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1.
J Dent Child (Chic) ; 88(1): 35-39, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875050

RESUMEN

Purpose: To evaluate children's perceptions of the dentist and dental office using drawings and its association with age, sex, and previous dental experience.
Methods: Participants included 144 four- to six-year-old children who were instructed to make a drawing of their perception of the dentist and dental office. Data collected included age, sex, and previous dental care experience. The data were analyzed descriptively and through multivariate logistic regression.
Results: Boys were 2.3 times more likely to have a negative perception of the dentist than girls (P =0.024). Children who had no previous dental experience were four times more likely to have a negative perception of dentists (P =0.002). Six-year-old children were three times more likely to have a negative perception of the dentist compared to four-year-old children (P =0.031).
Conclusion: Drawings can be a useful tool to evaluate children's perceptions of the dentist and dental office.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Consultorios Odontológicos , Niño , Preescolar , Odontólogos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2205, 2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33850154

RESUMEN

Parents frequently report behavioral problems among children who snore. Our understanding of the relationship between symptoms of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (oSDB) and childhood behavioral problems associated with brain structural alterations is limited. Here, we examine the associations between oSDB symptoms, behavioral measures such as inattention, and brain morphometry in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) study comprising 10,140 preadolescents. We observe that parent-reported symptoms of oSDB are associated with composite and domain-specific problem behaviors measured by parent responses to the Child Behavior Checklist. Alterations of brain structure demonstrating the strongest negative associations with oSDB symptoms are within the frontal lobe. The relationships between oSDB symptoms and behavioral measures are mediated by significantly smaller volumes of multiple frontal lobe regions. These results provide population-level evidence for an association between regional structural alterations in cortical gray matter and problem behaviors reported in children with oSDB.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Lóbulo Frontal/fisiología , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Adolescente , Encéfalo , Niño , Femenino , Sustancia Gris , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/diagnóstico , Ronquido
3.
Tohoku J Exp Med ; 253(3): 203-215, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775993

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is causing disruptions in the global social system. Japanese children and adolescents have had their schools closed, government-mandated activity restrictions imposed, and interactions outside the home reduced. These restrictions can have a considerable psychological impact on children and adolescents. This review aims to describe the impacts of COVID-19 pandemic on physical activity and psychological status of this population. The review was conducted by searching PubMed for information on the impact of COVID-19-related activity restrictions on children and adolescents. The search identified 11 articles, three of which contained data on anxiety and psychological problems due to physical inactivity. Next, a PubMed search was conducted about physical activity and psychological status in children and adolescents under psychological stress. The search identified 368 articles, 28 of which were included in the review. For children, data that revealed a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and sedentary time leading to mood disorders were included. For adolescents, there were nine studies that reported a correlation between physical activity and psychological health and four studies that reported no correlation between physical activity and psychological health. Of the studies that reported a correlation, seven reported that physical activity improves psychological health. The impact of psychologically stressful situations such as COVID-19 on children and adolescents has been experienced worldwide. Physical activity has been correlated with psychological health, and it may improve psychological status; physical activity should be recommended to better support the psychological health of children and adolescents under the influence of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Ejercicio Físico , Salud Mental , Pandemias , Psicología del Adolescente , Psicología Infantil , Adolescente , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , /psicología , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/etiología , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Trastornos del Humor/epidemiología , Trastornos del Humor/etiología , Cuarentena/psicología , Instituciones Académicas/legislación & jurisprudencia , Conducta Sedentaria , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/etiología , Recursos Humanos
4.
J Med Life ; 14(1): 45-49, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33767784

