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1.
Support Care Cancer ; 29(1): 369-375, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32367228

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual function and quality of life (QoL) in breast cancer survivors with and without a history of bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO). METHODS: A cross-sectional study of breast cancer survivors treated at a tertiary referral hospital in Western Australia. The Female Sexual Function Index was used to determine rates of female sexual dysfunction (FSD) and hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD). Participants also completed the Relationship Assessment Scale, Menopause-specific quality of life questionnaire and Short Form Health Survey-36. RESULTS: A total of 427 women were invited to participate: 119 had undergone BSO and 308 were controls with at least one ovary remaining. A total of 172 women participated (overall response rate 40.3%), consisting of 76 women in the BSO group (response rate 63.9%) and 96 women with at least one ovary remaining (response rate 31.2%). There was no difference in FSD between the two groups: 63/76 (82.9%) women who had undergone BSO had FSD compared to 75/96 (78.1%) controls (p = 0.458). No difference in HSDD was observed (p = 0.084) between the BSO group 70/76 (96.0%) and the controls 96/96 (100%). Women who had undergone BSO had lower general health scores compared to the control group (p = 0.034). Both groups had similar energy levels, emotional well-being, pain scores, physical functioning levels and social functioning levels. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, women with prior treatment for breast cancer had high levels of FSD and HSDD, irrespective of whether they had undergone BSO. Both groups reported similar sexual function scores and QoL.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/cirugía , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Salpingooforectomía/psicología , Disfunciones Sexuales Psicológicas/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Supervivientes de Cáncer/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Sexualidad/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Australia Occidental
2.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0239650, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137103

RESUMEN

Black/African-American girls are infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) at higher rates than their White counterparts. This study tested the efficacy of IMARA, a mother-daughter psychosocial STI/HIV prevention program, on adolescent Black/African-American girls' incident STIs at 12 months in a 2-arm group randomized controlled trial. Black/African-American girls 14-18 years old and their primary female caregiver were eligible for the study. Girls provided urine samples to test for N. gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, and T. vaginalis infection at baseline and 12-months. Mother-daughter dyads were randomly assigned to IMARA (n = 118) or a time-matched health promotion control program (n = 81). Retention at 12-months was 86% with no difference across arms. Both interventions were delivered over two consecutive Saturdays totaling 12 hours. Girls who received IMARA were 43% less likely to contract a new STI in the 12-month post-intervention period compared with those in the health promotion control program (p = .011). A secondary follow-up intent-to-treat analysis provided additional support for the protective effect of IMARA, albeit with a similar magnitude of 37% (p = .014). Findings provide early evidence for IMARA's efficacy, such that IMARA protected against STIs at 12-months among adolescent Black/African-American girls. Future research should examine the mechanisms associated with reduced STIs.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Educación en Salud/métodos , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Núcleo Familiar/psicología , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e17087, 2020 07 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137713

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Discrimination in the health care system contributes to worse health outcomes among lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine disparities in patient experience among LGBTQ persons using social media data. METHODS: We collected patient experience data from Twitter from February 2013 to February 2017 in the United States. We compared the sentiment of patient experience tweets between Twitter users who self-identified as LGBTQ and non-LGBTQ. The effect of state-level partisan identity on patient experience sentiment and differences between LGBTQ users and non-LGBTQ users were analyzed. RESULTS: We observed lower (more negative) patient experience sentiment among 13,689 LGBTQ users compared to 1,362,395 non-LGBTQ users. Increasing state-level liberal political identification was associated with higher patient experience sentiment among all users but had stronger effects for LGBTQ users. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings highlight that social media data can yield insights about patient experience for LGBTQ persons and suggest that a state-level sociopolitical environment influences patient experience for this group. Efforts are needed to reduce disparities in patient care for LGBTQ persons while taking into context the effect of the political climate on these inequities.


