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Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(13): e24961, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787582


ABSTRACT: It is important to investigate children's eating habits based on different eating behaviors such as satiety responsiveness (SR), slowness in eating (SE), food fussiness (FF), food responsiveness (FR), enjoyment of food (EF), desire to drink (DD), emotional under-eating (EUE), and emotional over-eating (EOE). The main objective of this research was to investigate whether gender affects the eating habits of Nigerian school children.A cross-sectional survey was conducted between March and June 2019. A total of 120 parents of school children participated in the study. The Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) was used to collect data. The CEBQ is composed of 35 items and eight subscales.Based on the analysis of parents' reports, DD was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 7.086, P < .001; EOE was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 5.184, P < .001; EF was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 2.183, P < .001; FF was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 9.441, P < .001; and SR was higher in boys than girls, t (118) = 7.323, P < .001. However, EUE was lower in boys than girls, t (118) = -4.339, P < .001; FR was lower in boys than girls, t(118) = -3.112, P < .001; SE was lower in boys than girls, t(118) = -3.832, P < .001; thus, gender had a significant influence on eating habits of the school children.Gender significantly affects the eating habits of Nigerian school children. Thus, gender is an important factor to be considered when aiming to improve the eating habits of Nigerian school children.

Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Estudiantes/psicología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Femenino , Irritabilidad Alimentaria , Humanos , Hiperfagia/psicología , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Front Public Health ; 9: 608358, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33614580


The COVID-19 pandemic has changed individuals' lifestyles to a great extent, particularly in Italy. Although many concerns about it have been highlighted, its impact on children and adolescents has scarcely been examined. The purpose of this study was to explore behavioral consequences and coping strategies related to the pandemic among families in Italy, by focusing on developmental ages from the caregivers' perspective, 3 weeks into quarantine. An exploratory cross-sectional online survey was conducted over 14 days. Google Forms was employed to conduct the survey. Demographic variables and pre-existing Psychological Weaknesses (PsW) were asked. Adults' sleep difficulties (SleepScore) and coping strategies during quarantine were assessed. Behavioral changes related to quarantine of both subjects completing the form (COVIDStress) and their children (when present) were questioned. Of the 6,871 respondents, we selected 6,800 valid questionnaires; 3,245 declared children aged under 18 years of age (caregivers). PsWs were recognizable in 64.9% among non-caregivers and in 61.5% of caregivers, with a mean PsW score of 1.42 ± 1.26 and 1.30 ± 1.25 over 3 points, respectively. The 95.5% of the non-caregivers and the 96.5% of caregivers presented behavioral changes with a mean COVIDStress of 3.85 ± 1.82 and 4.09 ± 1.79 over 8, respectively (p<0.001). Sleep difficulties were present in the 61.6% of the non-caregivers and in the 64.4% of the caregivers (p < 0.001), who showed higher SleepScores (2.41 ± 1.26 against 2.57 ± 1.38 points over 6, p < 0.001). COVIDStress (and SleepScore) strongly correlated with PsW (p < 0.001). Caregivers observed behavioral changes in their children in the 64.3% of the <6 years old and in 72.5% of 6-18 years old. Caregivers' discomfort related to quarantine (COVIDStress, SleepScore) was strongly associated to behavioral changes in both age groups of <6 and 6-18 (p < 0.001). Presence of caregivers' coping strategies was less associated to behavioral changes in the <6 sample (p = 0.001) but not in the 6-18 (p = 0.06). The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted families in Italy with regard to behavioral changes, especially in high-risk categories with PsWs and caregivers, especially the ones with children aged <6 years. While coping strategies functioned as protective factors, a wide array of stress symptoms had implications for children's and adolescents' behaviors. It is recommended that public children welfare strategies be implemented, especially for higher-psychosocial-risk categories.

Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Infantil , Familia/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Salud Mental , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 27-34, ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197950


The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) is one of the most commonly used measures of parenting stress both in clinical and research contexts. The PSI-SF is a 36-item, self-report measure with three subscales: Parental Distress (PD), Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction (PCDI), and Difficult Child (DC). The objective of this study was to analyse the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Spanish version of PSI-SF. Two different samples (N = 309) of mothers with children under 8 years old participated in the study. The first sample comprised 203 mothers with difficulties managing their children's behaviour. The second sample comprised 106 mothers from the general population. Factor structure of the PSI-SF, convergent validity, and differences between groups were analysed. The expected three-factor structure was confirmed for both samples. Findings suggested that the total PSI-SF scale and the three subscales had adequate internal consistency and convergent validity. Differences between both samples, and between age and economic subgroups in the first sample were tested. The Spanish version of the PSI-SF can be considered an adequate measure of parenting stress in mothers of children under 8 years old with difficulties to manage their children's behaviour. Further studies with extended samples from the general population are needed