RESUMEN

In children, dental fear is not only associated with fear of pain or invasive procedures, but it is also correlated with separation from parents or confronting unfamiliar people or environments. The Children's Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS) was developed to evaluate dental fear in children, and this scale is now used across the world for evaluating dental fear. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental fear in children between 7-11 years of age and to find out the association between caries and fear of dental treatment. A total of 300 subjects of both sexes were enrolled in the study. Prior to the oral examination, all patients' attendants were informed about the study, and the subjects were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding the CFSS-DS scale. The data obtained through the questionnaires were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Fear scores were highest for "injections" (3.91±0.17), "dentist drilling" (3.91±0.10) and "choking" (3.65±0.82). It was also observed that subjects who had already visited a dental clinic or those who were familiar with the dental environment at an early stage of life were less anxious than patients who were receiving dental treatment for the first time. In this study, we found that female subjects were more anxious in comparison to male patients. Once the child's fear is identified, the dentist can use various behavior modification techniques to eliminate fear, explain the steps, and use the instruments accordingly until fear has vanished.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad al Tratamiento Odontológico/psicología , Miedo/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(12): e25245, 2021 Mar 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33761719

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: We compared the knowledge of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among the general public, parents of children with ADHD, and primary school teachers and identified factors associated with ADHD knowledge in each group, separately.Secondary data analysis was made on the pre-lecture data from those (122 from the general public, 64 parents of children with ADHD, and 515 primary school teachers) attending education lectures by the Department of Public Health, New Taipei City Government, Taiwan, 2014.ADHD onset age was least known in these 3 groups. Knowledge of ADHD was significantly better among teachers (test score, 75.3%) than among parents (65.5%) and the general public (59.2%). Among the general public, the test score significantly decreased with age and was worst in those who did not know their friends or relatives with ADHD. Among parents, service workers, and retired/unemployed knew significantly less about ADHD than housewife did. Among teachers, men knew significantly less than women; those who taught children with ADHD knew significantly more than those who did not.Primary school teachers knew more about ADHD than parents and the general public. Factors associated with ADHD knowledge varied among the 3 groups.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Padres , Maestros , Percepción Social , Adulto , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/diagnóstico , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Padres/educación , Padres/psicología , Opinión Pública , Maestros/psicología , Maestros/normas , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Taiwán/epidemiología
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e24961, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787582

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: It is important to investigate children's eating habits based on different eating behaviors such as satiety responsiveness (SR), slowness in eating (SE), food fussiness (FF), food responsiveness (FR), enjoyment of food (EF), desire to drink (DD), emotional under-eating (EUE), and emotional over-eating (EOE). The main objective of this research was to investigate whether gender affects the eating habits of Nigerian school children.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2019. A total of 120 parents of school children participated in the study. The Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to collect data. The CEBQ is composed of 35 items and eight subscales.Based on the analysis of parents' reports, DD was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 7.086, P < .001; EOE was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 5.184, P < .001; EF was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 2.183, P < .001; FF was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 9.441, P < .001; and SR was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 7.323, P < .001. However, EUE was lower in boys than girls, t (118) = -4.339, P < .001; FR was lower in boys than girls, t(118) = -3.112, P < .001; SE was lower in boys than girls, t(118) = -3.832, P < .001; thus, gender had a significant influence on eating habits of the school children.Gender significantly affects the eating habits of Nigerian school children. Thus, gender is an important factor to be considered when aiming to improve the eating habits of Nigerian school children.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes/psicología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Irritabilidad Alimentaria , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicología , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 95-102, feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199558

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is much controversy about the impact of joint physical custody on child symptomatology in the context of high interparental conflict. In this study we analyzed child symptomatology with person-centered methodology, identifying differential profiles, considering post-divorce custody, parental symptomatology, and coparenting variables. We examined the association between these profiles and child symptomatology, as well as the mediating role of parenting in that association. METHOD: The participants were 303 divorced or separated Spanish parents with high interparental conflict. We used the study of latent profiles and the INDIRECT procedure in Mplus. We also controlled for the variables age and number of children, new partners, frequency of the relationship with the ex-partner, time elapsed since the divorce, and gender of the parent. RESULTS: From the parents' perspective, the profile characterized by low parental symptomatology and high coparenting, regardless of the type of custody, was related to children exhibiting less somatic, anxious, and depressive symptomatology, and aggressive behavior. The mediating role of parenting was also identified. CONCLUSIONS: Parental symptomatology, coparenting, and parenting are essential for understanding post-divorce child symptomatology and the study highlights importance of person-centered multidimensional models


