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1.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 62(4): 6-8, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38569095

RESUMEN

Suicide in young people is a challenge, but suicide rates in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning (LGBTQ) youth are alarming. The current article explores the influence of several social determinates of health, specifically mental health care access and quality and education, on suicide among LGBTQ youth. Providers must recognize the mental health challenges and disparities in LGBTQ youth and address them to improve mental health and decrease suicide rates. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 62(4), 6-8.].


Asunto(s)
Homosexualidad Femenina , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Personas Transgénero , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Prevención del Suicidio , Bisexualidad/psicología , Conducta Sexual , Personas Transgénero/psicología
2.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 66(1): e1-e8, 2024 Mar 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572874

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND:  In South Africa, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) represent a significant public health issue. Sexually transmitted infections contribute significantly to the burden of disease in South Africa and are recognised as one of the main causes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential causes of the high prevalence of STIs in the Du Noon population. METHODS:  A mixed methodology study involving 40 participants between the ages of 18 years and 45 years was conducted at Du Noon community health centre from 01 May 2021 to 15 May 2021. Both structured questionnaires and one-on-one patient interviews with open-ended questions were utilised to collect data. RESULTS:  Cultural beliefs, having multiple partners, a lack of partner notification, alcohol consumption, and a lack of condom usage were found to be the main contributing factors to the high incidence of STIs. Sex education appears to be lacking. Our findings reflected the other well-known cultural and socioeconomic issues confronting South African communities, for example, poverty, age-disparate relationships, and polygamous relationships. CONCLUSION:  The cultural perspectives and understandings of sexual interactions of older men appear to have an impact on younger generations; as do peer pressure, social media and other socio-economic factors. There is an urgent need to shift cultural ideologies and norms among the youth. More research is needed to understand the views and misconceptions of the general public about STIs.Contribution: This study highlighted how health education challenges, interpersonal relationships, and socioeconomic barriers are still important factors in STI transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Masculino , Adolescente , Humanos , Anciano , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual , Condones
3.
Law Hum Behav ; 48(1): 13-32, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573702

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We examined attorneys' experiences, perceptions, and decisions regarding plea recommendations in child sexual cases. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that characteristics of the child (age, relationship to alleged perpetrator) and the report (timing of disclosure, consistency across reports) would affect attorneys' perceptions of evidence strength, likelihood of conviction, and plea recommendations. METHOD: We collected data from a national sample of actively practicing prosecutors (n = 217) and defense attorneys (n = 251) who had experience with child abuse cases. They averaged 18 years of experience practicing law, were slightly more likely to be men (53%) than women, and primarily identified as White, non-Hispanic (86%). In Part 1, attorneys answered general questions about their experiences in child sexual abuse cases. In Part 2, they reviewed materials from a hypothetical case that varied the child's age (5 years, 11 years), the child's relationship to the alleged perpetrator (familial, nonfamilial), the timing of the child's initial disclosure (1 week, 6 months), and the consistency of the child's report (inconsistent, consistent). They rated the evidence strength, estimated the likelihood of conviction, and assessed whether they would recommend that the defendant accept a plea offer or proceed to trial. RESULTS: In Part 1, attorneys reported that they often have access to police reports, information about the alleged perpetrator, and evidence from the child when making plea recommendations. They said that it was important to know about prior allegations against the alleged perpetrator or by the child when assessing their credibility. They reported that the length of the sentence, sex offender registration requirement, and possibility of time served guided their plea recommendations. In Part 2, the consistency of the child's report influenced their decisions the most; they rated the evidence against the defendant as stronger when the child was consistent across reports than when the child was inconsistent. Additionally, their perceptions of evidence strength drove their recommendations. When the evidence against the defendant was stronger, attorneys thought that the defendant was more likely to be convicted at trial; thus, prosecutors were less willing and defense attorneys were more willing to recommend a plea. CONCLUSION: Similar to other cases, evidence strength and the perceived likelihood of conviction drive attorneys' decisions to offer or recommend a plea to a defendant in a child sexual abuse case. The consistency of the child's report plays a major role in predicting perceptions of evidence strength. Future research is needed to determine which other factors in child sexual abuse cases may also predict attorneys' perceptions and plea recommendations. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2024 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Maltrato a los Niños , Niño , Masculino , Femenino , Humanos , Preescolar , Abogados , Conducta Sexual , Bases de Datos Factuales
4.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0298166, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578820