El Parenting Stress Index-Short Form (PSI-SF) es uno de los instrumentos más utilizados para evaluar el estrés parental tanto en el contexto clínico como en el de investigación. El PSI-SF es un autoinforme de 36 ítems con tres subescalas: malestar parental (PD), interacción disfuncional padre/madre-hijo (PCDI) y niño difícil (DC). El objetivo del estudio fue analizar la estructura factorial y las propiedades psicométricas de la versión española del PSI-SF. Dos muestras diferentes (N = 309) de madres con hijos o hijas menores de 8 años participaron en el estudio: la primera muestra estuvo compuesta por 203 madres con dificultades para gestionar la conducta de sus hijos o hijas y la segunda por 106 madres de la población general. Se analizó la estructura factorial del PSI-SF, la validez convergente y la diferencia entre grupos de madres, confirmándose la estructura de tres factores para las dos muestras. Los resultados sugieren que la escala completa del PSI-SF y las 3 subescalas presentaban una adecuada consistencia interna y validez convergente. Se analizaron las diferencias en todas las puntuaciones del PSI-SF entre ambas muestras y entre subgrupos (edad y situación económica) de la primera muestra. La versión española del PSI-SF puede considerarse un instrumento adecuado para medir el estrés parental en madres con niños o niñas menores de 8 años con dificultades para manejar su comportamiento. Se necesitan estudios con muestras más representativas de la población general

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Madres/psicología , Psicometría/métodos , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Padres/psicología , Autoinforme , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Análisis Factorial , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Interv. psicosoc. (Internet) ; 30(1): 57-66, ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197953


There are no systematic reviews of the use of parent-child interaction measures employed within studies examining the effects of parent-mediated intervention on toddlers with autism. Best practices recommend using parent-child interaction measures to assess whether interventions aimed at strengthening parent-child interactions are functioning as intended. A systematic review of parent-mediated early intervention studies of toddlers with autism was conducted. The purpose was to examine the use of parent-child interaction measures to assess parent positive support of toddler social communication and report feasibility characteristics for early interventionist practitioners. Experimental parent-mediated intervention studies of social communication among children with autism younger than 36 months were identified. Measurement approaches to parent support of social communication were quantified. Of 25 studies, only 7 studies reported parent and child outcomes using an instrument designed to measure the construct of parent support of child social communication during observed parent-child interaction. Measures reported are of limited relevance for early intervention practitioners due to administration burden and lack of feasibility for repeated measurement of progress toward increasing parent support of toddler social communication. This study highlights the need for feasible practitioner tools for monitoring progress of parent support of social communication for toddlers with autism

No hay revisiones sistemáticas acerca de las medidas de interacción padres-hijo que se utilizan en los estudios que analizan los efectos de la intervención en niños autistas mediada por los padres. Las mejores prácticas recomiendan controlar la medición de las intervenciones mediadas por los padres, las cuales han sido diseñadas para mejorar las habilidades de comunicación social de los niños con el fin de saber si dichas intervenciones funcionan según lo previsto. El propósito de este artículo es presentar los resultados de una revisión sistemática de la literatura que examina específicamente la medición de la interacción entre padres e hijos en estudios de intervención mediada por padres de niños pequeños con autismo. Se utilizó un enfoque PRISMA para identificar estudios experimentales de intervención mediada por padres, enfocados en la comunicación social de niños pequeños con autismo. Las formas utilizadas para medir el apoyo de los padres de la comunicación social en cada uno de estos estudios fueron cuantificadas. De 25 estudios solo 7 incluyeron una medida de observación directa de la interacción entre padres e hijos en la que se presentaron los índices de comportamiento de padres e hijos. Los métodos de evaluación utilizados para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos en los estudios experimentales publicados tienden a buscar profesionales altamente capacitados y especializados, que además requiere bastante tiempo para codificar. En consecuencia, estas herramientas de medición tienen una utilidad limitada para los profesionales que precisan de herramientas breves y confiables que además tengan una base psicométrica para medir la interacción entre padres e hijos para tomar decisiones basadas en datos sobre si sus intervenciones están teniendo los efectos previstos. El estudio destaca la necesidad de contar con instrumentos de medición con base psicométrica que permitan seguir de manera accesible el progreso del apoyo sobre comunicación social para padres de niños pequeños con autismo

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adulto , Trastorno Autístico/epidemiología , Trastorno Autístico/psicología , Habilidades Sociales , Discapacidades del Desarrollo/psicología , Psicometría , Comunicación Social , Conducta Infantil/psicología
Sleep Med ; 78: 108-114, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422812