Asunto(s)
Disparidades en Atención de Salud/normas , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/normas , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242788, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216802

RESUMEN

Asian-born gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) who are newly arrived in Australia are at a higher risk of acquiring HIV than Australian-born gbMSM. We used a social constructionist framework to explore HIV knowledge and prevention strategies used by newly-arrived Asian-born gbMSM. Twenty four Asian-born gbMSM, aged 20-34 years, attending Melbourne Sexual Health Centre, who arrived in Australia in the preceding five years, participated in semi-structured, face-to-face interviews. Interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants described hiding their sexual identities in their country of origin, particularly from family members, due to fear of judgement and discrimination resulting from exposure to sexual identity and HIV related stigma in their countries of origin, although some were open to friends. Despite feeling more sexual freedom and acceptance in Australia, many were still not forthcoming with their sexual identity due to internalised feelings of stigma and shame. Exposure to stigma in their country of origin led many to report anxiety around HIV testing in Australia due to a fear of testing positive. Some described experiencing racism and lack of acceptance in the gay community in Australia, particularly on dating apps. Fear of discrimination and judgement about their sexual identity can have a significant impact on Asian-born gbMSM living in Australia, particularly in terms of social connectedness. Additionally, HIV-related stigma can contribute to anxieties around HIV testing. Our data highlights the potential discrimination Asian-born gbMSM face in Australia, which has implications for social connectedness, particularly with regard to LGBTQI communities and HIV testing practices. Future studies should determine effective strategies to reduce sexual identity and HIV-related stigma in newly-arrived Asian-born gbMSM.


Asunto(s)
Bisexualidad/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Estigma Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática/psicología , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Tamizaje Masivo , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242872, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33232381

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana are the top three substances used by adolescents. The adverse health effects of these three substances are well documented in epidemiological literature, yet little is known about the substance use and associated factors among adolescents in Bangladesh. This study examines the risk factors for tobacco and other substances use among school-going adolescents in Bangladesh. METHODS: We analyzed data from the 2014 Bangladesh Global School-based Student Health Survey (GSHS) of adolescents aged 13-17 years. We used two outcome measures: tobacco use (TU) and other substance use (SU; alcohol and/or marijuana). We examined a set of reported psychosocial and socio-environmental adverse events as risk factors. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify associations. RESULTS: The prevalence of TU and other SU among school-going adolescents was 9.6% and 2.3%, respectively. The likelihood of TU and other SU was higher among adolescents who reported being bullied (TU: adjusted odd ratio [AOR]: 1.93; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24-3.00; and other SU: AOR: 3.43; 95% CI: 1.46-7.99) and having sexual history (TU: AOR: 19.38; 95% CI: 12.43-30.21; and other SU: AOR: 5.34; 95% CI: 2.17-13.29). Moreover, anxiety-related sleep loss was associated with adolescents' TU (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 1.02-5.82) whereas the likelihood of other SU (AOR: 3.27; 95% CI: 1.14-9.44) was higher among lonely adolescents. Experience of adverse socio-environmental factors, such as parental substance use (TU: AOR: 7.81; 95% CI: 5.08-12.01), poor monitoring (TU: AOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.16-3.31) and poor understanding (TU: AOR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.36-3.65), and lack of peer support (TU: AOR: 3.13; 95% CI: 1.84-5.31; and other SU: AOR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.02-5.91), and truancy (other SU: AOR: 4.29; 95% CI: 1.81-10.12) were also positively associated with TU and/or other SU. Additionally, higher odds of tobacco use were observed among adolescents who reported 1 (AOR: 4.36 times; 95% CI: 1.34-14.24), 2 (AOR: 8.69 95% CI: 1.67-28.23), and ≥3 (AOR: 17.46; 95% CI: 6.20-49.23) adverse psychosocial experiences than who did not report any psychosocial events. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco and other substance use among school-going adolescents are prevalent in Bangladesh. Several psychosocial and socio-environmental events are associated with TU and other SU, which should be incorporated into adolescent substance use and health promotion programs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Uso de Tabaco/psicología , Tabaco/efectos adversos , Absentismo , Adolescente , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Acoso Escolar/psicología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Abuso de Marihuana , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiología
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242262, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186368

