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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674008

RESUMEN

Skydiving have gained mainstream popularity over the past decades. However, limited data exist on the injury risk or type associated with skydiving. This systematic review evaluated the injuries and fatalities of civilian skydivers. A PRISMA-guided literature search was performed in MEDLINE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Embase using the following MeSH terms: "skydiving" or "parachute" alone or in combination with "injury" or "trauma" was performed including all studies through June 2022 in both English and German. Additionally, injury reports from the German, American, and British Parachute Associations were reviewed. Of the 277 articles matching the selected search terms, 10 original articles and 34 non-scientific reports from various skydiving associations were included. More than 62 million jumps were evaluated, with an average of 3,200,000 jumps per year, which showed an average injury rate of 0.044% and an average fatality rate of 0.0011%. The most common injuries sustained by recreational skydivers involved the lumbar spine and lower extremities. Injuries were most commonly reported during the landing sequence. With modern equipment and training methods, fatalities occur in less than 1 per 100,000 cases, and serious injuries requiring hospitalization in less than 2 per 10,000 cases. This puts the assessment of skydiving as a high-risk sport into perspective.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos en Atletas , Aviación , Deportes , Humanos , Traumatismos en Atletas/epidemiología , Conducta Peligrosa
2.
Accid Anal Prev ; 180: 106909, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36493727

RESUMEN

Vehicles frequently change lanes at weaving segments, and there is a high probability of collision. To assess the risk of lane change, this study proposes a novel lane change risk assessment index (LCRAI), which takes both exposure time and conflict severity into consideration. First, the generalized time-to-collision (GTTC) and exposure-to-risk index (ERI) are proposed to evaluate conflicts during lane change, and then a spatiotemporal overlap analysis is applied to exclude the cases when two vehicles arrive at the conflict area at different times. Second, the change of velocity after a crash occurrence is calculated and used to evaluate the severity risk (SRI). Finally, ERI and SRI are combined to compute the LCRAI. A case study of a weaving segment is conducted, and the weaving segment is divided into four sections to compare their risks. Conflict frequency on the section close to the exit is the largest and it is smallest after passing the exit, while conflict severity is most serious just after entering the main line on the middle lane. As for both conflict frequency and severity, LCRAI shows that the middle section is the most dangerous while the last 100 m section is the safest in the weaving segment. The index proposed will contribute to the risk assessment of lane change in connected environments and improve safety in weaving segments of expressway combined with real-time safety countermeasures.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Humanos , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo , China , Conducta Peligrosa
3.
Vet Rec ; 191(12): 487-489, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524653

RESUMEN

A higher than usual number of human deaths attributed to dog attacks in 2022 has prompted renewed focus on questions relating to 'dangerous dogs', but as Josh Loeb and Arabella Gray find out, answers appear scarce.


Asunto(s)
Mordeduras y Picaduras , Perros , Animales , Humanos , Mordeduras y Picaduras/epidemiología , Conducta Peligrosa
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 20078, 2022 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36418918

RESUMEN

According to legislation, objects are typically classified as weapons if they are offensive per se (referred to here as proper) and if they are adapted for use as weapons or carried with the intent of causing injury (referred to here as improper), with specific regulations on their usage and possession in public spaces. However, little evidence exists on the validity of this distinction in psychology, despite a widespread recognition of the importance of psychological states and subjective perceptions in risk assessment. We conducted an online survey to evaluate hazard perceptions in relation to three dimensions (dangerousness, frequency of events, controllability) of three object categories: proper weapons, improper weapons, and everyday objects. The data from our 300 respondents reveal that the three categories of objects differ from one another on the three dimensions. Moreover, hazard perceptions differ between males and females for improper weapons but less so for proper weapons. These findings suggest that proper and improper weapons are two psychologically distinct categories, albeit with fuzzy boundaries. Investigations into their differential properties may thus help improve risk assessment in security contexts.