RESUMEN

Indigenous and Northern women in Canada experience high rates of intimate partner violence (IPV), and this is particularly true in the Northwest Territories (NWT). Adolescents are also at increased risk of IPV, which has far-reaching, lifelong effects. Indigenous youth are particularly vulnerable to IPV due to ongoing effects of intergenerational trauma caused by colonialism, racism and residential school legacies. We explored attitudes towards IPV and the healthy relationship knowledge, skills, and experiences among participants of Fostering Open eXpression among Youth (FOXY) and Strength, Masculinities, and Sexual Health (SMASH) Peer Leader Retreats in the NWT. Multi-method approaches included quantitative surveys youth completed before and immediately following retreats. Quantitative analysis from retreats (2018-2021) included 240 participants aged 12-19 (mean age 14.5) who reported ever having an intimate partner. Most were from the FOXY program (64.2%), Indigenous (69.6%) and heterosexual (66.4%). Qualitative methods included Focus Group Discussions (FGD) (n = 69) conducted with peer leaders and apprentices (n = 311) and youth and adult staff (n = 14 FGDs, n = 165 participants). We thematically analysed FGDs to explore healthy relationship knowledge and skills, alongside paired t-tests to examine pre/post retreat changes in attitudes towards IPV. Qualitative findings suggest that leadership and embodied learning were effective in equipping youth with violence prevention and healthy relationship skills. While young women were committed to sharing knowledge and skills about healthy relationships in their communities, young men resonated with values of respect and appreciated support to identify and express emotions. Participants across programmes demonstrated their belief that healthy intimate relationships have communal, relational and intergenerational benefits. Quantitatively, we found a statistically significant reduction in attitudes accepting of IPV among young women, but no changes were noted among young men. Findings contribute to emergent evidence on strengths-based, culturally-responsive IPV prevention programming. Components of effective IPV prevention programming with young men merit further exploration.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Conducta Sexual , Masculino , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Femenino , Territorios del Noroeste , Parejas Sexuales , Canadá , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Poder Psicológico
5.
Br J Nurs ; 33(7): 338-345, 2024 Apr 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578936

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Nurses are uniquely positioned to identify and respond to the sexual exploitation of young people. They treat sexually transmitted infections, unplanned pregnancies, and mental health issues, often collaborating with social services and law enforcement to safeguard young people. AIM: This narrative review explores the pivotal role of nurses in identifying and responding to sexual exploitation among young people. METHODS: Empirical evidence from 1997 to 2021 was examined through a comprehensive search of databases such as CINAHL-EBSCO, ASSIA, PubMed (including Medline), and manual screening of abstracts. The PRISMA guideline was applied. Thematic analysis of 12 selected studies revealed three overarching themes. FINDINGS: The themes identified were the influence of technology on the sexual exploitation of young people, identification and response to sexual exploitation in both clinical and non-clinical settings, and organisational support. CONCLUSION: These findings shed light on sexual exploitation and underscore the significance of a person-centred approach to nursing care that addresses the health and social impacts of sexual exploitation. It emphasises the importance of interagency collaboration and appropriate clinical interventions to effectively support young people at risk. Increased professional development, support, and supervision for nurses are relevant to identifying, responding to, and preventing the sexual exploitation of young people.


Asunto(s)
Atención de Enfermería , Conducta Sexual , Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente
6.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 73-80, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580469

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In France, since 2017 the law has allowed people to change the gender marker on their civil status documents without having undergone medical treatment and sterilization surgery. However, no legislative framework has been provided to ensure their right to family, leaving those who wish to become parents in a space of social, political, and legal uncertainty that is inconsistent with international and human rights. In parallel, France has developed an arsenal of health strategies that constrain actors working in the field. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: This study examines the possibilities available to public health actors for promoting reproductive health in the absence of legislation and in the context of political and legislative adversity. To this end, it relies on a participatory, critical, and lexicometric analysis of national strategies for sexual and reproductive health and parenthood support. RESULTS: Governance strategies make no mention of parentality among transgender people. Sexual and reproductive health policies focus on tackling sexually transmitted infections, on health pathways, and on violence and discrimination. The analysis also highlights a lack of awareness on this topic. CONCLUSIONS: Shortcomings in the legislative framework and public health strategies raise ethical questions about the promotion of reproductive health and the potentially non-inclusive approach of actors in the field. These issues force communities to carry out actions outside the scope of ordinary regulations, and they highlight the political positioning of the public-health field in France.


