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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 128, 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33514346

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Transgender women (trans women) in Nepal are underserved in the HIV response. Data are needed to determine the HIV prevalence disaggregated from other key populations and to identify the particular risks faced by this community. Trans women are marginalized around the world and research is also needed to determine the impact of stigma on HIV risk to inform trans-specific interventions. METHODS: In 2019, we conducted the first population-based HIV behavioral surveillance study of trans women disaggregated from other key populations using respondent driven sampling (RDS). We estimated the HIV prevalence for trans women, and bivariate and multivariate Poisson binomial regression models were constructed to examine the relationship between HIV risk and stigma. RESULTS: Trans women participants (N = 200) had a mean age of 33 years old (SD = 10.96). We found a weighted HIV prevalence of 11.3% (95% CI 6·82% - 18·13). We found that depression and anxiety (aPR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67-0.97; p = 0·02) and current engagement in sex work (aPR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01-1.71; p = 0·046) were significantly associated with greater prevalence of condomless receptive anal intercourse. We found that experienced stigma of ever being verbally abused due to gender identity was significantly associated with lower prevalence of depression and anxiety (aPR 0.42; 95% CI 0.20-0.87; p = 0·002). Feeling unaccepted in Nepali society and believing people thought they were a criminal because of their trans identity was significantly associated greater prevalence of current sex work (aPR 1.36; 95% CI 1.03-1.78; p = 0·03; aPR 1.45; 95% CI 1.03-2.07; p = 0.04). Every measure of experienced stigma assessed was significantly associated with greater prevalence of current engagement in sex work. CONCLUSIONS: Trans women are highly stigmatized in Nepal, leading to individual and systems factors that impact their risk for HIV. Interventions are needed that support the economic and mental wellbeing of trans women to prevent their heighted risk of HIV from stigma.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Estigma Social , Personas Transgénero/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Nepal/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trabajo Sexual/psicología , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Personas Transgénero/psicología , Transexualidad/complicaciones , Transexualidad/epidemiología , Transexualidad/psicología , Adulto Joven
2.
Sex Med Rev ; 9(1): 3-14, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309005

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: A novel coronavirus (COVID-19) reached pandemic levels by March 11th, 2020, with a destructive impact across socioeconomic domains and all facets of global health, but little is known of its impact on sexual health. OBJECTIVE: To review current knowledge on sexual health-related containment measures during pandemics, specifically COVID-19, and focus on 2 main areas: intimacy and relational dynamics and clinical effects on sexual health. METHODS: We carried out a literature search encompassing sexual health and pandemic issues using Entrez-PubMed and Google Scholar. We reviewed the implications of the COVID-19 pandemic on sexual health regarding transmission and safe sex practices, pregnancy, dating and intimacy amid the pandemic, benefits of sex, and impact on sexual dysfunctions. RESULTS: Coronavirus transmission occurs via inhalation and touching infected surfaces. Currently, there is no evidence it is sexually transmitted, but there are sexual behaviors that pose a higher risk of infectivity due to asymptomatic carriers. Nonmonogamy plays a key role in transmission hubs. New dating possibilities and intimacy issues are highlighted. Sexual activity has a positive impact on the immune response, psychological health, and cognitive function and could mitigate psychosocial stressors. COVID-19 pandemic affects indirectly the sexual function with implications on overall health. CONCLUSION: Increased awareness of health-care providers on sexual health implications related to the COVID-19 pandemic is needed. Telemedicine has an imperative role in allowing continued support at times of lockdown and preventing worsening of the sexual, mental, and physical health after the pandemic. This is a broad overview addressing sexual issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic. As this is an unprecedented global situation, little is known on sexuality related to pandemics. Original research is needed on the topic to increase the understanding of the impact the current pandemic may have on sexual health and function. Pennanen-Iire C, Prereira-Lourenço M, Padoa A, et al. Sexual Health Implications of COVID-19 Pandemic. Sex Med Rev 2021;9:3-14.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Telemedicina/organización & administración
3.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 369-375, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367228

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual function and quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer survivors with and without a history of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of breast cancer survivors treated at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia. The Female Sexual Function Index was used to determine rates of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Participants also completed the Relationship Assessment Scale, Menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire and Short Form Health Survey-36. RESULTS: A total of 427 women were invited to participate: 119 had undergone BSO and 308 were controls with at least one ovary remaining. A total of 172 women participated (overall response rate 40.3%), consisting of 76 women in the BSO group (response rate 63.9%) and 96 women with at least one ovary remaining (response rate 31.2%). There was no difference in FSD between the two groups: 63/76 (82.9%) women who had undergone BSO had FSD compared to 75/96 (78.1%) controls (p = 0.458). No difference in HSDD was observed (p = 0.084) between the BSO group 70/76 (96.0%) and the controls 96/96 (100%). Women who had undergone BSO had lower general health scores compared to the control group (p = 0.034). Both groups had similar energy levels, emotional well-being, pain scores, physical functioning levels and social functioning levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, women with prior treatment for breast cancer had high levels of FSD and HSDD, irrespective of whether they had undergone BSO. Both groups reported similar sexual function scores and QoL.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Salpingooforectomía/psicología , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Sexualidad/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Australia Occidental
4.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(1): 56-61, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315752