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sleep habits of school-going children before and during school closure in the national lockdown period (called 'Circuit Breaker' or CB in Singapore) due to the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Cross-sectional, anonymous, online, population-based survey questionnaire was administered to parents aged 21 years and above with children aged between 3 and 16 years attending pre-school, primary or secondary school (equivalent to kindergarten, middle and-high school) and residing in Singapore. Sleep duration in relation to various daily activities including academic activities, physical exercise, and screen time was evaluated pre-CB and during CB. RESULTS: Data from 593 participants were analyzed. Pre-CB, the overall mean (SD) sleep duration of the study population was 9.01 (1.18) hours on weekdays and 9.99 (0.94) hours on weekends. During CB, mean (SD) sleep duration overall was 9.63 (1.18) hours. Although children generally went to bed later (mean 0.65 h later), they woke up even later during CB (mean 1.27 h later), resulting in longer sleep duration (mean increase of 0.35 h). This was most evident in secondary school children (mean increase of 0.70 h). Children attending private schools (which had later start times) had increased sleep duration (mean 10.01 (SD 0.89) hours pre-CB and 10.05 (SD 0.93) hours during CB) compared to public schools (mean 9.05 (SD 0.91) pre-CB and 9.49 (SD 1.22) hours during CB). CONCLUSIONS: School closure from the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in longer sleep duration in school-going children. Early school/academic activity start times had a significant impact on limiting children's sleep duration.

/epidemiología , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sueño , Medio Social
Child Care Health Dev ; 47(1): 128-135, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047842


BACKGROUND: Lockdown is one of the prevalent tools that are used to control the spread of COVID-19 virus in India. Under the circumstances created during lockdown period, children are deprived from the social interaction and companionship; because of which, they are susceptible to psychiatric disorders. Therefore, in this study, efforts were to understand the impacts of lockdown on the mental status of the children of India and their specific causes. STUDY DESIGN: It is a questionnaire-based study. METHODS: A web-based questionnaire was prepared, and 400 parents from four districts of Punjab, India, namely, Ludhiana, Sahibzada Ajit Singh (SAS) Nagar, Sangrur and Ferozepur, were telephonically interviewed. Further, the information collected from the interviews was statistically analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software. RESULTS: Findings from this study revealed that 73.15% and 51.25% of the children were having signs of increased irritation and anger, respectively; 18.7% and 17.6% of the parents also mentioned the symptoms of depression and anxiety, respectively, among their children, which were also augmented by the changes in their diet, sleep, weight and more usage of the electronic equipment. Children (~76.3%) persistently urge to go outdoors and play with their friends; therefore, they could lag in social development. Further, observations from Pearson's correlation revealed that during lockdown, children's mental health is significantly related to the area of their house, number of children in the family, qualification of their mother and socio-economic status of their family. CONCLUSIONS: This study made it evident that the mental health of the children residing in Punjab, India, was compromised during the lockdown period induced by the COVID-19 pandemic. Findings of this study may also trigger the international authorities to frame the guidelines of lockdown in the interest of mental health of their native children.

/prevención & control , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Ira , Ansiedad/epidemiología , /transmisión , Niño , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , India , Genio Irritable , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
Av. odontoestomatol ; 36(4): 180-185, sept.-dic. 2020. ilus, tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-198587


OBJETIVO: El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar si la sedación consciente reconduce o no la conducta del paciente pediátrico, en la consulta dental. METODOLOGÍA: La muestra del estudio clínico se obtuvo de sesenta y cinco pacientes que no permiten el tratamiento dental en la consulta odontológica,con edades comprendidas entre los 4 y 9 nueve años de edad. RESULTADOS: De los 65 pacientes que representa el 100% de la muestra, se obtuvo que el 86,15% pudo reconducir la conducta después de la sedación consciente. Sin embargo, en el 13,85% el comportamiento después de la sedación consciente no se pudo reconducir. CONCLUSIÓN: La sedación conscientepuede ayudar a reducir la fobia, estrés que los pacientes pediátricos presentes en la consulta dental. Asimismo, nos permiten llevar a cabo el tratamiento previsto, además de ayudar a reconducir la conducta del paciente

INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether conscious sedation redirected or not the behavior of the pediatric patient, in the dental office. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical study sample was obtained from sixty-five patients who do not allow treatment in the dental office, aged between 4 and 9 years. RESULTS: Of the 65 patients representing 100% of the sample, it was obtained that 86.15% was able to redirect the behavior after conscious sedation. However, in 13.85% the behavior after conscious sedation could not be redirected. CONCLUSION: Conscious sedation can help reduce phobia, stress that pediatric patients present in the dental office. They also allow us to carry out the planned treatment, in addition to helping to redirect the patient's behavior