Introduction: Depuis 2017, la loi française a mis fin à la nécessité d'intervention médicale et de stérilisation des personnes faisant modifier leur sexe administratif à l'état civil. Pour autant, aucun cadre législatif n'a été prévu pour garantir leur droit à la famille, ancrant leurs projets parentaux dans un aléa social, politique et juridique contraire aux droits humains et internationaux. Parallèlement, l'État français s'est doté d'un arsenal de stratégies de santé contraignant la place et le rôle des actrices et acteurs de terrain. But de l'étude: Cette étude interroge les possibilités des actrices et acteurs de santé publique à promouvoir la santé reproductive des personnes en l'absence de toute législation et dans un contexte d'adversité politique et législative. Pour cela, elle s'appuie sur une analyse participative, critique et lexicométrique des stratégies nationales de santé sexuelle et reproductive et de soutien à la parentalité. Résultats: La parentalité des personnes trans est absente des stratégies de gouvernance. Les politiques de santé sexuelle et reproductive se centrent autour de la lutte contre les infections sexuellement transmissibles, les parcours de santé et les discriminations et violences. L'analyse fait également ressortir la méconnaissance de cet enjeu. Conclusions: Les manquements du cadre législatif et des stratégies de santé publique interrogent les possibilités éthiques pour les actrices et acteurs de terrain de promouvoir la santé reproductive de manière non inclusive. Ce constat condamne les communautés à mener des actions en dehors du droit commun et pose la question de la place politique du champ de la santé publique en France.


Asunto(s)
Salud Reproductiva , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Humanos , Conducta Sexual , Política Pública , Política de Salud
7.
Sante Publique ; 36(1): 87-96, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580471

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Although the pill is still the contraceptive method most commonly used by young women in France, since the '00s there has been a decline in its use and a questioning of its centrality in the contraceptive norm. This questioning is part of a growing climate of mistrust toward hormonal methods. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH: Based on an analysis of a corpus of twenty-one interviews with women aged between twenty and twenty-eight on the subject of contraceptive choice, this article aims to provide information on the ways in which rejection of hormones is expressed and to determine its concrete effects on the interviewees' contraceptive choices. RESULTS: The survey shows the prevalence of mistrust of hormones among the young women interviewed. This mistrust is rarely rooted in their contraceptive experience; with a few exceptions, it seems to be more diffuse. This mistrust is most often expressed by women when it comes to justifying stopping the pill, the logistical burden of which becomes increasingly heavy as the years go by. However, the vast majority of women who reject the use of hormones continue to use medical contraception, including hormonal contraception, as long as it is perceived to be easier to use than the pill. CONCLUSIONS: By questioning hormonal contraception, and the pill in particular, young women are denouncing the lack of choice: they are not asking for less contraception, but for contraception that is better suited to their needs.


Introduction: Si la pilule demeure, en France, le moyen de contraception le plus utilisé par les jeunes femmes, on remarque depuis les années 2000 une diminution de cette utilisation et un questionnement quant à sa centralité dans la norme contraceptive. Ces remises en cause s'inscrivent dans une montée de ce que l'on peut qualifier de climat de défiance envers les méthodes hormonales. But de l'étude: À partir de l'analyse d'un corpus de 21 entretiens portant sur le choix en matière de contraception menés auprès de femmes ayant entre 20 et 28 ans, cet article vise à renseigner les modalités d'expression du rejet des hormones et à déterminer ses effets concrets sur leur choix contraceptif. Résultats: L'enquête montre la prévalence parmi les jeunes femmes interrogées d'une méfiance à l'égard des hormones, qui s'ancre rarement dans leur expérience contraceptive mais semble, à l'exception de certains cas, plus diffuse. Elle est surtout mobilisée par les femmes lorsqu'il s'agit de justifier l'arrêt de la pilule, dont la prise en charge matérielle devient de plus en plus pesante pour elles au fil des années. Finalement, les femmes qui rejettent l'utilisation des hormones continuent très majoritairement à utiliser une contraception médicalisée, y compris une contraception hormonale, à partir du moment où son usage est jugé plus facile que celui de la pilule. Conclusions: En remettant en cause la contraception hormonale, et plus précisément la pilule, c'est surtout le manque de choix que dénoncent les jeunes femmes : il ne s'agit pas de revendiquer moins de contraception, mais une contraception plus adaptée à leurs besoins.