Asunto(s)
Reconocimiento en Psicología , Armas , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Conducta Peligrosa
5.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0276237, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322534

RESUMEN

Neuroscientific evidence is increasingly utilized in criminal legal proceedings, prompting discussions about how such evidence might influence legal decisions. The effect of neuroscientific testimony on legal decisions remains uncertain, with some studies finding no effect, others reporting that neuroscience has a mitigating impact, and some indicating neuroscience evidence has an aggravating effect. The present study attempts to explain these divergent findings by showing that the effect of neuroscience evidence on sentencing interacts with beliefs about the goals of the criminal legal system. Using a between-subjects design, participants (N = 784) were asked to assume different rationales for imprisonment, before receiving neuroscientific evidence about antisocial behavior and its potential relation to the defendant. Participants recommended a sentence for the defendant prior to and after reading the neuroscientific evidence. Participants who were given the rationale of retribution as the primary goal of imprisonment significantly decreased their sentencing recommendations. When the goal of imprisonment was to protect the public from dangerous people, participants provided longer post-testimony sentences. Lastly, when the goal was to rehabilitate wrongdoers, participants also increased sentences from pre to post. Thus, the impact of neuroscientific evidence is not monolithic, but can lead to either mitigated or aggravated sentences by interacting with penal philosophy.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Neurociencias , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Conducta Peligrosa , Derecho Penal
6.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(22)2022 Nov 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36433527

RESUMEN

To address the dangerous driving behaviors prevalent among current car drivers, it is necessary to provide real-time, accurate warning and correction of driver's driving behaviors in a small, movable, and enclosed space. In this paper, we propose a method for detecting dangerous behaviors based on frequency-modulated continuous-wave radar (mm-DSF). The highly packaged millimeter-wave radar chip has good in-vehicle emotion recognition capability. The acquired millimeter-wave differential frequency signal is Fourier-transformed to obtain the intermediate frequency signal. The physiological decomposition of the local micro-Doppler feature spectrum of the target action is then used as the eigenvalue. Matrix signal intensity and clutter filtering are performed by analyzing the signal echo model of the input channel. The signal classification is based on the estimation and variety of the feature vectors of the target key actions using a modified and optimized level fusion method of the SlowFast dual-channel network. Nine typical risky driving behaviors were set up by the Dula Hazard Questionnaire and TEIQue-SF, and the accuracy of the classification results of the self-built dataset was analyzed to verify the high robustness of the method. The recognition accuracy of this method increased by 1.97% compared with the traditional method.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Conducta Peligrosa , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Radar , Ultrasonografía Doppler , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078267

RESUMEN

Distracted driving is a growing concern around the world and has been the focus of many naturalistic and simulator-based studies. Driving simulators provide excellent practical and theoretical help in studying the driving process, and considerable efforts have been made to prove their validity. This research aimed to review relevant simulator-based studies focused on investigating the effects of the talking-on-the-phone-while-driving distraction on drivers' behavior. This work is a scoping review which followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis Extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. The search was performed on five databases, covering twenty years of research results. It was focused on finding answers to three research questions that could offer an overview of the main sources of distraction, the research infrastructure, and the measures that were used to analyze and predict the effects of distractions. A number of 4332 studies were identified in the database search, from which 83 were included in the review. The main findings revealed that TPWD distraction negatively affects driving performance, exposing drivers to dangerous traffic situations. Moreover, there is a general understanding that the driver's cognitive, manual, visual, and auditory resources are all involved, to a certain degree, when executing a secondary task while driving.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Teléfono Celular , Conducción Distraída , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Atención , Conducta Peligrosa , Conducción Distraída/psicología , Teléfono
9.
Rev Infirm ; 71(282): 37-39, 2022.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150838

RESUMEN

The links between mental pathologies and violent acts, which can go as far as homicide, are a major concern for many mental health professionals. Addictive co-morbidities, which are increasingly frequent, are an additional risk factor for some of these patients to commit dangerous acts. Psychiatric and psychological care for pathological perpetrators of such violence can be provided under certain conditions in units for difficult patients, with addiction treatment if necessary.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Conducta Peligrosa , Agresión , Conducta Adictiva/terapia , Humanos , Violencia/psicología
10.
Accid Anal Prev ; 178: 106819, 2022 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174249