RESUMEN

Many researchers have proposed that straight men prefer women's faces displaying feminine shape characteristics at least partly because mating with such women will produce healthier offspring. Although a prediction of this adaptation-for-mate-choice hypothesis is that straight men will show stronger preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of women's faces than will gay men, only one previous study has directly tested this prediction. Here we directly replicated that study by comparing 623 gay and 3163 straight men's preferences for feminized versus masculinized versions of faces. Consistent with the adaptation-for-mate-choice hypothesis of straight men's femininity preferences, we found that straight men showed significantly stronger preferences for feminized female faces than did gay men. Consistent with previous research suggesting that gay men place a premium on masculinity in potential romantic partners, we also found that gay men showed significantly stronger preferences for masculinized versions of male faces than did straight men. Together, these findings indicate the sexual orientation contributes to individual differences in men's face preferences.


Asunto(s)
Cara/anatomía & histología , Caracteres Sexuales , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto , Conducta de Elección , Femenino , Feminidad , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidad
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242277, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33186382

RESUMEN

The ultimate goal of this research was twofold: (1) to investigate the associations between narcissism, intentions towards infidelity, and relationship satisfaction; and (2) to explore the moderating effect of attachment styles on the link between intentions towards infidelity and narcissism. The findings revealed that the link between narcissism and relationship satisfaction is fully mediated by intentions towards infidelity. Similarly, the full mediating effect of relationship satisfaction exists in the association between narcissism and intentions towards infidelity. Mediational analyses further revealed that narcissism is a predictor of intentions towards infidelity, and this link is moderated by preoccupied, fearful, and dismissive attachment styles. As the results indicate, narcissism plays a significant role in young adults' intimate relationships, and attachment styles have a moderating role in narcissism's effect on romantic relationships. Results and implications are discussed in light of the relevant research findings.


Asunto(s)
Intención , Relaciones Interpersonales , Narcisismo , Apego a Objetos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
8.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(11): 1548-1554, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221780

RESUMEN

Objective: The relationship between sexual functions and infertility remains controversial and there is a limited number of studies reporting the effects of infertility on sexual functions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Aims: The present study aims to investigate the effects of infertility on sexual functions and depression levels in women with PCOS. Methods: A total of 150 participants who were either fertile patients with PCOS, infertile patients with PCOS, or fertile women without PCOS (control) (n = 50) were included for the study. Sociodemographic data were recorded and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used for evaluation of subjects. Results: Body mass index (BMI) was found to be significantly higher in the PCOS plus infertility group (27.9 ± 2.9, P = 0.01) than the other groups. Total BDI score was higher and total FSFI score was significantly lower in the PCOS plus infertility group than in the other groups. The PCOS plus infertility group showed significantly lower FSFI scores than the PCOS group in terms of desire, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain. A significant negative correlation was observed between BMI and BDI scores in the PCOS plus infertility group (r:-0.384, P = 0.04). Conclusion: Our study results show lower sexual functions in PCOS women with infertility and that infertility negatively affects sexual functions with obesity associated depression.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad/psicología , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/complicaciones , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual/fisiología , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/etiología , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Depresión/etiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Infertilidad Femenina , Libido/fisiología , Orgasmo , Satisfacción Personal , Síndrome del Ovario Poliquístico/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Disfunciones Sexuales Fisiológicas/psicología , Turquia/epidemiología
9.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0234961, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33151957

RESUMEN

Power can be applied in different domains (e.g., politics, work, romantic relationships, family etc.), however, we do not always reflect on which domains we have power in and how important power in these domains is. A dominant idea is that men have more power than women. This notion may be biased because the concept of power is associated with public life. We introduce the concept of preference-weighted power (PWP), a measure of power that includes different domains in life, weighted by the domains' subjective importance. Two studies investigated power from this perspective. In Study 1, participants generated words related to power, which were quantified/categorized by latent semantic analysis to develop a semantic measure of the power construct. In Study 2, we computed a PWP index by weighting the participants' self-rated power in different power domains with the importance of having power in that domain. Together the studies suggest that men have more perceived power in the public domain, however, this domain has a lower preference weighting than the private domain where women have more power than men. Finally, when preferences for power in different domains were considered, no gender differences were observed. These results emphasize gender difference in different domains and may change how we perceive men's and women's power in our society.