Asunto(s)
Anticoncepción , Anticonceptivos , Femenino , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conducta Sexual , Hormonas
8.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 966, 2024 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580970

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Gay, bisexual, and cis-gender men who have sex with men (GBMSM) face severe consequences, especially within stigmatized environments. However, very little is known about the experiences of GBMSM living in slums in SSA and Ghana. This study investigates the experiences of stigma, victimization, and coping strategies and proposes some interventional approaches for combating stigma facing GBMSM in slum communities. METHODS: We engaged GBMSM living in slums in two major Ghanaian cities. We used a time-location sampling and collected data through in-depth individual interviews. Two major themes emerged from the study: (1) insecurities and criminalization of GBMSM activity, and (2) GBMSM coping strategies. RESULTS: Findings show GBMSM experienced negative attitudes from the community due to their sexual behavior/orientation. GBMSM also developed coping strategies to avert negative experiences, such as hiding their identities/behavior, avoiding gender non-conforming men, and having relationships with persons outside their communities. CONCLUSION: We propose interventions such as HIV Education, Empathy, Empowerment, Acceptance, and Commitment Therapy as possible measures to improve the experiences of GBMSM living in Ghanaian slum communities.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Ghana , Homosexualidad Masculina , Áreas de Pobreza , Conducta Sexual
9.
Afr J Reprod Health ; 28(3): 92-98, 2024 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583071

RESUMEN

This study aimed to determine the effects of education intervention on the knowledge of some reproductive health issues amongst secondary school students. It was longitudinal and interventional study carried out in two phases. Participants were adolescents and young adults randomly selected from secondary establishments using a Probability Proportional to Size sampling method. In phase 1, data were obtained by the use of questionnaire and analyzed using Epi-Info 6.04 and SPSS version 17.0. Education intervention was utilized in 3 randomly selected schools (experiment), but not in 3 others (control). Phase 2 carried out 6 months after the end of the first intervention consisted of collecting baseline data. There was a significant association between knowledge on unintended pregnancy and STIs mainly with type of establishment, class, age group, sex, religion (p<0.001 respectively) and being sexually active (p=0.016). There was a significant increase of awareness in the experimental schools (34.1% vs 76.5%, p<0.0001), but not in the control schools (34.5% vs 35.5%, p>0.10). Health education had a significant impact on the knowledge of participants. We recommend reproductive health education through the framework of school to be used as a national policy in African developing countries.


Cette étude visait à déterminer les effets de l'intervention éducative sur les connaissances en santé reproductive chez les élèves du secondaire. Il s'agissait d'une étude longitudinale et interventionnelle réalisée en deux phases. Les participants étaient des adolescents et jeunes adultes choisis au hasard dans des établissements secondaires de Douala, à l'aide d'une méthode d'échantillonnage probabiliste proportionnelle à la taille. Dans la phase 1, les données ont été obtenues à l'aide de questionnaires et analysées à l'aide des logiciels Epi-Info 6.04 et SPSS version 17.0. L'intervention éducative a été utilisée dans 3 écoles choisies au hasard (expérimentales), mais pas dans 3 autres (contrôle). La phase 2 réalisée 6 mois plus tard a consisté à collecter des données de base. Il y avait une association significative entre les connaissances et le type d'établissement, la classe, l'âge, le sexe, la religion (p < 0,001 respectivement) et être sexuellement actif (p = 0,016). Il y a eu une augmentation significative des connaissances dans les écoles expérimentales (34,1% contre 76,5%, p<0,0001), mais pas dans celles témoins (34,5% contre 35,5%, p>0,10). L'éducation à la santé a eu un impact significatif sur les connaissances des participants. Nous la recommandons comme une politique nationale dans les pays Africains en développement.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Reproductiva , Embarazo , Adolescente , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Humanos , Camerún , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes , Conducta Sexual
10.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8086, 2024 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582916