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review considers the potential and demonstrated impacts of SARS-CoV-2 on the sexually transmissible infection (STI)/HIV transmission. RECENT FINDINGS: COVID-19 increases the vulnerability of those at highest risk of acquiring STI/HIV. Altered health-seeking behaviour, reductions in STI/HIV clinic capacity, service disruptions and redeployment of human resources to assist COVID-19 control efforts have impacted on STI/HIV control programmes. Reports of reduced STI incidence are emerging, but it is hard to determine whether this is real or due to decreased testing during COVID-19 lockdown periods. Fear of COVID-19 and implemented control measures have altered STI/HIV transmission dynamics. Sexual health services adapted to the pandemic by reducing face-to-face patient encounters in favour of telehealth and mail-based initiatives as well as more stringent triage practice. Many sexual health and HIV treatment services now operate at reduced capacity and experience ongoing service disruptions, which necessarily translates into poorer outcomes for patients and their communities. SUMMARY: In the short-term, COVID-19 related sexual behaviour change is driving STI/HIV transmission downwards. However, the impacts of the global COVID-19 response on sexual health-seeking behaviour and STI/HIV services threaten to drive STI/HIV transmission upwards. Ultimately, the expected rebound in STI/HIV incidence will require an appropriate and timely public health response. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/COID/A31.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Humanos , Incidencia , Conducta Sexual , Salud Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión
5.
Ars pharm ; 61(4): 215-222, oct.-dic. 2020. tab, graf, mapas
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195234

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: Conocer y relacionar las tendencias de búsqueda de información sobre Emtricitabina/Tenofovir y las prácticas sexuales de riesgo (chemsex). MÉTODO: Estudio ecológico de los volúmenes de búsqueda relativo (VBR) obtenidos de la consulta directa a la herramienta «Google Trends», utilizando los Temas de búsqueda «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Chemsex», y «Truvada» como Término de Búsqueda. El periodo de búsqueda fue del 1 de enero de 2004 al 31 de diciembre de 2019. Fecha de consulta 16 de enero de 2020. RESULTADOS: El VBR = 100, máximo, se alcanzó en julio de 2012 para «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir», siendo la relación entre los términos de 100/97/10. La asociación entre «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Truvada» fue muy alta (R = 0,99; p < 0,001). Y las medias de los VBR para «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» y «Chemsex» de 25,68 y 14,41 respectivamente. La evolución temporal del término «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» fue lineal (R2 = 0,62; p < 0,001), mientras que para «Chemsex» se obtuvo creciente con ajuste exponencial (R2 = 0,54; p < 0,001). La correlación existente entre los VBR de los dos términos analizados mostró asociación directa significativa (R = 0,69; p < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Los hitos observados en el VBR coincidieron con momentos relacionados con eventos destacados. Se probó un crecimiento, a lo largo del tiempo, en la búsqueda de información tanto sobre los Temas Emtricitabina/Tenofovir como sobre "chemsex". Igualmente, se probó la relación entre ambos Temas. Estas conclusiones podrían estar relacionadas con el aumento de las prácticas sexuales de riesgo


OBJECTIVE: To know and relate the trends of searches for information about «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and risky sexual behaviour (chemsex). METHOD: Ecological study of relative search volumes (RSV) obtained from the direct search for the tool «Google Trends», using the Searching Issues «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Chemsex», and «Truvada» like Searching Term. The searching period was from 1 january 2004 to 31 december 2019. Consultation date 16 january 2020. RESULTS: RSV = 100, maximum, was reached in july 2012 by «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir», being the relationship between terms: 100/97/10. The association between «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Truvada» was rather high (R = 0.99; p < 0,001). And the averages of RSV of «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» and «Chemsex» were 25.68 and 14.41 respectively. The temporal progress of the term «Emtricitabina/Tenofovir» was linear (R2 = 0.62; p < 0.001), meanwhile for «Chemsex» was increased with exponential adjustment (R2 = 0.54; p < 0.001). The existent correlation between the RSV of the two analyzed terms showed significant direct association (R = 0.69; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The observed milestones in the RSV coincide with moments associated with relevant events. A growth was proved along the time, in the search for information for the Themes Emtricitabina/tenofovir as well as for "chemsex". Likewise, the relation between both Themes was proved. These conclusions could be connected with the increase of the risky sexual behaviour