ANTECEDENTES: existe una gran controversia acerca del impacto de la custodia física compartida en la sintomatología infantil en contexto de alto conflicto interparental. El presente estudio analizó la sintomatología infantil a través de una metodología centrada en la persona, identificando perfiles diferenciales al considerar las variables custodia postdivorcio, sintomatología parental y coparentalidad. Se analizó la asociación entre estos perfiles y la sintomatología infantil, así como el papel mediador de la parentalidad. MÉTODO: participaron 303 progenitores españoles divorciados o separados con alto conflicto interparental. Se empleó el estudio de perfiles latentes y el procedimiento INDIRECT Mplus, controlando las variables edad, número de hijos/as, nuevas parejas estables, frecuencia de relación entre progenitores, tiempo transcurrido desde el divorcio y género del/a progenitor/a. RESULTADOS: desde la perspectiva de los progenitores, el perfil caracterizado por baja sintomatología parental y alta coparentalidad, independientemente del tipo de custodia, se relacionó con menor sintomatología somática y ansioso-depresiva de hijos/as, y con menor comportamiento agresivo. Se confirmó el papel mediador de la parentalidad. CONCLUSIONES: se identifica la sintomatología parental, la coparentalidad y la parentalidad como variables fundamentales para comprender la sintomatología infantil postdivorcio, así como la relevancia de emplear modelos multidimensionales centrados en la persona


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Custodia del Niño , Divorcio/psicología , Conflicto Familiar/psicología , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Psicoterapia Centrada en la Persona/métodos , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Salud Mental , Conducta Infantil , Análisis de Varianza
8.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 33(1): 139-145, feb. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199562

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Psychometric properties and initial normative information are provided for the sluggish cognitive tempo, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder, callous-unemotional behavior (limited prosocial emotions specifier), anxiety, depression, social impairment, and academic impairment scales of the Spanish Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. METHOD: Mothers, fathers, and teachers of 2,142 third to sixth grade Spanish children (49.49% girls; ages 8-13) from randomly selected schools on the Balearic Islands completed the Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. RESULTS: Scores from the scales demonstrated reliability (internal consistency and inter-rater), structural validity, and convergent/discriminant validity with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and learning disorder diagnoses for boys and girls separately for each source. Normative information (T-scores) is provided for the nine scales separately for boys and girls, with test information functions supporting use of the symptom scales for screening purposes. CONCLUSIONS: Although more comprehensive Spanish norms are still needed, the initial normative information on the scales should be useful to inform the clinical care of individual Spanish children, with the positive psychometric properties of the scores also supporting the use of the scale for research. Copies of the Spanish Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory and norms are available for free to clinicians and researchers


ANTECEDENTES: en este trabajo se presenta información psicométrica y normativa inicial de la versión española del Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory para las escalas: tempo cognitivo lento, inatención e hiperactividad/impulsividad del trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad, negativismo desafiante, dureza emocional, ansiedad, depresión, afectación social y deterioro académico. MÉTODO: una muestra de madres, padres y maestros de 2.142 niños españoles de tercer a sexto curso de escuelas seleccionadas al azar en las Islas Baleares completaron el Child and Adolescent Behavior Inventory. RESULTADOS: las puntuaciones de las escalas demostraron fiabilidad, validez estructural y validez de criterio con diagnósticos de TDAH y de trastornos del aprendizaje para niños y niñas. Se proporciona información normativa para las nueve escalas por separado para niños y niñas, mientras las funciones de información del test han respaldado el uso de las escalas de síntomas para fines de detección inicial. CONCLUSIONES: aunque todavía son necesarios datos normativos más completos en niños de muestras españolas, la información normativa inicial que proporcionamos de las escalas CABI debería ser útil para los informes en el ámbito clínico, además los datos psicométricos positivos de sus puntuaciones también apoyan su uso en investigación