RESUMEN

In this research, we developed and validated a measure of couple-based reported behavior interactions (RBI). Specifically, Study 1 was designed to describe the development of the scale and to examine its reliability; Study 2 (N = 222), was designed to examine factors that could differentiate men and women. Additionally, we tested if women's behaviors could predict their partner's behavior. Results from the exploratory factor analysis (EFA) revealed a three-factor structure for couples' RBI which were labelled: Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (SAI) (Factor 1), Fulfilling Obligations and Duties of the Partner (FOD) (Factor 2) and Openness in the Relationship (OR) (Factor 3). In linear regression analyses, there was a significant difference between men and women in the second factor, which represents behaviors associated with fulfilling the responsibilities of a partner. On the other hand, neither the SAI factor nor the OR factor showed any distinct gender differences. The SPSS PROCESS analysis revealed that women's Social Companionship and Affective Behavior Interactions (Factor 1), and Openness in the Relationship (Factor 3) significantly predicted their male partner's behaviors. The relationship duration significantly moderated the association between women's and men's behaviors for both factors. Results are discussed in light of the need for a broader understanding of romantic behavioral interactions.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Análisis de Regresión
11.
Lancet ; 403(10434): 1323-1324, 2024 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38583445
12.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 218, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570779

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is an effective HIV prevention option for those who are most vulnerable to HIV infection, especially young women (YW). Objection by or lack of support from male sexual partners has been shown to impact YW's ability to take PrEP consistently. We explored the views of YW, and male partners and male peers of YW in Siaya County, Western Kenya, to illustrate how men influence, and can support, YW in using PrEP. METHODS: We used Photovoice to capture the views of YW ages 18-24 who were currently or previously enrolled in the DREAMS program and with current or previous experience taking PrEP. We also captured the views of YW's sexual partners and male peers. The YW completed eight photo assignments that focused on identifying factors influencing their PrEP use, and male participants completed four photo assignments focused on identifying ways men support or hinder YW's PrEP use. Photographs were presented and discussed in same- and mixed-gender groups using the SHOWeD method. YW also participated in in-depth interviews. The analysis focused on identifying themes that described men's influence on YW's PrEP adherence and persistence. RESULTS: Among YW, a restricting male influence on PrEP use emerged in the majority of photo assignments such that YW's photographs and discussions revealed that men were more often viewed as barriers than supporters. YW perceived that they had little autonomy over their sexual lives and choice to use PrEP. YW's PrEP use was perceived to be hindered by stigmatizing community narratives that influenced men's support of PrEP use among women. Male participants suggested that men would support YW's PrEP use if PrEP was better promoted in the community and if men were more knowledgeable about its benefits. CONCLUSIONS: A lack of support from male partners and peers and stigmatizing community narratives influence YW's PrEP use. Community-based programs should include education about PrEP specifically for male partners and peers of YW to positively influence PrEP use among YW.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Kenia , Hombres , Conducta Sexual
13.
BMC Womens Health ; 24(1): 217, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570870

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women's pelvic health is a globally important subject, included in international and United Kingdom health policies, emphasising the importance of improving information and access to pelvic health services. Consequences of pelvic symptoms are intimate, personal, and varied, often causing embarrassment and shame, affecting women's quality of life and wellbeing. AIM: To understand the experience of seeking healthcare for stigmatised pelvic health symptoms by synthesising all types of published primary research and mapping the results to behavioural theory, to identify potential targets for intervention. METHODS: Systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SocINDEX, PubMED databases, CDSR and CENTRAL registers, from inception to May 2023 for all types of research capturing women's views and experiences of seeking help with stigmatised urogenital and bowel symptoms. Studies only reporting prevalence, predictors of help-seeking, non-health related help-seeking, or written in languages other than English, German, French, Spanish and Swedish were excluded. Reference checking and forward citation searching for all included studies was performed. A results-based synthesis approach was used to integrate quantitative and qualitative data. Themes were mapped to the Common-Sense model and Candidacy framework. The Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool was used for critical appraisal. Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation - Confidence in Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research for assessing certainty of review findings. RESULTS: 86 studies representing over 20,000 women from 24 high income countries were included. Confidence was high that barriers to help-seeking were similar across all study types and pelvic symptoms: stigma, lack of knowledge, women's perception that clinicians dismissed their symptoms, and associated normalising and deprioritising of low bother symptoms. Supportive clinicians and increased knowledge were key facilitators. CONCLUSIONS: Using the Common-Sense Model to explore women's help-seeking behaviour with stigmatised pelvic symptoms reveals problems with cognitive representation of symptom identity, emotional representations of embarrassment and shame, and a subjective norm that women believe their symptoms will be trivialised by clinicians. Together these barriers frustrate women's identification of their candidacy for healthcare. Addressing these issues through behavioural change interventions for women and clinicians, will help to achieve universal access to pelvic healthcare services (United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.7). SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42021256956.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Calidad de Vida , Femenino , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa , Conducta Sexual , Reino Unido
14.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300988, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573984