Asunto(s)
Motor de Búsqueda/tendencias , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información , Emtricitabina , Tenofovir , Sexo Inseguro , Conducta Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Motor de Búsqueda/estadística & datos numéricos , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Análisis de Regresión , Factores de Tiempo , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e49912, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1122747

RESUMEN

Objetivo: identificar as práticas sexuais de jovens universitários em seus relacionamentos afetivos e analisar a percepção dos estudantes em relação à vulnerabilidade às Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis. Método: estudo descritivo, qualitativo, realizado em 2016, no Rio de Janeiro, com 30 universitários, ambos os sexos, faixa etária 18 - 29 anos, que participaram de grupos focais. Dados discursivos foram analisados com auxílio do software NVivo 9 e técnica de análise de conteúdo. Respeitaram-se os procedimentos éticos de pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Resultados: na análise, emergiram duas categorias: As práticas sexuais dos universitários nos tempos atuais; Os jovens e a percepção de vulnerabilidade às IST. Os jovens vivenciam a sexualidade com liberdade no tocante à identidade de gênero, expressão de gênero e orientação sexual, estabelecendo uma pluralidade de relacionamentos e parceiros. Os estudantes se reconhecem como um grupo vulnerável. Conclusão: as condutas sexuais dos universitários os deixam vulneráveis aos agravos de saúde, como as infecções sexualmente transmissíveis.


Objective: to identify the sexual practices of young university students in their affective relationships and to analyze how they perceive their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. Method: this qualitative, descriptive study was carried out in 2016 in Rio de Janeiro, with 30 university students of both sexes, aged 18-29 years, who participated in focal groups. Discourse data were analyzed using the NVivo 9 software and content analysis technique. The ethics of research procedures involving human beings were respected. Results: two categories emerged in the analysis: present-day sexual practices of university students; young people and perception of vulnerability to STIs. Young people experience sexuality freely as regards gender identity, gender expression and sexual orientation, and establish a plurality of relationships and partners. Students recognize themselves to be a vulnerable group. Conclusion: university students' sexual conduct leaves them vulnerable to health problems, such as sexually transmitted infections.


Objetivo: identificar las prácticas sexuales de jóvenes universitarios en sus relaciones afectivas y analizar cómo perciben su vulnerabilidad a las infecciones de transmisión sexual. Método: estudio cualitativo, descriptivo, realizado en 2016 en Río de Janeiro, con 30 estudiantes universitarios de ambos sexos, de 18 a 29 años, que participaron en grupos focales. Los datos del discurso se analizaron utilizando el software NVivo 9 y la técnica de análisis de contenido. Se respetó la ética de los procedimientos de investigación con seres humanos. Resultados: en el análisis surgieron dos categorías: prácticas sexuales actuales de estudiantes universitarios; jóvenes y percepción de vulnerabilidad a las ITS. Los jóvenes experimentan libremente la sexualidad en cuanto a identidad de género, expresión de género y orientación sexual, y establecen una pluralidad de relaciones y parejas. Los estudiantes se reconocen a sí mismos como un grupo vulnerable. Conclusión: la conducta sexual de los estudiantes universitarios los deja vulnerables a problemas de salud, como infecciones de transmisión sexual.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes , Universidades , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Percepción , Brasil , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Sexualidad , Investigación Cualitativa , Sexo Inseguro , Identidad de Género
7.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20190006, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1145143