Asunto(s)
Poder Psicológico , Caracteres Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Masculino , Hombres , Persona de Mediana Edad , Política , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto Joven
11.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2020802, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044551

RESUMEN

Importance: Female sex workers (FSWs) who use drugs face increased risk of intimate partner violence (IPV) and nonpartner violence (NPV). The association between violence and drug overdose is unknown. Objective: To examine the association between IPV, NPV, and nonfatal drug overdose among FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 400 adult FSWs in Kazakhstan who reported illicit drug use in the past year, exchanged sex for money or drugs, and reported having unprotected sex in the past 90 days. Baseline data were collected from February 2015 to May 2017 from Project Nova, an HIV prevention study among FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan. Data analysis was conducted from April 2019 to March 2020. Exposures: Lifetime and recent (past 90 day) experiences of physical, sexual, and psychological IPV and NPV using the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale. Subtypes of violence were identified using exploratory factor analysis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime and recent incidence of nonfatal overdose; sociodemographic characteristics as well as lifetime and recent sex work and drug use behaviors were also collected. Results: The 400 participants had a mean (SD) age of 34.1 (8.4) years. Most experienced food insecurity (358 [89.5%]) and homelessness (232 [58.0%]) in the past 90 days; one-third (130 [32.5%]) reported a history of incarceration. Most (359 [89.7%]) experienced some form of violence; 150 (37.5%) reported a lifetime nonfatal overdose, of whom 27 (18.0%) reported nonfatal overdose in the past 90 days. Lifetime severe physical violence (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.02-1.59; P = .03), engagement in sex work for more than 10 years (aOR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.50-4.28; P < .001), and a history of incarceration (aOR, 4.34; 95% CI, 2.58-7.32; P < .001) were associated with greater odds of nonfatal overdose. Engaging in sex work for more than 10 years (aOR, 3.97; 95% CI, 1.36-11.61; P = .01) and a history of incarceration (aOR, 3.63; 95% CI, 1.39-9.48; P = .008) were associated with greater odds of recent nonfatal overdose. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, violence against FSWs who use drugs in Kazakhstan was associated with increased odds of nonfatal overdose. Harm reduction programs for women should consider including services to address gender-based violence and the needs of women after incarceration.


Asunto(s)
Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Violencia de Pareja/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajadores Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Sobredosis de Droga/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Kazajstán , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Trabajadores Sexuales/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
12.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 331, 2020 Oct 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Attitude towards condom use is an important predictor of consistent condom use. However, this topic is an understudied area in Chinese populations, and no validated Chinese instrument is available to capture condom attitude. To fill this research gap, the present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Multidimensional Condom Attitudes Scale (MCAS) and assessed the attitudes towards condom use amongst Chinese adults aged 18-29 years old. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 500 people aged 18-29 years old were randomly recruited in Hong Kong. The primary outcome was the attitude towards condom use as measured by the UCLA MCAS. Factor structure, internal construct validity, known-group validity and internal consistency were assessed. RESULTS: Instead of the five-factor structure designed by the original developers of the MCAS questionnaire, this study proposed a novel six-factor scale: (1) Reliability and Effectiveness, (2) Excitement, (3) Displeasure, (4) Identity Stigma, (5) Embarrassment about Negotiation and (6) Embarrassment about Purchase. The internal construct validity and reliability of the new scale were high. The revised MCAS could differentiate between subgroups, including gender, sexual orientation and sexual experience. In terms of attitudes, over 40% of the participants believed that condoms are not reliable, though the vast majority of the sample did not perceive any stigma related to condom use. In addition, more than half (55.4%) of the respondents felt embarrassed to be seen when buying condoms while a quarter (25.8%) felt uncomfortable buying condoms at all. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the psychometric analysis found that attitude to condom use is culturally specific. The study also highlighted the need for more public health campaigns and interventions to help people cope with the embarrassment of purchasing condoms.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Condones , Dispositivos Anticonceptivos Masculinos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Hong Kong , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometría/instrumentación , Calidad de Vida , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22776, 2020 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126316