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The present study examined the patterns of sex behaviors before and during COVID-19, and identified the factors associated with condomless anal intercourse during COVID-19 from individual, interpersonal, and contextual level among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Hong Kong. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in Hong Kong. A total of 463 MSM completed a cross-sectional telephone survey between March 2021 and January 2022. RESULTS: Among all participants, the mean number of regular sex partners, non-regular sex partners, and casual sex partners during the COVID-19 period were 1.24, 2.09, and 0.08 respectively. Among those who had sex with regular, non-regular, and casual sex partner during the COVID-19 period, respectively 52.4%, 31.8% and 46.7% reported condomless anal intercourse. Compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, participants reported significantly fewer number of regular and non-regular sex partners during the COVID-19 period. However, a higher level of condomless anal intercourse with all types of sex partners during the COVID-19 period was also observed. Adjusted for significant socio-demographic variables, results from logistic regression analyses revealed that perceived severity of COVID-19 (aOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.88), COVID-19 risk reduction behaviors in general (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.48, 0.96), COVID-19 risk reduction behaviors during sex encounters (aOR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.30, 0.66), condom negotiation (aOR = 0.61, 95% CI = 0.44, 0.86), and collective efficacy (aOR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.98) were protective factors of condomless anal intercourse with any type of sex partners during the COVID-19 period. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 control measures have caused a dramatic impact on the sexual behavior of MSM in Hong Kong. Interventions that promote condom use during the COVID-19 pandemic are still needed and such interventions could emphasize prevention of both COVID-19 and HIV.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Homosexualidad Masculina , Estudios Transversales , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales , Condones , Asunción de Riesgos
16.
Neurol Clin ; 42(2): 599-614, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38575269

RESUMEN

In this article, the authors review the most common presentations of cough and exertional headaches and headaches associated with sexual activity. The authors elaborate on the most commonly described etiologies and identify those which are most critical to treat. The authors outline the recommendations for further evaluation and discuss effective treatment modalities for each headache type.


Asunto(s)
Cefaleas Primarias , Conducta Sexual , Humanos , Cefalea/diagnóstico , Cefalea/etiología , Cefalea/terapia , Cefaleas Primarias/etiología , Tos/diagnóstico , Tos/etiología , Tos/terapia
17.
18.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1341279, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38560439

RESUMEN

Background: Despite endeavors to achieve the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS 95-95-95 fast track targets established in 2014 for HIV prevention, progress has fallen short. Hence, it is imperative to identify factors that can serve as predictors of an adolescent's HIV status. This identification would enable the implementation of targeted screening interventions and the enhancement of healthcare services. Our primary objective was to identify these predictors to facilitate the improvement of HIV testing services for adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods: A study was conducted by utilizing eight different machine learning techniques to develop models using demographic and health data from 4,502 adolescent respondents. The dataset consisted of 31 variables and variable selection was done using different selection methods. To train and validate the models, the data was randomly split into 80% for training and validation, and 20% for testing. The algorithms were evaluated, and the one with the highest accuracy and mean f1 score was selected for further training using the most predictive variables. Results: The J48 decision tree algorithm has proven to be remarkably successful in accurately detecting HIV positivity, outperforming seven other algorithms with an impressive accuracy rate of 81.29% and a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of 86.3%. The algorithm owes its success to its remarkable capability to identify crucial predictor features, with the top five being age, knowledge of HIV testing locations, age at first sexual encounter, recent sexual activity, and exposure to family planning. Interestingly, the model's performance witnessed a significant improvement when utilizing only twenty variables as opposed to including all variables. Conclusion: Our research findings indicate that the J48 decision tree algorithm, when combined with demographic and health-related data, is a highly effective tool for identifying potential predictors of HIV testing. This approach allows us to accurately predict which adolescents are at a high risk of infection, enabling the implementation of targeted screening strategies for early detection and intervention. To improve the testing status of adolescents in the country, we recommend considering demographic factors such as age, age at first sexual encounter, exposure to family planning, recent sexual activity, and other identified predictors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Conducta Sexual , Humanos , Adolescente , Etiopía , Aprendizaje Automático , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Prueba de VIH
19.
Health Expect ; 27(2): e14038, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38561909