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the sexual practices adopted by university students for the prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections Method: a quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study, conducted in 2016, at a private university in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A convenience sample was selected, stratified by gender, of 768 students who answered a self-administered questionnaire, structured with variables of sociodemographic characterization and related to knowledge about sexually transmitted infections, sexual practices, prevention practices and care with sexual health. In the analysis, descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and analysis of variance were used, with a significance level of 5%. Results: most of the university students ‒ 654 (85.16%) ‒ had an active sex life and 480 (62.54%) did not use condoms in all their sexual encounters. Among the participants, 509 (84.83%) said they had sexual intercourse with a steady partner, of which 224 (44.01%) used a condom. In the investigated group, 313 (47.86%) had relationships with casual partners, with 199 (63.58%) reporting having used a condom. Among the participants, 174 (26.61%) had their sexual practices classified as adequate/satisfactory. Conclusion: the findings show that the university students investigated present a risk behavior for Sexually Transmitted Infections due to inadequate/unsatisfactory sexual practices. Health education actions should consider cultural and individual aspects of the group in order to encourage reflection on practices for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar las prácticas sexuales adoptadas por estudiantes universitarios para prevenir Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual. Método: estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y transversal, realizado en el año 2016 en una universidad privada del municipio de Río de Janeiro, Brasil. Ajustada por conveniencia y estratificada por sexo, la muestra estuvo compuesta por 768 estudiantes que respondieron un cuestionario autoaplicado, estructurado con variables de caracterización sociodemográfica y relacionadas con el conocimiento sobre infecciones de transmisión sexual, prácticas sexuales, prácticas de prevención y cuidados con la salud sexual. En el análisis se empleó la estadística descriptiva, pruebas de Chi-cuadrado y análisis de variancia, con un nivel de significancia del 5%. Resultados: la mayoría de los universitarios ‒ 654 (85,16%) ‒ tenía una vida sexual activa y 480 (62,54%) no usaban preservativo en todos sus encuentros sexuales. Entre los participantes, 509 (84,83%) afirmaron tener relaciones sexuales con una pareja fija y, de ellos, 224 (44,01%) utilizaban preservativo. En el grupo investigado, 313 (47,86%) tuvieron relaciones con parejas casuales, y 199 (63,58%) declararon haber usado preservativo. Entre los participantes, las prácticas sexuales de 174 (26,61%) de ellos se clasificaron como adecuadas/satisfactorias. Conclusión: las conclusiones del estudio evidencian que los universitarios investigados presentan un comportamiento de riesgo para contraer Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual como resultado de prácticas sexuales inadecuadas/insatisfactorias. Las medidas de educación en salud deben considerar aspectos culturales e individuales del grupo para favorecer la reflexión sobre las prácticas de prevención de enfermedades de transmisión sexual.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar as práticas sexuais adotadas por estudantes universitários para prevenção de Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis Método: estudo quantitativo, descritivo e transversal, realizado em 2016, em uma universidade privada no município do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Selecionou-se amostra por conveniência, estratificada por sexo, de 768 estudantes que responderam a um questionário autoaplicado, estruturado com variáveis de caracterização sociodemográfica e relacionadas ao conhecimento sobre infecções sexualmente transmissíveis, práticas sexuais, práticas de prevenção e cuidados com a saúde sexual. Na análise, empregou-se a estatística descritiva, testes de quiquadrado e análise de variância, com nível de significância de 5%. Resultados: a maioria dos universitários ‒ 654(85,16%) ‒ tinha vida sexual ativa e 480(62,54%) não fazia uso do preservativo em todos os intercursos sexuais. Entre os participantes, 509(84,83%) afirmaram ter relação sexual com parceiro fixo, dos quais 224(44,01%) utilizaram o preservativo. No grupo investigado, 313(47,86%) tiveram relações com parceiros casuais, sendo que 199 (63,58%) informaram ter usado o preservativo. Entre os participantes, 174(26,61%) tiveram suas práticas sexuais classificadas como adequadas/satisfatórias. Conclusão: os achados evidenciam que os universitários investigados apresentam um comportamento de risco para Infecções Sexualmente Transmissíveis decorrente de práticas sexuais inadequadas/insatisfatórias. Ações de educação em saúde devem considerar aspectos culturais e individuais do grupo para favorecer a reflexão sobre as práticas de prevenção de doenças transmitidas pelo sexo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Prevención Primaria , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Adulto Joven , Salud Sexual
8.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45752, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1117683

RESUMEN

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência do uso do preservativo e os fatores associados em trabalhadores da construção civil. Método: estudo transversal, analítico, com 370 trabalhadores da grande João Pessoa, Paraíba. Considerou como variável de desfecho o uso do preservativo na última relação sexual. Utilizou-se questionário estruturado. Análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla foi utilizada para identificar associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas e o uso do preservativo. Resultados: a maioria dos participantes é do sexo masculino, adultos jovens, casados e com baixa escolaridade. A prevalência estimada de uso do preservativo foi de 23,5% (IC 95%: 19,2% - 27,8%). Indivíduos com menos de 39 anos possuem 1,82 vezes mais chances de usar o preservativo e ser casado diminui (RC=0,26) as chances de uso. Conclusão: há baixa prevalência de uso do preservativo em trabalhadores da construção civil. A prevenção combinada é uma alternativa para controle das infecções transmissíveis, sendo o preservativo o principal coadjuvante.


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of condom use and the associated factors in construction workers. Method: in this crosssectional, analytical study with 370 workers from greater João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, the outcome variable was condom use at last sexual intercourse. A structured questionnaire was used. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify associations between sociodemographic variables and condom use. Results: most participants were young, male adults, married and with little education. Estimated prevalence of condom use was 23.5% (95% CI; 19.2% - 27.8%). Individuals under 39 years old were found to be 1.82 times more likely to use condoms than individuals aged 40 years or older (OR = 1.82; 95% CI), while being married reduced the likelihood (OR = 0.26). Conclusion: prevalence of condom use is low among construction workers. Combined prevention is one option for controlling communicable diseases, with condoms as the main support.


