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2.
Science ; 367(6482): 1105-1112, 2020 03 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139538

RESUMEN

The mechanism by which psychological stress elicits various physiological responses is unknown. We discovered a central master neural pathway in rats that drives autonomic and behavioral stress responses by connecting the corticolimbic stress circuits to the hypothalamus. Psychosocial stress signals from emotion-related forebrain regions activated a VGLUT1-positive glutamatergic pathway from the dorsal peduncular cortex and dorsal tenia tecta (DP/DTT), an unexplored prefrontal cortical area, to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), a hypothalamic autonomic center. Genetic ablation and optogenetics revealed that the DP/DTT→DMH pathway drives thermogenic, hyperthermic, and cardiovascular sympathetic responses to psychosocial stress without contributing to basal homeostasis. This pathway also mediates avoidance behavior from psychosocial stressors. Given the variety of stress responses driven by the DP/DTT→DMH pathway, the DP/DTT can be a potential target for treating psychosomatic disorders.


Asunto(s)
Núcleo Hipotalámico Dorsomedial/metabolismo , Conducta Social , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Proteína 1 de Transporte Vesicular de Glutamato/metabolismo , Animales , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Homeostasis , Masculino , Neuronas/metabolismo , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Prosencéfalo/metabolismo , Trastornos Psicofisiológicos/terapia , Ratas , Ratas Endogámicas LEC , Ratas Wistar , Transducción de Señal
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1191: 103-120, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32002925

RESUMEN

Oxytocin, a neuropeptide synthesized by the hypothalamus, plays a central role in human social behavior, social cognition, anxiety, mood, stress modulation, and fear learning and extinction. The relationships between oxytocin and psychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorder have been extensively studied. In this chapter, we focus on the current knowledge about oxytocin and anxiety disorder. We discuss the anxiolytic effects of oxytocin in preclinical and clinical findings, possible related neurobehavioral mechanisms (social cognition, fear learning, and extinction), related neurotransmitter and neuroendocrine systems (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, serotoninergic, and GABAergic systems), and studies regarding plasma levels of oxytocin, genetic and epigenetic findings, and effects of intranasal oxytocin in DSM-5 anxiety disorder (primarily social anxiety disorder and separation anxiety disorder) patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/metabolismo , Oxitocina/metabolismo , Ansiedad/metabolismo , Miedo , Humanos , Conducta Social
6.
Lancet ; 395(10217): 29, 2020 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31908278
7.
Biol Lett ; 16(1): 20190730, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964258

RESUMEN

Cooperative breeding animals frequently inhabit harsh environments. It is widely accepted that harsh environments hinder independent reproduction, and this constraint maintains individuals in family groups. Yet the assumption that harsh ecological conditions reduce the success of members of cooperative breeding groups when breeding independently has not been experimentally tested. We addressed this shortcoming using the socially polymorphic Alpine silver ant, Formica selysi. This species has single-queen (independent breeders) and multiple-queen (cooperative breeders) colonies coexisting within populations. We placed newly mated queens emerging from each type of colony to breed alone in either a harsh or mild winter condition and recorded their brood production and survival. Queens emerging from single-queen colonies were unaffected by the winter condition and were more successful at founding a nest independently than queens from multiple-queen colonies. By contrast, queens from multiple-queen colonies had higher mortality after a harsh than after a mild winter. These results support the long-held assumption that harsh environments constrain independent reproduction of members of cooperative breeding groups.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Conducta Sexual Animal , Conducta Social , Animales , Cruzamiento , Genética de Población , Reproducción
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(4): e18685, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977859

RESUMEN

Physical inactivity is a worldwide public health problem, and it is a risk factor for several chronic diseases. Square dancing nightly may be an efficient way to promote physical activity among Chinese residents. This study aims to explore factors that affect resident participation in square dancing on the basis of social cognitive theory constructs (outcome expectations, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, self-control, and environment) that may provide a scientific basis for designing interventions to promote physical activity in the future.Forty squares near neighborhood communities in Chongqing were randomly selected. A sample of 1732 residents who came to these squares at 18:00-21:00 were interviewed using a social cognitive theory questionnaire jointly developed by researchers from Chongqing Medical University and Jackson State University.Among 1732 respondents, 279 (16.1%) were male and 1457 (83.9%) were female. A total of 939 (54.2%) of the respondents were square dancers. The mean age of the dancers was 58.6 (SD = 9.1) years. Of the dancers, 825 (87.9%) danced at least 150 minutes every week, and 792 (84.2%) indicated that they had danced for more than 1 year. All the constructs of social cognitive theory were significantly different between residents whether they danced or not (P < .001 for all). Women (OR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.03-2.31) were more likely to dance. Nonretired residents (OR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.39-0.74) were less likely to dance. Residents with income of more than CNY 4000 per month were less likely to dance (OR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.23-0.86). Residents with high self-efficacy (OR = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.81-2.22), and high self-control (OR = 1.26, 95% CI: 1.18-1.34) were more likely to dance.This study provides salient implications for developing interventions to promote square dancing by using social cognitive theory. Gender, retirement, income, and self-efficacy would be the factors influencing whether residents participate in square dancing.