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Psicometría/instrumentación , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Padres/educación , Inventario de Personalidad/normas , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/psicología , Madres , Emociones , Determinación de la Personalidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Maestros , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Padres/psicología , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/epidemiología
9.
Environ Res ; 195: 110825, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545124

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies of prenatal per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behaviors in children are inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To examine associations between maternal serum PFAS concentrations and child behavior in 241 mother-child dyads within the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study. METHODS: We quantified perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal serum collected during pregnancy or at delivery. We evaluated a total of 17 outcomes of child behavior using the Behavioral Assessment System for Children-2 (BASC-2) at 5 and 8 years (n = 240) and ADHD diagnostic symptoms and criteria with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Young Child (DISC-YC) at 5 years (n = 190). We used linear mixed models and logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to assess associations between PFAS and continuous or dichotomous "at risk" BASC-2 scores; negative binomial regression to calculate incident rate ratios for counts of ADHD symptoms; and Poisson regression with robust standard errors to calculate relative risks of meeting ADHD diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Each ln-unit increase in PFOS, PFHxS, and PFNA was associated with higher BASC-2 scores and increased odds of "at-risk" scores for externalizing behaviors, including hyperactivity (PFOS: odds ratio [OR] 2.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2, 5.9; PFHxS: OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.5, 4.3; PFNA: OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.3, 8.0). PFHxS was also associated with internalizing problems (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1, 3.4) and somatization (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.2, 4.0). PFOS and PFNA were significantly associated with 50-80% more DISC-YC symptoms and diagnostic criteria related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD. Prenatal PFNA was associated with increased risk of any-type ADHD. CONCLUSIONS: Prenatal PFOS and PFNA were consistently associated with measures related to hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD across two validated assessment instruments. PFHxS was associated with increased problems with both externalizing and internalizing behaviors. No associations were noted between PFOA and child neurobehavior.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Alcanesulfónicos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Contaminantes Ambientales , Fluorocarburos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/inducido químicamente , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Caprilatos/toxicidad , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Femenino , Fluorocarburos/toxicidad , Humanos , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 111: 103873, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540358

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic has generated anxiety and mental health issues in the common population. In general, anxiety and poor health are higher in parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) than parents of children without ASD. However, the symptoms of anxiety, depression and poor mental health are likely to be more escalated in parents of children with ASD during COVID-19, possibly due to the emergency measures involving suspension of essential services, closure of schools, work-from-home policy and lack of professional support, etc. AIM: This empirical research aimed to explore the attitude, anxiety and perceived mental health care of parents of children with ASD in the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: A total of 211 participants, including mothers and fathers of children with ASD from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, participated in this online study. Along with demographic details, data on attitude, anxiety, mental health status and perceived mental health care were obtained using both self-reported questionnaire and reference standard questionnaire. The collected data were analysed using t-test, Pearson correlation analysis and linear regression analysis. The responses to open-ended questions were also collected and analysed qualitatively. RESULTS: The study revealed that attitudes towards taking care of children with ASD were affected by parents' age and child's age, and mothers were more affected. Further, the anxiety of parents during COVID-19 was significantly higher than before the COVID-19 situation. It was found that parents' mental status during COVID-19 mediated the interaction between anxiety and perceived mental health care. Finally, the open-ended questions indicated that parents sought support from teachers, family members and therapists to deal with children with ASD during the pandemic outbreak. In the context of perceived mental health care, besides psychological and financial support, other measures like training sessions, online classes, etc., were recommended. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study insisted on the importance of support from government and local health authorities to introduce interventions for parents and children with ASD to improve the overall mental health.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , Trastorno del Espectro Autista , Salud Mental , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Padres/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Ansiedad/diagnóstico , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/etiología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/epidemiología , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , /prevención & control , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Educación no Profesional/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Necesidades , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
11.
Aggress Behav ; 47(3): 251-259, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611819