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than three-fourths of cervical cancer cases occur in low- and middle-income countries, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) accounting for approximately 25% of global mortality. The significant rise in the prevalence of cervical cancer in SSA amplifies the burden on caregivers, contributing to elevated rates of mental illness, particularly among spouses who provide care. Men who assume the role of caregivers for their partners with cervical cancer encounter unique challenges and substantial adjustments across multiple facets of life, impacting both their own quality of life and that of their partners. Despite this, there is a notable lack of extensive research on the experiences of male partners in caregiving roles, particularly within SSA countries like Tanzania. Therefore, this study aimed to explore the experiences of male partners providing care for women with cervical cancer in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. METHODS: An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken to explore the experiences of 13 male partners, selected purposively and guided by the principle of saturation. Data gathering employed in-depth interviews utilizing a semistructured interview guide, with subsequent analysis conducted via a thematic analysis approach. RESULTS: Five themes and 13 subthemes were generated, encompassing psychosocial distress, attitudes towards cervical cancer, unity in the provision of care, economic burden, and altered sexual relationships. Participants reported experiencing emotional distress, shifts in social responsibilities, financial challenges, and unfulfilled sexual needs. Moreover, they expressed the need for social, psychological, financial, and sexual and reproductive support. CONCLUSION: This study underscores the numerous challenges encountered by male partners caring for women with cervical cancer, encompassing emotional distress, financial strain, and shifts in social and sexual dynamics. The identified themes and subthemes highlight the intricate interplay of these difficulties and stress the necessity for holistic support systems addressing the social, psychological, financial, and sexual aspects of male partners' experiences. The findings emphasize the importance of designing and implementing comprehensive support programmes tailored to the diverse needs of male partners, ultimately enhancing their quality of life and overall well-being. PATIENT OR PUBLIC CONTRIBUTION: Before the study, the nursing manager assisted in selecting three male partners randomly. These partners were involved in the design of the participants' information sheet, the evaluation of the interview schedule and rooms, and the dissemination of information about the study's purpose to the target population. Their valuable input contributed to improving the participant information sheet, refining data collection procedures and addressing ethical considerations. However, these individuals were not considered study participants. Throughout the study, in-charge nurses in the hospital were informed about the study's goals and helped organize appointments with participants and manage the interview schedule.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias del Cuello Uterino , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Investigación Cualitativa
20.
Brain Impair ; 252024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38566291

RESUMEN

Background Persistent changes in sexuality often follow traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, health professionals remain reticent about discussing sexuality and have reported barriers including uncertainties around whose role it is and limited educational and institutional support. This study employed a co-design and implementation process, aiming to promote team-wide behavioural change, whereby health professionals at a TBI rehabilitation unit would attempt to address sexuality with patients routinely. Methods Focus group sessions with multidisciplinary health professionals were conducted to identify barriers and enablers to behavioural change, identify areas for development, and co-design intervention options. Implementation deliverables were then finalised and provided to the team. The Theoretical Domains Framework was used to map factors influencing behaviours and the Behaviour Change Wheel was used to map interventions. Thematic analysis was used to further analyse barrier themes. Results Thirty-five barriers and eight enablers falling within 12 theoretical domains to behavioural change were identified. Thematic analysis revealed highly correlated barriers in initiating and sustaining change. Nine co-designed intervention options aligned with five intervention functions of the Behaviour Change Wheel, resulting in six final implementation deliverables. Conclusions Barriers were highly interrelated, influencing the approach to implementation deliverables. Simultaneously addressing multiple barriers could potentially alleviate discomfort associated with discussing sexuality. Concerns around initiating change were related to confidence in achieving sustainable changes. Achieving change requires organisational and team-level environmental restructuring and enablement. The next step involves evaluating the effectiveness of the co-design and implementation process in driving behavioural change and potential impacts on patient satisfaction and sexuality outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo , Medicina , Humanos , Conducta Sexual , Sexualidad , Grupos Focales
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