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia del uso de condón y los factores asociados en trabajadores de la construcción. Método: en este estudio transversal y analítico con 370 trabajadores del área metropolitana de João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brazil, la variable de resultado fue el uso de condón en la última relación sexual. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado y análisis de regresión logística bivariada y múltiple para identificar asociaciones entre las variables sociodemográficas y el uso del condón. Resultados: la mayoría de los participantes fueron jóvenes, varones adultos, casados y con poca educación. La prevalencia estimada del uso de condones fue del 23,5% (IC del 95%; 19,2% - 27,8%). Se encontró que las personas menores de 39 años tenían 1,82 veces más probabilidades de usar condones que las personas de 40 años o más (OR = 1,82; IC del 95%), mientras que estar casado redujo la probabilidad (OR = 0,26). Conclusión: la prevalencia del uso de condones es baja entre los trabajadores de la construcción. La prevención combinada es una opción para controlar las enfermedades transmisibles, con el condón como principal apoyo.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Laboral , Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexo Inseguro/estadística & datos numéricos , Brasil , Industria de la Construcción , Estudios Transversales , Prevención de Enfermedades , Correlación de Datos , Enfermería del Trabajo
9.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(4): 857-869, out.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1145475

RESUMEN

Este artigo trabalha na perspectiva histórica e na revisão bibliográfica de autores que analisam os recursos da linguagem, como a metáfora, para perceber a construção discursiva do HIV/aids na medicina, na mídia, no campo literário, na militância LGBTI e nos relatos em canais no YouTube de pessoas vivendo com HIV. O objetivo é utilizar as análises da terminologia e da história de luta pela significação de termos associados à doença e ao vírus em cada período. Dessa forma, verificamos que as representações iniciais sobre a condição clínica relacionada à culpa e ao julgamento moral de grupos, já vulneráveis antes da epidemia, não foram totalmente superadas no discurso. Observamos ainda os esforços, ao longo desses 40 anos, no campo da ciência para reduzir o estigma e a discriminação a partir da palavra.


This article works in the historical perspective and in the bibliographic review of authors who analyze language resources, such as the metaphor, to understand the discursive construction of HIV/AIDS in medicine, in the media, in the literary field, in LGBTI activism and in reports on YouTube channels of people living with HIV. The objective is to use the analysis of terminology and history of struggle for the meaning of terms associated with the disease and the virus in each period. We found that the initial representations about the clinical condition related to guilt and the moral judgment of groups, already vulnerable before the epidemic, were not completely overcome in the discourse. We also observe the efforts, over these 40 years, in the field of science to reduce stigma and discrimination based on words.


Este artículo trabaja en la perspectiva histórica y en la revisión bibliográfica de autores que analizan recursos del lenguaje, como la metáfora, para comprender la construcción discursiva del VIH/SIDA en la medicina, en los medios de comunicación, en el campo literario, en el activismo LGBTI y en canales de YouTube de personas que viven con el VIH. El objetivo es utilizar el análisis de la terminología y la historia de las luchas por el significado de los términos asociados a la enfermedad y al virus en cada período. Así, encontramos que las representaciones iniciales sobre el cuadro clínico relacionado con la culpa y el juicio moral de grupos, ya vulnerables antes de la epidemia, no fueron superadas por completo en el discurso. También hemos visto esfuerzos, durante estos 40 años, en el campo de la ciencia para reducir el estigma y la discriminación basados en las palabras.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , VIH , Epidemias , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Conducta Sexual , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Medios de Comunicación , Periodismo , Difusión por la Web , Estigma Social , Narrativa Personal , Historia
10.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(4): 599-604, 2020 Dec 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356067

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Life satisfaction is the result of valuing one's own life, and it is higher when the individual situation is closer to the general norm. It is characterized by dynamic and subjectivity and the way it is perceived is regulated by internal and external factors. Life satisfaction can be described in subjective and objective categories, by various indicators. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the determinants of satisfaction with life in selected aspects among women of reproductive age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on 280 women, selected according to the following criteria: age range 18-45, at least one sexual intercourse per month, lack of chronic diseases or cancer, and consent to participate in the research. The research instruments used were: Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). RESULTS: Life satisfaction increased with age (p<0.0001), higher life satisfaction was reported by women with higher education (p<0.001), married, (p<0.01), talked with their partner about their sexual expectations (p=0.03) and did not want to change anything in their sexual life (p<0.001). Analysis revealed a positive correlation between life satisfaction and sexual satisfaction (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Higher level of sexual satisfaction and sexual health is related to better satisfaction with life. Factors affecting sexual satisfaction include residence, having children, discussing one's sexual expectations with their partner, feeling no need to change one's sex life, and frequency of sexual activity.