RESUMEN

Although positive parenting behavior is central to efficacious interventions for child conduct problems (CP), studies of youth CP have focused mostly on negative parenting behavior. That is, few studies have examined dimensions of positive parenting behavior (e.g., positive reinforcement, involvement) as independent predictors of CP and even fewer have investigated their potential moderation by callous-unemotional (CU) traits. A sample of 184 6-9 year-old children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was followed prospectively for two years. Controlling for baseline ADHD diagnostic status, initial CP, and negative parenting (i.e., corporal punishment), we examined CU traits, positive reinforcement and involvement, and their interactions as predictors of two-year change in CP. Positive reinforcement and CU traits independently predicted increased rule breaking behavior whereas parental involvement inversely predicted aggressive behavior. A significant positive reinforcement x CU traits interaction suggested that positive reinforcement predicted a decrease in aggressive behavior, but only in children with low CU traits; conversely, positively reinforcement marginally predicted increased aggressive behavior among children with high CU traits. No other significant parenting x CU traits interaction was observed. We consider these findings within a developmental psychopathology framework where interactive exchanges underlie the development of CP.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de la Conducta , Problema de Conducta , Adolescente , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Emociones , Empatía , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567527

RESUMEN

In Ireland, television (TV) screen time is a highly prevalent sedentary behavior among children aged less than five years. Little is known about the influence of parental rules and policies or screen time availability and accessibility within the home on children's TV screen time behaviors. This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the extent to which parents' sociodemographic and sedentary behaviors are associated with children's TV screen time; and to determine the associations between parents' rules and practices, home physical environment and children's daily TV viewing. Three hundred and thirty-two children aged 3-5 years and their parents participated in the study. Children's TV screen time and home environmental characteristics (parents' rules and practices and the physical environment) were assessed using questions from standardized and validated questionnaires. The data were analyzed using binary logistic regression. Within the different sedentary behaviors evaluated, parents' TV viewing was positively associated with children's TV screen time (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.09-2.50, p = 0.018). Leaving the TV on, whether or not it was being watched, was associated with a 38% increased probability of children watching ≥ 1 h TV daily. Children whose parents restricted their outdoor activity were more likely to watch ≥ 1 h TV daily (OR 2.01, 95%CI 1.04-3.88, p = 0.036). Findings from the study demonstrated that parents' own screen time behaviors, leaving the TV on whether it was being watched or not and restricting outdoor play were associated with higher children's TV viewing in the home environment. This knowledge is essential to inform future interventions aimed to address the increase in screen time among young children.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Tiempo de Pantalla , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Irlanda , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Televisión
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572265

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between maternal feeding practices and children's eating problems. Mothers of 292 children aged 5.9 ± 1.1, 50% boys, reported online on parental authority, overt and covert control of the child's food choices, child feeding practices, and their child's problematic eating behavior. Structural equation modelling yielded a model with excellent indices of fit (χ(2)(52) = 50.72, p = 0.56; normed fit index (NFI) = 0.94; root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) = 0.001). The model showed that an authoritarian maternal authority style was associated with overt control, which was associated with maternal tendency to pressure children to eat and with maternal restriction of highly processed or calorie-rich snack foods. These, in turn, were positively associated with the child's satiety response, food fussiness, and slow eating, and negatively with the child's enjoyment of food. In contrast, a permissive maternal authority style was associated with covert control of the child's eating, concern over the child being overweight, and the restriction of highly processed and calorie-rich snack foods, which were in turn positively associated with the child's emotional overeating and the child's food responsiveness. The model seems to tap into two distinct patterns of mother-child feeding and eating dynamics, apparently related to children with opposing appetitive tendencies.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil , Conducta Alimentaria , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Materna , Madres , Responsabilidad Parental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Behav Ther ; 52(2): 379-393, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622507