RESUMEN

Dangerous driving accounts for 95% of driving fatalities among emerging adults. Emerging adult drivers exhibiting symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at greater risk for motor vehicle crashes and engaging in unsafe driving practices; however, not all individuals with ADHD symptoms exhibit such risk. Several studies have found that drivers' perceptions of their family's values and priorities related to driving practices predict driving outcomes among emerging adults; these factors have not been examined in the context of ADHD symptomology. We examined family climate for road safety as a moderator of ADHD symptoms and dangerous driving behaviors in a sample of college students. A total of 4,392 participants completed surveys measuring self-reported ADHD symptoms, dangerous driving behavior, and family climate for road safety. Results indicated that higher levels of parental feedback weakened the relation between ADHD symptoms and aggressive driving; higher levels of parental monitoring strengthened this relationship. Higher levels of parental monitoring strengthened the association between ADHD symptoms and negative emotion while driving. When participants perceived their parents as having high levels of noncommitment to road safety, the association between ADHD symptoms and self-reported risky driving increased. Higher levels of open communication about unsafe driving attenuated the relation between ADHD and risky driving. Overall, some but not all components of family climate for road safety appear to affect the relation between ADHD symptoms and dangerous driving in the expected direction.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Conducción de Automóvil , Adulto , Humanos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/psicología , Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Conducta Peligrosa , Padres , Asunción de Riesgos
11.
Behav Sci Law ; 40(5): 660-676, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36156288

RESUMEN

Stalking is considered a dangerous form of victimization that requires an effective criminal justice response. In this current research, we aimed (1) to examine lifetime prevalence of stalking victimization and public perceptions of stalking as well as (2) to investigate the characteristics of stalking cases in recent court practice in Lithuania. In Study 1, a web-based survey on a representative sample of 1517 respondents aged 18-87 years was conducted. In Study 2, an analysis of 100 court decisions was performed in stalking-related criminal cases from 2016 to 2020. The research findings (i.e., stalking victimization and public perceptions of stalking phenomenon, coercive measures that were ordered in pre-trial investigation, and sentences imposed closing the cases) are discussed in terms of the latest legal developments and existing response options, as well as considerations for future research.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Opinión Pública , Conducta Peligrosa , Humanos , Lituania , Prevalencia
12.
J Safety Res ; 82: 1-12, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031236

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Motor-vehicle crashes at signalized intersections are a significant traffic safety problem. To address this problem, many Asian cities have installed signal countdown displays at signalized intersections, aiming to assist drivers to make correct decisions in response to traffic signals. METHOD: In this study, we assessed the short-term and long-term effects of green signal countdown timers (GSCTs) on road safety, using a combination of driving simulator experiments and naturalistic observations. RESULTS: In our driving simulator experiments, 80 participants drove at 50 km/h in scenarios in which a car either approached a signalized intersection alone or following another car. In naturalistic observations, short-term (1-week) and long-term (1-year) intersection safety in the presence and absence of GSCTs were compared. These observations revealed that GSCTs reduced the number of red-light-running violations over the short term, but not over the long term. In fact, GSCTs appeared to lead to an overall increase in rear-end crash risk at intersections, as their presence resulted in drivers exhibiting more sudden acceleration and braking, and altered intersection-crossing speeds and patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that GSCTs worsen safety at signalized intersections, and thus their removal should be considered.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Planificación Ambiental , Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducta Peligrosa , Humanos , Seguridad
13.
J Safety Res ; 82: 438-449, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36031274