Asunto(s)
Satisfacción Personal , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Sexualidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Coito , Estudios Transversales , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Polonia , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e44520, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1123445

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar condições clínicas e comportamentos de risco à saúde de pessoas em situação de rua. Método: estudo transversal, realizado em duas instituições de referência para pessoas em situação de rua na região nordeste do Brasil. Aplicouse um roteiro de entrevista referente a variáveis sociodemográficas, clínicas e comportamentos vulneráveis ao adoecer para 100 participantes. Utilizou-se o teste Qui Quadrado e ANOVA. Resultados: o tipo de parceiro sexual influência na presença de sintomas de infecção sexualmente transmissível, a presença de sintomatologia relacionada à infecção sexualmente transmissível do parceiro influência na sintomatologia do próprio indivíduo, o etilismo influência na prática de sexo com usuário de drogas, a prática de sexo em troca de dinheiro apresenta correlação com a violência física, o sexo oral influência na presença de sintoma de infecção sexualmente transmissível. Conclusão: pessoas em situação de rua apresentam condições e comportamentos que potencializam o adoecimento.


Objective: to examine the clinical conditions and health risk behavior of homeless people. Method: this cross-sectional study was conducted at two referral centers for homeless people in northeast Brazil. Information on sociodemographic and clinical variables, and vulnerable behaviors when falling ill was elicited from 100 participants by scripted interviews. Chi-Square and Anova tests were used. Results: type of sexual partner influenced the presence of symptoms of sexually-transmitted infection; the presence of symptoms related to the partner's sexually-transmitted infections influenced the participant's symptomatology; alcoholism influenced the practice of sex with drug users; sex in exchange for money correlated with physical violence; and oral sex influenced the presence of a sexually-transmitted infection symptom. Conclusion: people on the street display conditions and behaviors that potentiate illness.


Objetivo: examinar las condiciones clínicas y el comportamiento de riesgo para la salud de las personas sin hogar. Método: este estudio transversal se realizó en dos centros de referencia para personas sin hogar en el noreste de Brasil. La información sobre las variables sociodemográficas y clínicas, y los comportamientos vulnerables cuando se enferma se obtuvo de 100 participantes mediante entrevistas con guión. Se utilizaron pruebas de Chi-Cuadrado y Anova. Resultados: el tipo de pareja sexual influyó en la presencia de síntomas de infección de transmisión sexual; la presencia de síntomas relacionados con las infecciones de transmisión sexual de la pareja influyó en la sintomatología del participante; el alcoholismo influyó en la práctica del sexo con consumidores de drogas; sexo a cambio de dinero correlacionado con violencia física; y el sexo oral influyó en la presencia de un síntoma de infección de transmisión sexual. Conclusión: las personas en la calle exhiben condiciones y comportamientos que potencian la enfermedad.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Personas sin Hogar , Estado de Salud , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Conducta Sexual , Brasil , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , Estudios Transversales , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol , Abuso Físico
12.
Wiad Lek ; 73(10): 2277-2281, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310963

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To systematize and bring the reader closer to knowledge about the occurrence of sexual disorders in people after heart transplantation based on available bibliography. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: A review of the literature on this topic from the last 30 years made with using the PubMed database, using a total of 17 articles. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The incidence of sexual dysfunction (SD) is higher in heart recipients than in the general population and erectile dysfunction is the most common. When the symptoms of dysfunction occur before the transplant - they do not improve, rather they get worse, which reduces the improvement in the quality of life of these patients compared to patients without sexual dysfunction. Improvement in quality of life is observed in patients with SD after heart transplantation, but not as pronounced as in subjects without sexual dysfunction. Some patients notice an increase in libido, with the genital response being insufficient or completely disappearing, which results in a decrease in the quality of relationships between partners and a deterioration in the quality of life. The cause of SD in heart recipients is unclear, but it is associated with the type of immunosuppression used, the level of sexual activity and the state of health of patients prior to transplantation. Nowadays patients after ortotrophic heart transplant live longer and their quality of life improves, but not in sexual terms. The articles concerned almost exclusively men, that is why the topic requires exploration in subsequent research.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Eréctil , Trasplante de Corazón , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas , Humanos , Libido , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual
14.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 1427-1434, 2020 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333662

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the characteristics of HIV-related risk behaviors and needs for prevention services among males who sell sex for money or anything of value (commonly known as money boys or MB), and to provide evidence for the development of targeted interventions. Methods: Using non-probability purposive sampling method and one-on-one interviews. Results: A total of 28 MBs were interviewed, with age range between 20 and 67, and education primarily at junior high school level. Among them 6 were married. Their household registration for residency cut across 15 provinces, and their sexual orientation is diverse. They migrate primarily among tier one cities and provincial capitals. Most enter the trade for economic reasons, relying on clubs and personal networks to find clients, and on word of mouth to obtain knowledge and skills. In addition to their primary clientele of the male homosexual community, 5 out of 28 serve male heterosexuals and 6 out of 28 also serve females. They have some awareness of self protection from diseases, primarily from word of mouth. Nevertheless, over half of them cannot maintain consistent condom use, and 12 out of 28 have a history of illegal drug use. Three of them reported being tested positive for HIV, and all continue to engage in sex work. They prefer their communication messages to be simple and straight-forward. Privacy comes first when they are accessing testing and treatment services. Conclusion: The bridge role of the MB community in transmitting HIV to the general population cannot be ignored, and interventions targeting the MB population need to be strengthened.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Asunción de Riesgos , Condones , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajo Sexual , Conducta Sexual
15.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(12): 1435-1440, 2020 Dec 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333663

