versa, about 60% of patients with OCD have a second psychiatric diagnosis, which in 23% of cases turns out to be BD. The differences between the BD patients with and without OCD were so numerous and important (e.g., different onset of mood episodes, history of suicide attempts, seasonality, rapid cycling and impulsivity) that the comorbidity between BD and OCD may represent a distinct form of BD, similar to cyclothymic BD for psychopathological features. However, the comorbidity does not seem to have any impact on cognitive performance, such as there is no specific difference between patients who first develop BD and then OCD or vice versa. Anyway, the detection of the neurocognitive profile of these patients at the time of the first clinical evaluation could have clinical implications also in the therapeutic and rehabilitative management of this type of patient. Indeed, it would be desirable to develop a new model of rehabilitation that is less differentiated for both BD and OCD or for their comorbidity, also to make cognitive rehabilitation faster and less expensive. The purpose of this mini-review is to update the knowledge currently available on the impact of BD and OCD comorbidity on neurocognitive profile.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/epidemiología , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/epidemiología , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/psicología , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Comorbilidad , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Trastorno Obsesivo Compulsivo/diagnóstico , Intento de Suicidio
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0241578, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33362255

RESUMEN

This study investigated consumers' responses to fashion visual merchandising (VM) from a neuroscientific perspective. The brain activations of 20 subjects differently involved in fashion were recorded using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in response to three different fashion VM types. According to the types of fashion VM, significant differences were observed, which were significantly higher for the creative VM. Moreover, highly fashion-involved subjects showed activation of the orbital frontal cortex region in response to the creative VM. Based on these results, it is suggested that marketing strategies should be devised explicitly for the brand's targeted audience and goals.


Asunto(s)
Comportamiento del Consumidor , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto , Mapeo Encefálico , Creatividad , Toma de Decisiones , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Lóbulo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagen , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Voluntarios Sanos , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta
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