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Sedación Consciente/métodos , Atención Dental para Niños/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Odontología Pediátrica/organización & administración , Atención Dental para Niños/organización & administración
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243713, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332462


This study identified factors associated with adherence to a 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) course among adolescents and children living with HIV. Forty adolescents living with HIV and 48 primary caregivers of children living with HIV completed a Likert-based survey to measure respondent opinions regarding access to care, quality of care, preferred regimens, perceived stigma, and confidence in self-efficacy. Sociodemographic data were collected and adherence measured as the average of pill counts obtained while on IPT. The rates of suboptimal adherence (< 95% adherent) were 22.5% among adolescents and 37.5% among the children of primary caregivers. Univariate logistic regression was used to model the change in the odds of suboptimal adherence. Independent factors associated with suboptimal adherence among adolescents included age, education level, the cost of coming to clinic, stigma from community members, and two variables relating to self-efficacy. Among primary caregivers, child age, concerns about stigma, and location preference for meeting a community-health worker were associated with suboptimal adherence. To determine whether these combined factors contributed different information to the prediction of suboptimal adherence, a risk score containing these predictors was constructed for each group. The risk score had an AUC of 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76, 0.99) among adolescents and an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.90), among primary caregivers suggesting that these variables may have complementary predictive utility. The heterogeneous scope and associations of these variables in different populations suggests that interventions aiming to increase optimal adherence will need to be tailored to specific populations and multifaceted in nature. Ideally interventions should address both long-established barriers to adherence such as cost of transportation to attend clinic and more nuanced psychosocial barriers such as perceived community stigma and confidence in self-efficacy.

Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Isoniazida/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Tuberculosis/prevención & control , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Cuidadores/psicología , Cuidadores/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Esuatini , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoeficacia , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Tuberculosis/inmunología
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e48443, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1116092


Objetivo: comparar o comportamento de pré-escolares durante o uso de administração por inalação, antes e após sessão de Brinquedo Terapêutico. Método: estudo quase-experimental de abordagem quantitativa, com a técnica de observação antes e após a intervenção, realizado por meio de amostra intencional, recrutadas em uma Unidade de Pronto Atendimento no interior de Minas Gerais. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva e inferencial, coletados entre os meses de novembro de 2017 a abril de 2018. Resultados: foram avaliados 25 comportamentos de 99 pré-escolares durante a administração por inalação. Após a sessão, 73,7% estavam com a postura e expressão facial relaxada, 76,8% estavam à vontade, 19,2% interromperam o procedimento e 38,4 % solicitaram a presença da mãe ou acompanhante. Conclusão: o uso do brinquedo, favoreceu maior aceitação e adaptação de pré-escolares submetidos à administração por inalação, evidenciado a importância em implementar essa estratégia em serviços de pronto atendimento pediátrico.

Objective: to compare the behavior of preschoolers during inhalation therapy, before and after a Therapeutic Play session. Method: quasi-experimental, quantitative study using pre- and post-intervention observation with an intentional sample recruited at an Emergency Care Unit in Minas Gerais. Data were collected from November 2017 to April 2018 and analyzed by descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: twenty-five behaviors of 99 preschoolers were evaluated during inhalation administration. After the session, 73.7% were relaxed in posture and facial expression, 76.8% were comfortable, 19.2% interrupted the procedure, and 38.4% requested the mother or companion to be present. Conclusion: the use of toys favored greater acceptance and adaptation by preschoolers undergoing inhalation therapy, evidencing the importance of implementing this strategy in pediatric emergency services.

Objetivo: comparar el comportamiento de los preescolares durante la terapia de inhalación, antes y después de una sesión de Juego Terapéutico. Método: estudio cuantitativo cuasi-experimental utilizando observación previa y posterior a la intervención con una muestra intencional reclutada en una Unidad de Atención de Emergencia en Minas Gerais. Los datos se recopilaron de noviembre de 2017 a abril de 2018 y se analizaron mediante estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Resultados: se evaluaron veinticinco comportamientos de 99 niños en edad preescolar durante la administración por inhalación. Después de la sesión, el 73.7% se relajó en la postura y la expresión facial, el 76.8% se sintió cómodo, el 19.2% interrumpió el procedimiento y el 38.4% solicitó que la madre o la acompañante estuvieran presentes. Conclusión: el uso de juguetes favoreció una mayor aceptación y adaptación por parte de los preescolares sometidos a terapia de inhalación, lo que evidencia la importancia de implementar esta estrategia en los servicios de emergencia pediátricos.