RESUMEN

Objective: To compare the difference of HIV infection risk among student Men who have sex with men (sMSM) attending secondary vocational colleges or high school, sMSM attending universities or above, and non-student men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July and October, 2019. Inclusion criteria of participants include: 15-24 years old, male at birth, had homosexual oral or anal intercourse before survey, self-reported HIV negative or unclear. Demographic information, HIV testing history and social media usage were collected by a self-reporting questionnaire, the HIV risk assessment tool was used for HIV infection risk assessment. We used Logistic regression to analyze the difference of HIV infection risk among student sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges or high school, sMSM attending universities or above, and non-student MSM. Results: Of the 1 707 participants, 45% (771 projects) reported homosexual debut before the age of 19, the proportion of HIV self-testing was 49% (833 projects), and 34% (587 projects) received facility-based testing. Comparing with sMSM attending universities or above, non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges or high school had higher probability of medium and high HIV infection risk [OR(95%CI): 1.53(1.10-2.12), 1.80(1.06-3.07), respectively], while the probability of medium and high HIV infection risk between sMSM attending secondary vocational colleges and non-student MSM was not statistically different. Conclusion: Non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational college or high school have higher risk of HIV infection, health staff should allocate more education resources to Non-student MSM and sMSM attending secondary vocational college or high school, in order to alleviate HIV threat to them.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 438, 2020 12 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335102

RESUMEN

A cross-sectional survey of adolescents and heads of households was done in six urban and rural local government areas in Ebonyi state, Nigeria in August 2018. Modified cluster sampling technique was used to select households from which eligible adolescent boys and girls were recruited. This data article describes two datasets that, for the first time, expansively describe adolescents' sexual and reproductive behaviors in Nigeria. The datasets include variables on adolescents' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; family relationships; sexual behaviors; awareness and use of contraceptives; access to sexual and reproductive health information and services; gender norms and ideology about adolescent sexuality; and potential strategies for reducing unwanted teenage pregnancies and unsafe abortions. This dataset would be useful to public health researchers and social scientists investigating drivers of adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviour, as well as programme managers seeking potential strategies for improving adolescent health outcomes. The datasets also provide a template that could be replicated for national or regional surveys on adolescent sexual and reproductive behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Salud Reproductiva , Salud Sexual , Adolescente , Anticonceptivos , Familia , Humanos , Gobierno Local , Nigeria , Población Rural , Conducta Sexual , Población Urbana
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374820

RESUMEN

With the introduction of fentanyl to illegal markets in 2013 and an overall rise in rates of synthetic opioid use, opioid-related deaths have increased significantly. A similar trend has been observed for sexually transmitted infections, homicides, and poor mental health outcomes. In this paper, we explore the spatiotemporal relationship between opioid death rates and sexually transmitted infection (STI) rates in counties from the Northeast region of the United States between the years 2012-2017. We hypothesized that rates for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) would all be positively associated with opioid death rates and that there would be a similar association between the STI rates and later time periods relative to earlier time periods. A negative binomial mixed-effects regression model was employed to assess these associations. Contrary to the study hypothesis, opioid death rates were not found to be significantly associated with the STI rates after accounting for other demographic and socioeconomic variables, with the exception of opioid deaths and gonorrhea in urban counties. Additionally, the regression demonstrated a significant association between infection rate and time period beyond the included socioeconomic variables and opioid deaths. Overall, this study indicates that declining sexual health outcomes may parallel rising opioid death, though both trends may be explained by similar underlying factors related to time period.


Asunto(s)
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamiento , Sobredosis de Droga/mortalidad , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Infecciones por Chlamydia , Gonorrea , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , New England/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
18.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 93, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146325

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) anal infection and associated factors in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive patients in Medellín. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study in 300 HIV-positive patients, adults, with history of anal intercourse, treated in two health care services of Medellín 2017-2018. We conducted a structured survey on sociodemographics, sexual behavior and medical history. HPV was detected in anal swabs tested by the COBAS 4800 system. Exploratory data analysis of risk factors associated with HR-HPV was conducted by chi-square test of independence and both raw and adjusted prevalence ratios used the Poisson regression model, at a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The high-risk HPV had a prevalence of 82.7%; HPV16 had a prevalence of 32.7%, HPV18 a prevalence of 21.7% and other HPV types scored 78.3%. The high-risk HPV prevalence in women was of 68.2% and 83.8% in men. The risk factors associated with high-risk HPV after adjustment were age under 30 years, elementary education, casual sex partners, and first sexual activity before 18 years old. CONCLUSIONS: The high incidence of high-risk HPV, along with the occurrence of coinfections by multiple types in the study population shows their susceptibility to develop some type of anal intra-epithelial neoplasia. It is important to establish sexual health programs focused on primary health care.