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Aggressive driving contributes to crashes, which often result in serious or fatal injuries. Efforts to reduce road trauma need to include strategies to reduce emotional and aggressive driving. Thus far, solutions have not comprehensively addressed the reasons why drivers become aggressive. This study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of the Reduce Aggressive driving (RAD) program in improving driver behavior. The RAD is based on group discussion, feedback, and goal setting to encourage more positive responses to triggers for aggressive driving. The aim of this study was to evaluate the delivery of the RAD and its impact on driver anger and aggression. METHOD: A total of 94 drivers, ranging in age from 18 to 74 years (Mean = 38; SD = 15; 56% males) attended one two-hour online RAD session during which they identified triggers for their aggression and developed individual strategies to avoid aggressive driving. Most (87%) participants agreed that the RAD helped them generate realistic strategies to avoid aggressive driving. A subset of 67 participants provided self-reported anger and aggressive driving tendencies one month, and four months after the RAD. RESULTS: When these were compared to baseline measures taken before participation in the RAD, decreases across all measures were observed. Thus, anger and aggressive driving significantly decreased one month after the RAD, and these decreases were maintained at the four month follow up; providing evidence of the effectiveness of the RAD in reducing these dangerous behaviors. Further research is needed to objectively measure changes in behavior to and support broader roll-out of the RAD program.


Asunto(s)
Conducción Agresiva , Conducción de Automóvil , Accidentes de Tránsito , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Agresión , Ira , Conducta Peligrosa , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
14.
Soins ; 67(865): 13-16, 2022 May.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35995493

RESUMEN

The units for difficult patients are secure psychiatric wards that receive mentally ill people who could have committed or have committed dangerous acts. As part of the overall care of these patients, the treatment of their social problems by social workers plays an essential role. These interventions provide the psychosocial benefits necessary for the stabilisation and evolution of these subjects.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Mentales , Conducta Peligrosa , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Apoyo Social
15.
Torture ; 32(1,2): 148-162, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35950429

RESUMEN

Solitary confinement cells are where those considered to be too dangerous to themselves or to others, too troublesome, too mentally unwell, or simply different, will be locked away, spending 22-24 hours a day alone, out of sight and out of mind.Solitary confinement is an extreme and harmful practice on the cusp of prohibited treatment of people deprived of their liberty, with potentially grave consequences for the in-dividuals concerned and the societies to which they eventually return. This article reflects on some of the achieve-ments, and remaining challenges, around the use and regulation of solitary confinement practices internationally in the last 30 years, drawing on recent developments and the au-thor's work in the area.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Peligrosa , Aislamiento Social , Humanos
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954659

RESUMEN

Road cycling, both individually and in groups, is common in Spain, where most two-lane rural roads have no cycle lanes. Due to this, and the difference in speed between drivers and cyclists, the overtaking manoeuvre is one of the most dangerous interactions. This study analyses how road geometry influences the overtaking manoeuvre performance. Field data of 1355 overtaking manoeuvres were collected using instrumented bicycles, riding along different rural road segments, and considering individual, medium and large groups of cyclists. The safety variables that characterise the overtaking manoeuvre are overtaking vehicle speed and lateral clearance. These variables have been correlated to geometric characteristics of the road, such as the type of centre line, the horizontal alignment, the speed limit, and the road cross section. Regression models have been fitted considering each cyclist group size and configuration. For individuals and medium groups, wider roads generate higher lateral clearances and lower overtaking speeds, while for large groups only the solid centre line was significant, generating lower clearances and higher speeds. Results suggest that other factors need to be considered, especially for large groups. Results offer a deeper understanding of the phenomenon by providing key points for improving road geometry design, such as widening the shoulders.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Ciclismo , Conducta Peligrosa , Planificación Ambiental , Humanos , España
17.
Traffic Inj Prev ; 23(7): 385-389, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35878005