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Administración por Inhalación , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Técnicas de Observación Conductual , Relaciones Enfermero-Paciente , Atención de Enfermería/métodos
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(43): e22953, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33120857


This study investigated the eating habits of pupils in Nigerian primary schools based on the respective education levels of their parents.Data were obtained using the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ). Participants included a total of 144 pupils who were purposively selected from 6 primary schools. Based on responses, a cross-sectional analytic study design was implemented to investigate how parental education levels (PELs) influenced the eating habits of their children. Data assessment was performed using a one-way between-group analysis of variance at the .05 probability level.PELs significantly affected the eating habits of participants, respectively. Specifically, low PEL was associated with more satiety responsiveness to food (F [2, 141] = 14.251, P < .001), higher responsiveness to food (F [2, 141] = 36.943, P = <.001) greater food enjoyment (F [2, 141] = 93.322, P < .001), greater drinking desires (F [2, 141] = 23.677, P < .001), and the tendency for emotional over-eating (F [2, 141] = 13.428, P < .001), while high PEL was associated with slower eating (F [2, 141] = 11.665, P < .001), fussier responses to food (F [2, 141] = 14.865, P < .001), and a higher tendency for emotional under-eating (F [2, 141] = 5.137, P < .01).This study examined PELs in relation to the respective eating habits of their children, who were attending Nigerian primary schools. Data showed that children with parents who had high, middle, and low education levels tended to exhibit progressively worse eating habits, in descending order.

Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta Alimentaria/psicología , Padres/educación , Instituciones Académicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas
An. psicol ; 36(3): 483-491, oct. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195665


El objetivo de la investigación es identificar las características del alumnado que no participa en episodios de bullying en función de estereotipos de género, crianza; actitudes y estrategias cognitivas sociales y sobre-ingesta alimentaria. En el estudio participaron 1190 alumnos de educación básica de once escuelas públicas del Estado de México, México. Investigación cuantitativa, con estudio descriptivo y diseño transversal. Se recogieron datos a partir de cinco instrumentos que miden las variables de estudio: bullying, estereotipos de género, crianza, estrategias cognitivas sociales, sobre-ingesta alimentaria. Los resultados permitieron identificar cinco tipos de alumnos (víctimas de violencia escolar; víctimas de bullying; bully; doble rol y no involucrados), los contrastes de medias a través del ANOVA de un factor, identificó diferencias significativas en los grupos con respecto a cada una de las variables estudiadas. Se concluye que el alumnado que no se involucran en episodios de bullying, tienen más hábitos de salud, más habilidades sociales que facilitan adaptación al contexto social, sin identificarse con estereotipos tradicionales como el femenino y el machismo. Con respecto a la crianza de sus padres, se identifica que no son educados a través de prácticas de crianza inefectivas como el maltrato. Los resultados describen características definitorios del alumnado que no se involucra en episodios de bullying, lo que será de gran utilidad para la elaboración de programas de prevención e intervención

The objective of the research is to identify the characteristics of students who do not participate in bullying episodes (called "not involved"), in function of gender stereotypes, parenting styles; attitudes and social cognitive strategies and food intake. The study involved 1190 elementary school students, from eleven public schools in the State of Mexico, Mexico. Quantitative research, with descriptive study and cross-sectional design. Data were collected from five instruments that measure the study variables: bullying, gender stereotypes, parenting styles, social cognitive strategies, food intake. The results identified five types of students (victims of school violence; victims of bullying; bully; double role and not involved), the contrasts for one-way ANOVA of a factor, identified significant differences in the groups with respect to each of the variables studied. It is concluded that students who do not engage in bullying episodes (not involved), have more health habits, more social skills that facilitate adaptation to the social context, without identifying with traditional stereotypes such as traditional feminine and machismo. With regard to parenting, it is identified that they are not educated through ineffective parenting practices such as abuse. The results of this study describe defining characteristics of students who do not engage in bullying episodes, which will be very useful for the development of prevention and intervention programs

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Estudiantes/psicología , Estereotipo de Género , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Percepción Social , Educación Primaria y Secundaria , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Análisis de Varianza , Factores Sexuales , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Habilidades Sociales
An. psicol ; 36(3): 492-502, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-195666


The aim of this work was to analyze the mediating role of family environment in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing/internalizing problems in a sample of 474 Spanish children aged between 6 and 8 years. A secondary objective of this work was to analyze the effect of gender in the mediation pattern found. To measure externalizing/internalizing problems, marital adjustment, parenting practices and children's temperament, the parents were given a Socialization Battery (BAS-1), the Marital Adjustment Test (MAT), the Spanish version of the PCRI (Parent-Child Relationship Inventory), and the Temperament in Middle Childhood Questionnaire (TMCQ). We tested a statistical mediation model that revealed the mediating role of marital adjustment, and the parenting practices of involvement and limit setting, in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing problems. We found that marital adjustment and parental involvement mediated the relationship between internalizing problems and difficult temperament. On the other hand, the results pointed to a different mediation pattern when we compared boys and girls. Specifically, we found that the mediating role of marital adjustment and parental involvement in the relationship between difficult temperament and externalizing problems was stronger in boys than in girls