RESUMEN

Using a pilot matched-pairs cluster-randomized control trial, we evaluated the acceptability and preliminary outcomes of universal Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT-U) with students with disabilities in early special education programs. Twelve classrooms (clusters) were paired by age and type and then randomly assigned within pairs to either TCIT-U (81 students, 20 teachers) or wait-list control (63 students, 16 teachers) with services as usual. We analyzed the effects of TCIT-U on (a) teachers' skills acquisition via masked observational coding and (b) students' behavior and developmental functioning via teacher questionnaires. For child-directed interaction skills, teachers receiving TCIT-U exhibited significantly greater increases in behavior descriptions and labeled praise than teachers who did not receive TCIT-U at posttreatment and follow-up. No significant group differences were observed in use of teacher-directed interaction skills. Qualitative data from teachers expanded on these findings, suggesting that teachers found child-directed interaction skills more acceptable than teacher-directed interaction skills. Teachers receiving TCIT-U reported small but significant improvements in student behavior problems and socioemotional functioning at posttreatment and follow-up, as compared to wait-list students. We discuss considerations for future implementation and tailoring of TCIT for young students with disabilities, which may have positive impacts on future cohorts of students beyond teachers' initial training.


Asunto(s)
Formación del Profesorado , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Educación Especial , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes
15.
Behav Ther ; 52(2): 418-429, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33622510

RESUMEN

People who pursue approach goals (i.e., desired outcomes to be reached) tend to be more likely to achieve their goals than people who pursue avoidance goals (i.e., undesired outcomes to be prevented). We tested this premise in a brief preventive parenting intervention targeting parental praise to reduce disruptive child behavior. We also tested whether goal setting effects depend on behavior change phase (initiation versus maintenance) and parents' regulatory focus (high versus low promotion and prevention focus). Parents (N = 224; child age 4-8) were randomized to one of four conditions: an approach goal-enhanced or an avoidance goal-enhanced intervention condition, a no-goal intervention condition, or a waitlist control condition. Outcomes were parent-reported and audio-recorded positive parenting and disruptive child behavior. Results show that goal setting had very limited effects. Setting avoidance goals, not approach goals, improved self-reported positive parenting. However, goal setting did not enhance effects of parenting intervention on observed (i.e., audio-recorded) positive parenting and disruptive child behavior. Furthermore, goal setting effects depended neither on the phase of change, nor on parents' regulatory focus. This field experiment suggests that setting approach goals does not enhance the brief parenting intervention to improve parent-child interactions.


Asunto(s)
Objetivos , Problema de Conducta , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Preescolar , Humanos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental , Padres
16.
Front Public Health ; 9: 608358, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614580

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals' lifestyles to a great extent, particularly in Italy. Although many concerns about it have been highlighted, its impact on children and adolescents has scarcely been examined. The purpose of this study was to explore behavioral consequences and coping strategies related to the pandemic among families in Italy, by focusing on developmental ages from the caregivers' perspective, 3 weeks into quarantine. An exploratory cross-sectional online survey was conducted over 14 days. Google Forms was employed to conduct the survey. Demographic variables and pre-existing Psychological Weaknesses (PsW) were asked. Adults' sleep difficulties (SleepScore) and coping strategies during quarantine were assessed. Behavioral changes related to quarantine of both subjects completing the form (COVIDStress) and their children (when present) were questioned. Of the 6,871 respondents, we selected 6,800 valid questionnaires; 3,245 declared children aged under 18 years of age (caregivers). PsWs were recognizable in 64.9% among non-caregivers and in 61.5% of caregivers, with a mean PsW score of 1.42 ± 1.26 and 1.30 ± 1.25 over 3 points, respectively. The 95.5% of the non-caregivers and the 96.5% of caregivers presented behavioral changes with a mean COVIDStress of 3.85 ± 1.82 and 4.09 ± 1.79 over 8, respectively (p<0.001). Sleep difficulties were present in the 61.6% of the non-caregivers and in the 64.4% of the caregivers (p < 0.001), who showed higher SleepScores (2.41 ± 1.26 against 2.57 ± 1.38 points over 6, p < 0.001). COVIDStress (and SleepScore) strongly correlated with PsW (p < 0.001). Caregivers observed behavioral changes in their children in the 64.3% of the <6 years old and in 72.5% of 6-18 years old. Caregivers' discomfort related to quarantine (COVIDStress, SleepScore) was strongly associated to behavioral changes in both age groups of <6 and 6-18 (p < 0.001). Presence of caregivers' coping strategies was less associated to behavioral changes in the <6 sample (p = 0.001) but not in the 6-18 (p = 0.06). The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted families in Italy with regard to behavioral changes, especially in high-risk categories with PsWs and caregivers, especially the ones with children aged <6 years. While coping strategies functioned as protective factors, a wide array of stress symptoms had implications for children's and adolescents' behaviors. It is recommended that public children welfare strategies be implemented, especially for higher-psychosocial-risk categories.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Familia/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
17.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 27-34, ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197950