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the current study was to compare the traffic histories of drivers fatally injured in a road traffic crash, to alive drivers of the same age and gender in order to determine if key markers of increased fatality-risk could be identified. METHODS: The case sample comprised 1,139 (82% male) deceased drivers, while the control sample consisted of 1,139 registered Queensland drivers (who were individually matched to the case sample on age and gender). RESULTS: Using a logistic regression model, and adjusting for age and gender, it was found that a greater number of offenses predicted greater odds of fatal crash involvement, with each increase in offense frequency category increasing ones' odds by 1.98 (95% CI: 1.8, 2.18). When each offense type was considered individually, dangerous driving offenses were most influential, predicting a 3.44 (95% CI: 2, 5.93) increased odds of being in the case group, followed by the following offense types: learner/provisional (2.88, 95% CI: 1.75, 4.74), drink and drug driving (2.82, 95% CI: 1.97, 4.04), not wearing a seatbelt/helmet (2.63, 95% CI: 1.53, 4.51), licensing offenses (1.87, 95% CI: 1.41, 2.49), and speeding (1.48, 95% CI: 1.33, 1.66). In contrast, mobile phone and road rules offenses were not identified as significant predictors. CONCLUSION: The findings indicate that engagement in a range of aberrant driving behaviors may result in an increased odds of future fatal crash involvement, which has multiple implications for the sanctioning and management of apprehended offenders.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Conducta Peligrosa , Femenino , Humanos , Concesión de Licencias , Masculino , Cinturones de Seguridad
18.
Accid Anal Prev ; 174: 106763, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35780562

RESUMEN

Among all crashes involving cyclists, a motorist approaching from behind a cyclist on a shared lane is particularly dangerous and likely to result in serious injuries and fatalities. Previous research has highlighted that inadequate lateral distance and high vehicle speed are among the main contributing factors of crashes involving cars overtaking cyclists. A new advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) which supports drivers as they overtake cyclists was designed to avoid or, at least, mitigate crashes. In human-machine interface (HMI) design, the information was presented via multiple modalities with a multistage warning system. A combination of lateral clearance (LC) and time-to-danger (TTD) parameters was used as ADAS activation criterion. Experimentation was carried out using the medium-fidelity driving simulator at the Transportation Research Institute (IMOB) of Hasselt University in Belgium. Forty-eight drivers drove the two-lane rural experimental route two times, in baseline condition and with the ADAS activated, testing three overtaking events. Statistical tests showed that the proposed in-vehicle driving assistance system had a significant effect in increasing 1) the length of the passing phase, 2) the LC in the overtaking passing phase, and 3) the TTD along the overtaking maneuver. No effect of the ADAS system on vehicle speed was observed. Overall, the designed system is effective in improving car-cyclist overtaking behaviour in terms of both safety and cyclists' mobility.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducta Peligrosa , Humanos , Investigación , Población Rural
19.
Accid Anal Prev ; 174: 106731, 2022 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35696853

RESUMEN

Traffic violations and crashes are inherently associated. Analysis of traffic violation frequency is a prerequisite for improvements in crash prevention and corresponding countermeasures. One of the essential works in the field of traffic violations relates to the exploration of the correlations between a certain violation type (e.g., speeding or safety belt use) and its causal factors (e.g., demographics and road types). Till now, the effects of spatiotemporal and meteorological factors on severe traffic violations, a general term for dangerous driving behaviors, have not been fully considered. Using the dataset consisting of daily severe traffic violations and meteorological conditions during 12 months in Jiangsu Province, China, violation performance functions were developed for three violation types (total violations, driving under the influence, and speeding) based on three models (Poisson regression, zero-inflated Poisson regression, and negative binomial model). The findings indicate that the negative binomial model has a better performance for traffic violation frequency estimation. Additionally, elastic analysis for three violation types relying on the negative binomial model was conducted to present the relationships between the explanatory variables and the expected violation frequency. The effects of spatiotemporal factors have revealed that the violation situations are significantly different in varying cities and the frequency of drunk driving shows a significant time instability. It is also found that rainy days will generate a decrease in the possibility of violation occurrence. With regard to temperature, a significant negative effect is found and the decrease in temperature will bring about an increase in violation frequency. Besides, traffic violation frequency is significantly increased during holidays with comfortable weather conditions. The conclusion of this study can provide insightful suggestions for the department of traffic enforcement to adjust the patrol plans according to the specified periods (weeks, months, or holidays) and weather conditions. Special rectification actions and targeted educational activities are also advised to be put forward simultaneously.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito , Conducción de Automóvil , Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Conducta Peligrosa , Humanos , Meteorología , Modelos Estadísticos
20.
Vet Rec ; 190(12): 485, 2022 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35713993
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