El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar el papel mediador del ambiente familiar en la relación entre temperamento difícil y problemas externalizantes/internalizantes en una muestra de 474 niños españoles de entre 6 y 8 años. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el efecto del género en el patrón de mediación encontrado. Para la medida de los problemas externalizantes/internalizantes, el ajuste marital, las prácticas parentales y el temperamento del niño los padres cumplimentaron la Batería de Socialización (BAS-1), el Test de Ajuste Marital (MAT) y la versión española del Cuestionario de Temperamento en la niñez intermedia (TMCQ). El análisis de mediación probado confirmó el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y las prácticas parentales de implicación y disciplina en la relación entre temperamento difícil y problemas externalizantes, y el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y la implicación parental en la relación entre temperamento y difícil y problemas internalizantes. Por otro lado, los resultados apuntaron un patrón de mediación diferente cuando comparamos a niños y niñas. En concreto, encontramos que el efecto de mediación del ajuste marital y la implicación parental fue más fuerte en niños que en niñas

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Temperamento , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Ajuste Social , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Factores Sexuales , Análisis de Varianza , Factores de Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Socialización , España
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113429, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882598


BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown has brought about a sense of fear and anxiety around the globe. This phenomenon has led to short term as well as long term psychosocial and mental health implications for children and adolescents. The quality and magnitude of impact on minors is determined by many vulnerability factors like developmental age, educational status, pre-existing mental health condition, being economically underprivileged or being quarantined due to infection or fear of infection. AIMS: This paper is aimed at narratively reviewing various articles related to mental-health aspects of children and adolescents impacted by COVID-19 pandemic and enforcement of nationwide or regional lockdowns to prevent further spread of infection. METHODOLOGY: We conducted a review and collected articles and advisories on mental health aspects of children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic. We selected articles and thematically organized them. We put up their major findings under the thematic areas of impact on young children, school and college going students, children and adolescents with mental health challenges, economically underprivileged children, impact due to quarantine and separation from parents and the advisories of international organizations. We have also provided recommendations to the above. CONCLUSION: There is a pressing need for planning longitudinal and developmental studies, and implementing evidence based elaborative plan of action to cater to the psycho social and mental health needs of the vulnerable children and adolescents during pandemic as well as post pandemic. There is a need to ameliorate children and adolescents' access to mental health support services geared towards providing measures for developing healthy coping mechanisms during the current crisis. For this innovative child and adolescent mental health policies policies with direct and digital collaborative networks of psychiatrists, psychologists, paediatricians, and community volunteers are deemed necessary.

Adaptación Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Salud Mental , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Niño , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Preescolar , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Servicios de Salud Mental/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Padres/psicología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Psiquiatría/métodos , Psiquiatría/tendencias , Factores de Riesgo
Anesthesiology ; 133(5): 1007-1020, 2020 11 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898216


BACKGROUND: Most common anesthetic agents have been implicated in causing neurodegeneration in the developing animal brain, leading to warnings regarding their use in children. The hypothesis of this study was that exposure to general anesthesia and surgery before 4 yr would associate with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes at age 7 to 16 yr. METHODS: This cohort study comprised 13,433 children enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a prospective, population-based birth cohort born between 1991 and 1993 in southwest England. Children were grouped by none, single, or multiple exposures to general anesthesia and surgery by 4 yr. Motor, cognitive, linguistic, educational, social, and behavioral developmental outcomes were evaluated at 7 to 16 yr using school examination results, validated parent/teacher questionnaires, or clinic assessments. Continuous outcomes were z-scored. P-value thresholds were corrected using false discovery rate procedures. RESULTS: This study compared 46 neurodevelopmental outcomes in 13,433 children: 8.3% (1,110) exposed singly and 1.6% (212) exposed multiply to general anesthesia and surgery. Of these, the following reached predefined levels of statistical significance (corrected P < 0.00652): dynamic balance scores were 0.3 SD (95% CI, 0.1, 0.5; P < 0.001) lower in multiply exposed children; manual dexterity performance was 0.1 SD (95% CI, 0.0, 0.2; P = 0.006) lower in singly and 0.3 SD (95% CI, 0.1, 0.4; P < 0.001) lower in multiply exposed children; and social communication scores were 0.1 SD (95% CI, 0.0, 0.2; P = 0.001) and 0.4 SD (95% CI, 0.3, 0.5; P < 0.001) lower in singly and multiply exposed children, respectively. General anesthesia and surgery were not associated with impairments in the remaining neurodevelopmental measures including: general cognitive ability; attention; working memory; reading, spelling, verbal comprehension and expression; behavioral difficulties; or national English, mathematics, and science assessments (all ≤0.1 SD; corrected P ≥ 0.00652). CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood general anesthesia and surgery were not associated with a global picture of clinically and statistically significant neurodegenerative effects, providing reassurance about the neurotoxic potential of general anesthesia. Exposure to anesthesia and surgery was associated with significantly lower motor and social linguistic performance.