Asunto(s)
Baile/psicología , Conducta Social , Anciano , China , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Jubilación/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoeficacia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
9.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 467-475, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31912600

RESUMEN

Although interspecific competition has long been recognised as a major driver of trait divergence and adaptive evolution, relatively little effort has focused on how it influences the evolution of intraspecific cooperation. Here we identify the mechanism by which the perceived pressure of interspecific competition influences the transition from intraspecific conflict to cooperation in a facultative cooperatively breeding species, the Asian burying beetle Nicrophorus nepalensis. We not only found that beetles are more cooperative at carcasses when blowfly maggots have begun to digest the tissue, but that this social cooperation appears to be triggered by a single chemical cue - dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) - emitted from carcasses consumed by blowflies, but not from control carcasses lacking blowflies. Our results provide experimental evidence that interspecific competition promotes the transition from intraspecific conflict to cooperation in N. nepalensis via a surprisingly simple social chemical cue that is a reliable indicator of resource competition between species.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Animales , Cruzamiento , Larva , Conducta Social
10.
Ecol Lett ; 23(3): 565-574, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31950595

RESUMEN

Coinfections with multiple pathogens can result in complex within-host dynamics affecting virulence and transmission. While multiple infections are intensively studied in solitary hosts, it is so far unresolved how social host interactions interfere with pathogen competition, and if this depends on coinfection diversity. We studied how the collective disease defences of ants - their social immunity - influence pathogen competition in coinfections of same or different fungal pathogen species. Social immunity reduced virulence for all pathogen combinations, but interfered with spore production only in different-species coinfections. Here, it decreased overall pathogen sporulation success while increasing co-sporulation on individual cadavers and maintaining a higher pathogen diversity at the community level. Mathematical modelling revealed that host sanitary care alone can modulate competitive outcomes between pathogens, giving advantage to fast-germinating, thus less grooming-sensitive ones. Host social interactions can hence modulate infection dynamics in coinfected group members, thereby altering pathogen communities at the host level and population level.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Metarhizium , Animales , Aseo Animal , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Conducta Social , Virulencia
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(1): 60-81, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918648

RESUMEN

Alliance Ruptures in the Psychotherapy of Adolescents with Borderline Personality Pathology: Risk or Benefit? Adolescents with subthreshold or full-blown borderline personality disorders (borderline personality pathology (BPP)) are characterized by a pronounced instability in their self-image and their interpersonal relationships. The building of a stable therapeutic relationship is considerably challenged in patients with BPP. The concept of alliance ruptures and resolutions assumes that the resolution of ongoing relationship difficulties contributes to therapeutic change. Resolutions are strategies of the therapist to address ruptures, to explore their meaning with the patient and to enhance the therapeutic collaboration between the patient and the therapist. This article illustrates the use and benefits of alliance ruptures and resolutions among adolescents with BPP treated with the manualized treatment concept Adolescent Identity Treatment (AIT). Ten patients were treated with AIT. Three out of ten patients dropped out of treatment prematurely. A total of 187 therapy sessions were analyzed using the Rupture and Resolution Rating System (3RS; Eubanks, Lubitz, Muran, Safran, 2018). Alliance ruptures and resolutions are illustrated in session transcripts of a qualitative case vignette. Quantitative analyses show that alliance ruptures occur frequently over the complete treatment course in good outcome patients. However, frequent alliance ruptures at the beginning of treatment represent a risk for premature treatment termination. The concept of alliance ruptures and resolutions may help to improve the ongoing therapeutic alliance in the treatment of adolescents with BPP.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Psicoterapia , Adolescente , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/cirugía , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Autoimagen , Conducta Social
12.
Mol Cell ; 77(2): 205-206, 2020 01 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951544

RESUMEN

Glastad et al. (2019) describe a role for the neuronal CoREST corepressor and changes in juvenile hormone (JH) and ecdysone signaling during the reprogramming of social behavioral phenotypes in ants that are reflective of a natural mechanism differentiating "Major" and "Minor" worker ants.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Animales , Ecdisona , Epigénesis Genética , Hormonas Juveniles , Conducta Social
13.
Zoo Biol ; 39(1): 56-62, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663179