RESUMEN

Based on the Theory of Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) Model, this study aimed to investigate factors associated with condom use intention in Chinese adolescents.In 2017, we conducted a cross-sectional study using stratified cluster, convenience sampling method to assess condom use intention among senior high school students in Tianjin, China. One thousand eighty two senior high school students were anonymously surveyed through self-administered questionnaires. Structural equation modelling was used to assess the pre-intentional phase of HAPA model.Among the participants, 41.5% (449/1082) were male, 54.1% (585/1082) were female, 4.4% (48/1082) were gender-deficient. The average age was 16.7 years. The final pre-intentional phase of HAPA model was acceptable (CFI = 0.95; GFI = 0.94; RMSEA = 0.06). Action self-efficacy (r = 0.60) had a strong direct effect on condom use intention.The pre-intentional phase of HAPA model is valid to assess condom use intention among Chinese senior high school students. The pre-intention phase of the HAPA model could be applied to guide AIDS health educations of students, and further research is needed to evaluate the effect.


Asunto(s)
Condones/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Anticonceptiva/psicología , Intención , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , China , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Autoeficacia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239323, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021998

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple sexual partnerships increase the risk of transmission of HIV and can be exacerbated by substance abuse. However, the association between psychoactive substance use and multiple sexual partnerships among young people in informal settlements of low-income countries is not well known. This study established the prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships and associated factors among young psychoactive-substance-users in informal settlements in Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving 744 young (aged 18-24 years), sexually active, psychoactive substance-users selected from 12 of the 57 informal settlements of Kampala City. The prevalence of multiple sexual partnerships and their differential distribution by socio-demographic strata was established. Modified Poisson regression models were run in Stata 14 software to generate prevalence rate ratios for the factors associated with multiple sexual partnerships. RESULTS: About 40.6% (37.9% of males and 50.0% of females) had engaged in multiple sexual partnerships in the last 30 days. Engaging in multiple sexual partnerships in the last 30 days was positively associated with being female (PR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.03-1.63); staying in the informal settlement for 6-10 years (PR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.02-1.75) and chewing khat in the last 30 days (PR 1.93, 95% CI: 1.10-3.40). CONCLUSION: Multiple sexual partnerships are highly prevalent among young psychoactive-substance-users, irrespective of the socio-demographic strata. Being female, having lived in the informal settlement for 6-10 years, and chewing khat were significantly associated with having multiple sexual partners in the last 30 days. In tackling this high-risk sexual behaviour, it is recommended that risk-reduction interventions are considered for the different socio-demographic strata identified in this study, i.e. females, those who have lived in the informal settlement for about 6-10 years, and those who chew khat.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/patología , Factores de Tiempo , Uganda , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33003567