Anestesia General/tendencias , Conducta Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Desarrollo Infantil/efectos de los fármacos , Padres/psicología , Adolescente , Anestesia General/efectos adversos , Niño , Conducta Infantil/fisiología , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Inglaterra/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003213, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810193


BACKGROUND: Exposure to green space has beneficial effects on several cognitive and behavioral aspects. However, to our knowledge, no study addressed intelligence as outcome. We investigated whether the level of urbanicity can modify the association of residential green space with intelligence and behavior in children. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This study includes 620 children and is part of the East Flanders Prospective Twin Survey (EFPTS), a registry of multiple births in the province of East Flanders, Belgium. Intelligence was assessed with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) in 620 children (310 twin pairs) between 7 and 15 years old. From a subset of 442 children, behavior was determined based on the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Prenatal and childhood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign green space indicators. Mixed modeling was performed to investigate green space in association with intelligence and behavior while adjusting for potential confounding factors including sex, age, parental education, neighborhood household income, year of assessment, and zygosity and chorionicity. We found that residential green space in association with both intelligence and behavior in children was modified by the degree of urbanicity (p < 0.001). In children living in an urban environment, multivariable adjusted mixed modeling analysis revealed that an IQR increment of residential green space (3,000-m radius) was associated with a 2.6 points (95% CI 1.4-3.9; p < 0.001) higher total intelligence quotient (IQ) and 2.0 points (95% CI -3.5 to -0.4; p = 0.017) lower externalizing behavioral score. In children residing in a rural or suburban environment, no association was found. A limitation of this study is that no information was available on school location and the potential for unmeasured confounding (e.g., time spend outdoors). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that residential green space may be beneficial for the intellectual and the behavioral development of children living in urban areas. These findings are relevant for policy makers and urban planners to create an optimal environment for children to develop their full potential.

Conducta Infantil/psicología , Planificación Ambiental/tendencias , Inteligencia , Características de la Residencia , Población Rural/tendencias , Población Suburbana/tendencias , Población Urbana/tendencias , Adolescente , Bélgica/epidemiología , Niño , Conducta Infantil/fisiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia/fisiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Gemelos/psicología
J Evid Based Soc Work (2019) ; 17(5): 558-575, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589105


PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine (1) the effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder and fathers' early involvement on children's long-term internalizing and externalizing problems, and (2) whether fathers' early involvement buffered effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. METHOD: We used five waves of Fragile Family and Child Wellbeing study data and conducted multi-level longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine relationships among early exposure to neighborhood disorder, fathers' early involvement, and children's internalizing and externalizing problems. RESULTS: Results indicated that early exposure to neighborhood disorder was associated with increased children's internalizing and externalizing problems, while fathers' early involvement was associated with decreased children's internalizing and externalizing problems. However, fathers' early involvement did not buffer the negative effects of early exposure to neighborhood disorder on children's internalizing and externalizing problems. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest the importance of neighborhood order and fathers' early involvement in decreasing children's internalizing and externalizing problems. Developing neighborhood-level interventions and improving fathers' involvement in early childhood are potential strategies to prevent children's behavioral problems in the long term.

Conducta Infantil/psicología , Conflicto Familiar/psicología , Relaciones Padre-Hijo , Padre/psicología , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Trastornos de la Conducta Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 942020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483110


BACKGROUND: Understanding social representations (SR) of physical activity (PA) and active play (AP) in preschool children, allows us to address PA promotion in this age group. METHODS: We conducted a scoping review of 34 articles describing characteristics of SR: elements, information and attitudes and a meta-synthesis was elaborated with the main categories related to PA and AP. RESULTS: Parents and teachers are determinants for preschool children´s physical activity and active play, they perceive preschoolers as naturally "active". Adults have negative perceptions about preschooler´s PA and this represents a barrier to promote their activity. CONCLUSIONS: Better knowledge of parents and teachers about physical activity recommendations for preschoolers and their own importance as role models, might facilitate their children´s participation in these activities, therefore it is important to include recomendations in every intervention intended to improve physical activity and active play of pre-schoolers. Our results showed that there is a need to study social representations of physical activity and active play in the natural settings of preschoolers in order to increase their physical activity and active play.