Asunto(s)
Canal Anal , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por Papillomavirus , Adulto , Canal Anal/virología , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por Papillomavirus/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sexual
19.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1220-1226, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147920

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the knowledge awareness and service acceptance of HIV non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP) men who have sex with men (MSM) among college students in three cities of China. Methods: Male college students in 10 universities of Beijing, Shenzhen and Kunming aged 18 and above who had sex with men in the last 3 months were recruited as research objects by cluster stratified sampling from March 15, 2019 to April 14, 2019.Basic information, sexual behavior characteristics, knowledge, and service acceptance of nPEP were collected through online questionnaire survey. Multivariate dichotomy and unconditioned logistic regression model was used to explore related factors about knowledge awareness and service acceptance of nPEP. Results: A total of 293 MSM were surveyed. The average age was (21.0±0.2) years old, and 91.1% (267) were undergraduates. In the last 3 months before the survey, 54.3%(159) used condom each time of sex; 4.4%(13) had intercourse with the HIV infected men, and 9.2% (27)suffered STDs in the past 6 months. The 29.4% (86) had not received HIV testing in the past year. The nPEP knowledge awareness rate was 47.8% (140). The 21.2% (62) counseled nPEP services, and 9.9% (29) received nPEP services. After multiple logistic regression analysis, compared with those who not received HIV testing in the past year, OR (95%CI) value of those who received HIV testing for more than twice in the past year to aware the nPEP knowledge was 3.15 (1.01-9.86). Compared with those who not received HIV testing in the past year, OR (95%CI) value of those who received HIV testing for more than twice in the past year to counsel the nPEP services was 5.29 (1.51-18.51). Compared with those who never used rush in the last 3 months, OR(95%CI) value of those who ever used rush in the last 3 months to receive the nPEP services was 3.86 (0.99-14.98). Compared with those who not sexed with HIV infected in the last 3 months, OR (95%CI) value of those who sexed with HIV infected in the last 3 months to receive the nPEP services was 14.30 (3.35-61.03). Conclusion: The proportions of awareness of nPEP knowledge and acceptance of nPEP services are low. MSM among college students need further health education of the nPEP knowledge to improve the accessibility of services.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Beijing , China , Ciudades , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Profilaxis Posexposición , Conducta Sexual , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 54(11): 1227-1231, 2020 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147921

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand sexual needs and factors of risky sexual behaviors among elderly men at different ages in two communities of Qiandongnan Miao and Dong autonomous prefecture and provide basis for targeted HIV prevention and intervention. Methods: Two communities in the prefecture were selected as study sites. Questionnaire surveys were carried out among elderly men aged 50 and over who visited or consulted in the communities from June to December 2018, and they were tested for HIV and syphilis antibodies. Results: Among 400 elderly men, 209 (52.2%) were 50-64 years old, and 191(47.8%) were above 65 years old. They were mainly Miao people, accounting for 66.3% (265/400), and 235 (58.8%) had an education no more than 6 years. HIV awareness of the two age groups were only 25.8% (54/199) and 26.2% (50/191), respectively. Among those aged 50-64, 142 (68.0%) felt normal sexual desire, and 153 (73.6%) reported penile erections or erections in most cases whenever sex, and 52.9% (110) ejaculated most of the time. HIV prevalence was 1.0% (4/400). Compared with the over 65-year-old group, the proportion of having sex with spouse/stable partners (89.5%, 179/200), proportion of no condom use with their spouse/stable sexual partners during the most recent sex (93.8%, 168/179), proportion of having casual sex (11.0%, 23/209) and commercial sex (3.8%, 8/209) were all higher among 50-64 age group. In comparison to those aged over 65 years old, average monthly income>3 000, and use of sex helper, aged 50-64 (OR=2.70, 95%CI: 1.22-5.95), average monthly income ≤1 000 yuan (OR=2.79, 95%CI: 1.25-6.21), and no use of sex helper (OR=3.78) (95%CI: 1.65-8.67) were related factors of HIV risky sexual behavior last time. Conclusion: Elderly men in the minority prefecture had low HIV awareness. Compared with those≥65 years old, the 50-64 age group had more active sexual behaviors and higher sexual needs. Those from 50-64 age group, with lower economic level and good sexual ability were more likely to have HIV risky sexual behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Trabajo Sexual , Anciano , Condones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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