RESUMEN

Recent empirical data suggests that the majority of adolescents and emerging adults utilize digital technology to engage with texting and social media on a daily basis, with many using these mediums to engage in sexting (sending sexual texts, pictures, or videos via digital mediums). While research in the last decade has disproportionately focused on the potential risk factors and negative consequences associated with sexting, the data are limited by failing to differentiate consensual from non-consensual sexting and account for potential influences of intimate partner aggression (IPA) and sexting coercion in these contexts. In the current study, we assessed the positive and negative consequences associated with sexting, using behavioral theory as a framework, to determine the relationship between an individual's personal history of IPA victimization and the perceived consequences. Undergraduate students (N = 536) who reported consensual sexting completed a series of measures examining their most recent sexting experience, including perceived sexting consequences, and their history of sexting coercion and IPA. Results suggested that those reporting a history of any type of IPA victimization endorsed more negative reinforcing consequences after sending a sext, and those with a history of physical or sexual IPA victimization endorsed more punishing consequences after sending a sext than those without such history. Additionally, experience with IPA was found to be positively correlated with perceived pressure/coercion to send a sext. The implications of these data for research, policy, prevention, and intervention are explored.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Coerción , Violencia de Pareja/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Envío de Mensajes de Texto/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adulto Joven
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239750, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33002013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Swingers, heterosexuals who, as couples, practice mate swapping or group sex with other couples or heterosexual singles, are at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess changes in sexual behaviour and STI testing behaviour, as well as predictors of STI testing. METHODS: Two cross-sectional studies were performed, using the same internet survey in 2011 and 2018. For trend analysis, sexual behaviour and STI testing behaviour were used. Socio-demographics, swinger characteristics, sexual behaviour, and psycho-social variables were used to assess predictors of STI testing in the past year, using multivariable regression analysis. RESULTS: A total of 1173 participants completed the survey in 2011, and 1005 in 2018. Condom use decreased for vaginal (73% vs. 60%), oral (5% vs. 2%), and anal sex (85% vs. 75%). STI positivity was reported in 23% and 30% of the participants, respectively, although testing for STI was comparable between both years (~65%). The following predictors of STI testing were significant: being female (OR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.2-2.9), having a high swinging frequency (>12 times a year, OR = 3.7, 95%CI: 1.9-7.3), swinging at home (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0-2.7), receiving a partner notification (OR = 1.7, 95%CI: 1.2-2.6), considering STI testing important (OR = 4.3, 95%CI: 2.2-8.5), experiencing no pressure from a partner to test (OR = 0.6, 95%CI: 0.3-0.9), partners test for STI regularly (OR = 10.0, 95%CI: 6.2-15.9), perceiving STI testing as an obligation (OR = 2.1, 95%CI: 1.3-3.5), experiencing no barriers such as being afraid of testing (OR = 1.9, 95%CI: 1.2-3.1), limited opening hours (OR = 1.6, 95%CI: 1.0-2.4), and forgetting to plan appointments (OR = 3.0, 95%CI: 2.0-4.6). CONCLUSIONS: Swingers exhibit self-selection for STI testing based on their sexual behaviour. However, STI prevention efforts are still important considering the increasing numbers of reported STIs, the decreased use of condom use, and the one-third of swingers who were not tested in the previous year.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Trazado de Contacto/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Relaciones Extramatrimoniales/psicología , Femenino , Heterosexualidad/psicología , Heterosexualidad/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/etiología , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21360, 2020 Aug 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871863

RESUMEN

HIV prevalence is higher among Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), owing to their unsafe sexual behavior. Further, MSM indulge in behaviors such as consumption of alcohol/oral drugs and/or injecting during/before sex that poses the risk of unsafe behaviors, thereby increasing their vulnerability to HIV. The study aims to analyze the factors associated with HIV infection among the multi-risk MSM using any substances with those MSM who do not use substances.Community-based cross-sectional survey design using probability-based sampling between October 2014 and November 2015.For the nation-wide Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS), 23,081 MSM were recruited from 4067 hotspots in 108 districts across India. Information on demographics, sexual behaviors, substance use, sexual partners, and awareness on HIV and its management was collected from the consented respondents using computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) by trained personnel. Blood samples were tested for HIV. Statistical analyses were done, to study the associations between substance use and its influence on high-risk sexual behaviors and HIV infection.One in 3 MSM (33.88%) in India were substance users, thus exhibiting "multi-risk" (MR) behaviors. Significantly higher HIV prevalence (3.8%, P < .05) was reported among MR-MSM, despite 97.2% of them being aware of HIV. Higher HIV prevalence among MSM exhibiting homosexual behavior for ≤1 year is of specific concern, as this accounts to recent infections and indicates the increased vulnerability of the infection among the new entrants.Substance-use resulting in high-risk sexual behavior was significantly associated with higher HIV prevalence among MR-MSM. Integrated targeted interventions focusing on safe sex and safe-IDU practices among MR-MSM are required to end the disease transmission.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/transmisión , Homosexualidad Masculina/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Sexual/etnología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Concienciación , Estudios Transversales , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Homosexualidad Masculina/etnología , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Parejas Sexuales/clasificación , Adulto Joven
19.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2017682, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960280