Actitud Frente a la Salud , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Salud del Niño , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Juego e Implementos de Juego/psicología , Medio Social , Percepción Social , Adulto , Preescolar , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Padres , Maestros
Rev. psiquiatr. infanto-juv ; 37(2): 30-44, abr.-jun. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191740


INTRODUCCIÓN: El artículo describe un modelo de intervención temprana para la prevención de patología, y promoción de la resiliencia, tras los terremotos de la isla de Puerto Rico en enero de 2020. El 7 de enero de 2020 un terremoto de magnitud 6,4 en la escala Richter, sacudió la isla de Puerto Rico. Como consecuencia, gran parte de la población sufrió desplazamientos de sus domicilios y cierres de muchas escuelas. Todo ello sobre lo ya anteriormente vivido, como el Huracán María en 2017, aumentando así su carga de estrés alostática. Tras la ayuda inicial de los cuerpos de rescate, se detecta la necesidad de apoyo psicológico a la población y a profesionales proveedores de dicho apoyo. MÉTODOS: Contando con una precaria infraestructura, se decide realizar una intervención con el objetivo de proporcionar información del impacto del estrés traumático en el organismo, así como ejercicios prácticos de mindfulness dirigidos a dichos profesionales. El programa integra lecciones de la Terapia de Claves Traumáticas y ejercicios del currículo Pure Power. RESULTADOS: Se confirma, a través de un cuestionario de satisfacción, la necesidad de este tipo de programas, y se valora extrapolar el modelo a otras poblaciones de riesgo similares, en términos de evitar las consecuencias del trauma, disminuir la carga alostática, y prevenir y promocionar la salud mental. Se sugiere realizar próximas formaciones de ampliación de este programa, para confirmar su efectividad y mantenimiento en el tiempo

INTRODUCTION: This article describes an early intervention model for the prevention of pathology, and for the promotion of resilience, after the earthquakes on the island of Puerto Rico in January 2020. On January 7, 2020, an earthquake of magnitude 6.4 on the Richter scale struck the island of Puerto Rico. As a consequence of the seismic movement, an important part of the population, suffered displacements from their homes and closing of schools. In addition to what they previously lived through, such as Hurricane Maria in 2017, increasing their burden of allostatic stress. After initial help from the rescue forces, a need to provide psychological support to the population and to the professionals involved in giving that psychological support, was detected. METHODS: Starting from a precarious infrastructure, it was decided to implement an intervention with the objective of providing information on the impact of traumatic stress on the individual, along with practical mindfulness exercises. The program integrated lessons from Cue-Centered Therapy with exercises from the Pure Power curriculum. RESULTS: Through a satisfaction questionnaire, the need of these type of programs was confirmed. The implementation of these prevention programs should be considered when planning to intervene with other similar populations at risk. Thus, avoiding the consequences of trauma, reducing the allostatic load in the individual, and preventing and promoting mental health and resilience. The discussion introduces the need to develop follow-up procedures, to confirm the effectiveness and maintenance over time

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Salud Mental , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Pandemias , Pesar , Psicología Infantil , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Psicología del Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30(supl.5): 96-98, jun. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-196484


Maternity illness and death rate is high in many developing countries, including Indonesia due to bleeding in the post childbirth (28%), miscarriage complication (12%), and sepsis (9%). The main reason for maternity illness in implementation of APN which is in accordance with midwife competence standard is carried out. The objective of the research was to find out the implementation of midwife competence standard in APN implementation behavior. The research used qualitative narrative method. It was conducted at RSU Ridos, Medan. The informants were 4 midwives, 1 owner, and 2 childbirth women. The data were analyzed qualitatively by interpreting the data in the form of sentences. The result of the research showed that the implementation of midwife competence standard in carrying out normal childbirth care in RSU was good. Midwives' knowledge was good since all of them were D-III midwifery graduates. Senior midwives' skill was better than that of young ones although the latter were controlled by their seniors and bay the hospital owner. The skilled midwives had participated in APN training, while the unskilled ones had not. Midwives behavior, especially the seniors' was good in implementing APN in RSU Ridos, but young midwives still needed experience in implementing APN so that their behavior was in accordance with midwife competence standard and to oath of office. It is recommended that the hospital management increase midwives' knowledge and skill in Normal Childbirth Care, and make midwives who not yet followed training participate in it

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Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Partería/normas , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Enfermeras Obstetrices/normas , Competencia Profesional/normas , Enfermeras Obstetrices/psicología , Pautas de la Práctica en Enfermería/normas