RESUMEN

The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) is one of the most commonly used measures of parenting stress both in clinical and research contexts. The PSI-SF is a 36-item, self-report measure with three subscales: Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (PCDI), and Difficult Child (DC). The objective of this study was to analyse the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of PSI-SF. Two different samples (N = 309) of mothers with children under 8 years old participated in the study. The first sample comprised 203 mothers with difficulties managing their children's behaviour. The second sample comprised 106 mothers from the general population. Factor structure of the PSI-SF, convergent validity, and differences between groups were analysed. The expected three-factor structure was confirmed for both samples. Findings suggested that the total PSI-SF scale and the three subscales had adequate internal consistency and convergent validity. Differences between both samples, and between age and economic subgroups in the first sample were tested. The Spanish version of the PSI-SF can be considered an adequate measure of parenting stress in mothers of children under 8 years old with difficulties to manage their children's behaviour. Further studies with extended samples from the general population are needed


El Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) es uno de los instrumentos más utilizados para evaluar el estrés parental tanto en el contexto clínico como en el de investigación. El PSI-SF es un autoinforme de 36 ítems con tres subescalas: malestar parental (PD), interacción disfuncional padre/madre-hijo (PCDI) y niño difícil (DC). El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la estructura factorial y las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI-SF. Dos muestras diferentes (N = 309) de madres con hijos o hijas menores de 8 años participaron en el estudio: la primera muestra estuvo compuesta por 203 madres con dificultades para gestionar la conducta de sus hijos o hijas y la segunda por 106 madres de la población general. Se analizó la estructura factorial del PSI-SF, la validez convergente y la diferencia entre grupos de madres, confirmándose la estructura de tres factores para las dos muestras. Los resultados sugieren que la escala completa del PSI-SF y las 3 subescalas presentaban una adecuada consistencia interna y validez convergente. Se analizaron las diferencias en todas las puntuaciones del PSI-SF entre ambas muestras y entre subgrupos (edad y situación económica) de la primera muestra. La versión española del PSI-SF puede considerarse un instrumento adecuado para medir el estrés parental en madres con niños o niñas menores de 8 años con dificultades para manejar su comportamiento. Se necesitan estudios con muestras más representativas de la población general


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Madres/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Padres/psicología , Autoinforme , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Análisis Factorial , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 57-66, ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197953

RESUMEN

There are no systematic reviews of the use of parent-child interaction measures employed within studies examining the effects of parent-mediated intervention on toddlers with autism. Best practices recommend using parent-child interaction measures to assess whether interventions aimed at strengthening parent-child interactions are functioning as intended. A systematic review of parent-mediated early intervention studies of toddlers with autism was conducted. The purpose was to examine the use of parent-child interaction measures to assess parent positive support of toddler social communication and report feasibility characteristics for early interventionist practitioners. Experimental parent-mediated intervention studies of social communication among children with autism younger than 36 months were identified. Measurement approaches to parent support of social communication were quantified. Of 25 studies, only 7 studies reported parent and child outcomes using an instrument designed to measure the construct of parent support of child social communication during observed parent-child interaction. Measures reported are of limited relevance for early intervention practitioners due to administration burden and lack of feasibility for repeated measurement of progress toward increasing parent support of toddler social communication. This study highlights the need for feasible practitioner tools for monitoring progress of parent support of social communication for toddlers with autism