RESUMEN

Importance: Although research has examined factors associated with child sexual exploitation (CSE), consensus is lacking in regard to which factors should be prioritized, thereby hindering policy reform, prevention efforts, and development of early detection and intervention. Objective: To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining factors associated with CSE and to quantify their relative importance. Data Sources: Electronic databases searched to June 2019 included Medline, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and Informit, yielding 396 nonduplicative records. Literature search was performed in July 2019. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria were quantitative investigations of sexual exploitation and mean sample age of 18 years or younger. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Literature review and data extraction followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Thirty-seven studies met final inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) for each factor. Data were analyzed from September 1 to October 28, 2019, and prediction intervals calculated in June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Child sexual exploitation, defined as coerced sexual acts between a child or a young person (aged ≤18 years) and an individual or a group in exchange for money, gifts, substances, or other commodities and associated factors. Results: Thirty-seven unique studies were included with a total of 67 453 unique participants (mean [SD] age of 16.2 [2.5] years; 49.9% female). Fifty-two factors associated with CSE were included in the meta-analysis. The strongest factors significantly associated with exposure to sexual exploitation were engagement in sexual risk behaviors (OR, 6.31 [95% CI, 3.12-12.76]; P < .001), having more than 5 sexual partners (OR, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.63-21.87]; P = .007), a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 5.29 [95% CI, 3.40-8.22]; P < .001), historical exposure to child pornography (OR, 5.50 [95% CI, 0.99-30.53]; P = .049), and a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR, 3.80 [95% CI, 3.19-4.52]; P < .001). A number of other potentially modifiable factors had moderate to strong associations. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, children and adolescents affected by sexual exploitation showed high levels of sexual risk taking, multiple sexual partners, posttraumatic stress disorder, exposure to child pornography, and childhood trauma. Accurate detection of CSE may prevent this type of sexual violence occurring to adolescents and/or provide opportunities for intervention and recovery. Therefore, prevention and intervention efforts will likely benefit from integrating these factors into screening, assessment, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Problemas Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajo Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Problemas Sociales/psicología
20.
Arch Sex Behav ; 49(7): 2449-2460, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885360

RESUMEN

Human same-sex sexual attraction is considered to be an evolutionary paradox. This paradox rests on same-sex attracted individuals having lowered direct reproduction, indicating reduced direct fitness of genes that influence same-sex attraction. Yet, relatively few empirical studies have examined the relation between same-sex sexual attraction and direct reproduction. The present study examined direct reproduction (i.e., number of children produced) in a diverse Thai sample (N = 1623) of heterosexual men and women, gay and bisexual men, and lesbian and bisexual women, as well as unique Thai gender categories: sao praphet song (i.e., feminine androphilic third-gender males), toms (i.e., masculine gynephilic third-gender females), and dees (i.e., feminine females who are sexually attracted to toms). In males, heterosexual men were more likely to have produced children than other groups, especially as they aged, and none of the gay men or sao praphet song reported having children. In females, there was some degree of reproduction in each of the groups considered. On average, heterosexual and bisexual women had similar numbers of children, whereas heterosexual women had significantly more children than lesbian women, toms, and dees. Number of children was significantly positively associated with age among heterosexual women, bisexual women, toms, and dees. With age, the discrepancies in average number of children produced between heterosexual women and each of lesbian women and toms became significantly more pronounced. Discussion focuses on how these findings, in conjunction with those of prior studies, inform our understanding of evolutionary selection pressures related to human same-sex sexuality.


Asunto(s)
Identidad de Género , Reproducción/fisiología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tailandia , Adulto Joven
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