RESUMEN

Caring for all aspects of zoo elephants' well-being is considered a major challenge. Providing an appropriate flooring substrate to facilitate lying rest presents a meaningful part of a holistic management concept. Investigating the impact of a new sand flooring on the nocturnal resting behavior of a breeding group of seven African elephants living at one zoo revealed more total lying rest, longer bouts of lying rest and a reduced side preference in the adult females. With an average total daily lying rest of about 1.5-2.0 hrs, the investigated zoo elephants expressed longer lying rest compared to recently reported data from free-ranging individuals in Botswana. In addition, the presence of nursing calves in the observed elephant group seemed to impact the resting pattern of all group members, with around 60% of all lying bouts being discontinued after interruption by the youngsters. With respect to observed nursing during leaning rest, we encourage the installation of appropriate horizontal structures in breeding facilities to support leaning rest behavior of their female elephants. In doing so, zoos may improve rest quality of nursing females, and, in general, the welfare aspect of sleep for their elephants.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Conducta Animal , Elefantes/fisiología , Vivienda para Animales , Descanso , Conducta Social , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Pisos y Cubiertas de Piso , Arena
14.
J Psychol ; 154(1): 60-74, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31524563

RESUMEN

Loneliness may have complex implications for the mental and physical health of older people. It could have unique expressions among older men due to the social construction of gender, which raises an expectation that men should be strong, assertive, and capable of independently coping with their difficulties. As a result, older men suffering from loneliness may avoid talking about it and seeking help for this matter. The Big Five personality traits were found to be associated with many life domains, including loneliness, yet this issue has received limited research attention with regard to older adults in general and older men in particular. Therefore, the current study explores the contribution of the Big Five personality traits to understanding loneliness among older men in Israel, while controlling for several demographic factors. The data were collected through structured questionnaires administered to a sample of 392 older men. The results indicate that agreeableness, emotional stability, and openness to experiences were negatively associated with older men's loneliness. In addition, no association was found between extraversion and conscientiousness and respondents' loneliness, and no significant association was found between age and loneliness, and being employed and being in a relationship were associated with lower levels of loneliness. The conclusion is that it is important that professionals working with older men utilize the Big Five personality traits to understand loneliness and offer them interventions for reducing their loneliness. Furthermore, it is essential to promote social awareness of the importance of intimate relationships, as well as of employment, in the old age.


Asunto(s)
Soledad/psicología , Personalidad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Empleo/psicología , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
J Lesbian Stud ; 24(1): 25-40, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232214

RESUMEN

A sample of adoptive parents, including an oversampling of lesbian mothers (n = 125), was surveyed regarding their family's school experiences related to adoption, satisfaction with how the school handled adoption-related issues, and their child's experiences with teasing at school. Linear and logistic regression analyses showed that lesbian mothers were more likely than heterosexual parents and gay fathers to disclose their child's adoption status in the school record and to ensure that the school was aware of the child's adoption. Lesbian mothers were also more likely than heterosexual parents and gay fathers to report talking to teachers about adoption issues. There were no differences as a function of parent sexual orientation regarding rates of children being teased about adoption status. However, rates of teasing regarding child race/ethnicity were higher for children of lesbian mothers and gay fathers than for children of heterosexual parents. The implications of the findings for future research and the provision of services for lesbian mothers are considered.


Asunto(s)
Adopción , Madres , Instituciones Académicas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adulto , Niño , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Homosexualidad Femenina , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Social
16.
Zool Res ; 41(1): 78-83, 2020 01 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746565

RESUMEN

Individual dispersal trends, unquestionably important for species ecology and evolution, are affected by multiple factors. Understanding the factors that influence female dispersal strategies offers important insight into primate dispersal mechanisms and female choice. To investigate the proximate causes of dispersal in female Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti), we observed and analyzed nine years of detailed dispersal and demographic data from a population of R. bieti in Xiangguqing, Baimaxueshan Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, China. Results showed that females who lived long-term in a one-male unit (OMU), without giving birth and with few or no relatives, were more likely to leave that OMU. In addition, an OMU led by an outgroup male and containing more female relatives was significantly more likely to be chosen for immigration. Conversely, greater male age, longer male tenure, and more potentially fertile females discouraged immigration into an OMU. These results suggest that reproduction, male quality, and kin cooperation play the largest roles in female Yunnan snub-nosed monkey dispersal.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Conducta Animal , Conducta Social , Envejecimiento , Animales , Femenino , Masculino
17.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109887, 2020 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785462

RESUMEN

The paper presents a web-based application developed as a medium for executing a serious game to enhance multi-jurisdictional collaborative planning and decision making for mitigation of multiple hazards related to water (i.e., floods, soil erosions, water quality). The gaming application is integrated into the Iowa Watershed Decision Support System (IoWaDSS) designed to serve as a comprehensive multi-sectoral data repository along with the simulation results of process modeling to educate and inform communities on the status of their watersheds during extreme conditions. The interactive serious gaming application was devised to encourage public engagement, facilitate communication and positive relationship between watershed communities, and make the decision process more attractive and transparent for the stakeholders. The web environment offers easily-accessible, user-friendly interfaces that match the skills and knowledge level of a non-technical user. Developed with adaptive design and flexible architecture, the gaming application is generalizable and extendable to support hazard mitigation in other watersheds.