No hay revisiones sistemáticas acerca de las medidas de interacción padres-hijo que se utilizan en los estudios que analizan los efectos de la intervención en niños autistas mediada por los padres. Las mejores prácticas recomiendan controlar la medición de las intervenciones mediadas por los padres, las cuales han sido diseñadas para mejorar las habilidades de comunicación social de los niños con el fin de saber si dichas intervenciones funcionan según lo previsto. El propósito de este artículo es presentar los resultados de una revisión sistemática de la literatura que examina específicamente la medición de la interacción entre padres e hijos en estudios de intervención mediada por padres de niños pequeños con autismo. Se utilizó un enfoque PRISMA para identificar estudios experimentales de intervención mediada por padres, enfocados en la comunicación social de niños pequeños con autismo. Las formas utilizadas para medir el apoyo de los padres de la comunicación social en cada uno de estos estudios fueron cuantificadas. De 25 estudios solo 7 incluyeron una medida de observación directa de la interacción entre padres e hijos en la que se presentaron los índices de comportamiento de padres e hijos. Los métodos de evaluación utilizados para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos en los estudios experimentales publicados tienden a buscar profesionales altamente capacitados y especializados, que además requiere bastante tiempo para codificar. En consecuencia, estas herramientas de medición tienen una utilidad limitada para los profesionales que precisan de herramientas breves y confiables que además tengan una base psicométrica para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos para tomar decisiones basadas en datos sobre si sus intervenciones están teniendo los efectos previstos. El estudio destaca la necesidad de contar con instrumentos de medición con base psicométrica que permitan seguir de manera accesible el progreso del apoyo sobre comunicación social para padres de niños pequeños con autismo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Habilidades Sociales , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Psicometría , Comunicación Social , Conducta Infantil/psicología
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 763: 144115, 2021 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422710

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies looking at associations between environmental chemicals and child behaviour usually consider only one exposure or family of exposures. OBJECTIVE: This study explores associations between prenatal exposure to a wide range of environmental chemicals and child behaviour. METHODS: We studied 708 mother-child pairs from five European cohorts recruited in 2003-2009. We assessed 47 exposure biomarkers from eight chemical exposure families in maternal blood or urine collected during pregnancy. We used the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to evaluate child behaviour between three and seven years of age. We assessed associations of SDQ scores with exposures using an adjusted least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) considering all exposures simultaneously and an adjusted exposome-wide association study (ExWAS) considering each exposure independently. RESULTS: LASSO selected only copper (Cu) as associated with externalizing behaviour. In the ExWAS, bisphenol A [BPA, incidence rate ratio (IRR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.01;1.12] and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, IRR: 1.06, 95%CI: 1.00;1.13) were associated with greater risk of externalizing behaviour problems. Cu (IRR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.82;0.98), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA, IRR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.84;0.99) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were associated with lower risk of externalizing behaviour problems, however the associations with OCs were mainly seen among women with insufficient weight gain during pregnancy. Internalizing score worsen in association with exposure to diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, IRR: 1.11, 95%CI: 1.00;1.24) but the effect was driven by the smallest cohort. Internalizing score improved with increased concentration of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, IRR: 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85;1.00), however the association was driven by the two smallest cohorts with the lowest PFOS concentrations. DISCUSSION: This study added evidence on deleterious effects of prenatal exposure to BPA and MnBP on child behaviour. Other associations should be interpreted cautiously since they were not consistent with previous studies or they have not been studied extensively.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Exposoma , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología
20.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0241586, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406070

RESUMEN

This study examines the mediation effect of parental involvement and psychological Suzhi between the relationship of parent-child attachment and good behavior habits in Chinese children. The participants comprised 563 children from four Chinese kindergartens (4.41±0.96) whose parents reported measures of parent-child attachment, parental involvement, psychological Suzhi, and good behavior habits in their children. The results indicated that (1) Parental attachment, parental involvement and psychological Suzhi were positively correlated with good behavior habits of young children; (2) Parental involvement and psychological Suzhi mediated the relationship between parent-child attachment and good behavior habits in children separately; (3) Parent-child attachment indirectly affected children's good behavior habits through the path of "parental involvement and psychological Suzhi."


Asunto(s)
Conducta Infantil/psicología , Hábitos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
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