Asunto(s)
Suelo , Calidad del Agua , Internet , Iowa , Conducta Social
18.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 265-283, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30582736

RESUMEN

Researchers have often considered the impact that online dating has had on gay communities; with some arguing that changes in social behavior may impact the spread of HIV. However, these conclusions are based on the premise that the Internet has fundamentally changed the way gay and bisexual men connect with their communities. Addressing this issue, we searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for studies examining Internet use and interpersonal connectedness among gay and bisexual men to determine whether those who used the Internet to find sexual partners exhibited different patterns of community connectedness. Though sporadic, findings suggest that Internet use may be associated with lower gay identity, community attachment, and social embeddedness. However, recent reports have suggested that online sex seeking might be associated with greater, not less, interpersonal connectedness. We conclude that additional longitudinal analyses and consistent measurement of gay men's social behavior are needed to draw more definite conclusions.


Asunto(s)
Bisexualidad , Homosexualidad Masculina , Internet , Relaciones Interpersonales , Conducta Sexual , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Masculino , Narración , Parejas Sexuales , Conducta Social
19.
Anim Cogn ; 23(2): 327-336, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863257

RESUMEN

Cooperative interactions vary in complexity. The emotional reactivity hypothesis posits that cooperative complexity is constrained by social intolerance. Relaxed social constraints should thereby increase cooperative flexibility and have been proposed as a key step in cognitive evolution. Lions (Panthera leo) are an ideal candidate for investigating cooperative complexity and tolerance. Lions regularly cooperate and their egalitarian social structure predicts high social tolerance. I used a food-sharing task and cooperative problem-solving task to investigate tolerance and cooperation in lions. The majority of pairs (N = 5/7 dyads) solved the cooperative task, repeated success in consecutive trials, and demonstrated cooperative complexity at the levels of similarity and synchrony. Surprisingly, lions showed no evidence of coordination. If coordination occurred, then after gaining experience and when no longer naïve to the need for a partner, lions should increase the proportion of time spent together and preferentially attended to the task in the presence of a partner. However, naïve and experienced pairs did not differ (Wilcoxon matched-pair signed-rank test: both present at apparatus: S4 = - 4.5, N = 5, p = 0.50 |both touching the rope: S4 = - 3.5, N = 5, p = 0.43| simultaneous action: S4 = 2.5, N = 5, p = 0.63). As predicted, lions displayed high tolerance and cooperative success was positively correlated with tolerance (Spearman's correlation test: ρ = 0.83, N = 7, p = 0.02*). To date, this is the first experimental test of and support for cooperative problem solving in lions.


Asunto(s)
Leones , Solución de Problemas , Conducta Social , Animales , Femenino
20.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 285: 113292, 2020 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580882

RESUMEN

Dynamic sexual dichromatism occurs when males and females differ in colouration for a limited time. Although this trait has been primarily studied in cephalopods, chameleons, and fishes, recent analyses suggest that dynamic dichromatism is prevalent among anurans and may be mediated through sexual selection and sex recognition. Yellow toads, Incilius luetkenii, exhibit dynamic dichromatism during explosive breeding events at the onset of the rainy season: males change from a cryptic brown to a bright yellow and back again during the brief mating event. We tested the hypothesis that dynamic dichromatism in yellow toads is influenced by conspecific interactions and mediated through sex hormones and stress hormones. We placed male toads into one of four social treatments (with three other males, one male, one female, or no other toads). Immediately before and after each one-hour treatment, we quantified male colour with a reflectance spectrometer and we collected a blood sample to assess plasma concentrations of both testosterone and corticosterone. We found that males held with conspecific animals showed the brightest yellow colour and showed little or no change in their corticosterone levels. Across treatments, toads with duller yellow colour had higher levels of corticosterone. Male colour showed no association with testosterone. Interestingly, males showed substantial temporal variation in colour and corticosterone: toads were duller yellow and exhibited greater levels of corticosterone post-treatment across subsequent days at the onset of the rainy season. Our findings reveal that both conspecific interactions and corticosterone are involved in the dynamic colour change of yellow toads.


Asunto(s)
Anuros/fisiología , Pigmentación , Conducta Social , Clima Tropical , Animales , Corticosterona/sangre , Femenino , Modelos Lineales , Masculino , Testosterona/sangre
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