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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33803913

RESUMEN

The most frequent form of dementia is Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a severe progressive neurological pathology in which the main cognitive functions of an individual are compromised. Recent studies have found that loneliness and living in isolation are likely to cause an acceleration in the cognitive decline associated with AD. Therefore, understanding social behaviours of AD patients is crucial to promote sociability, thus delaying cognitive decline, preserving independence, and providing a good quality of life. In this work, we analyze the localization data of AD patients living in assisted care homes to gather insights about the social dynamics among them. We use localization data collected by a system based on iBeacon technology comprising two components: a network of antennas scattered throughout the facility and a Bluetooth bracelet worn by the patients. We redefine the Relational Index to capture wandering and casual encounters, these being common phenomena among AD patients, and use the notions of Relational and Popularity Indexes to model, visualize and understand the social behaviour of AD patients. We leverage the data analyses to build predictive tools and applications to enhance social activities scheduling and sociability monitoring and promotion, with the ultimate aim of providing patients with a better quality of life. Predictions and visualizations act as a support for caregivers in activity planning to maximize treatment effects and, hence, slow down the progression of Alzheimer's disease. We present the Community Behaviour Prediction Table (CBPT), a tool to visualize the estimated values of sociability among patients and popularity of places within a facility. Finally, we show the potential of the system by analyzing the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) lockdown time-frame between February and June 2020 in a specific facility. Through the use of the indexes, we evaluate the effects of the pandemic on the behaviour of the residents, observing no particular impact on sociability even though social distancing was put in place.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Sistemas de Identificación de Pacientes , Conducta Social , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Calidad de Vida
2.
Science ; 372(6537)2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33795431

RESUMEN

Culture can be defined as all that is learned from others and is repeatedly transmitted in this way, forming traditions that may be inherited by successive generations. This cultural form of inheritance was once thought specific to humans, but research over the past 70 years has instead revealed it to be widespread in nature, permeating the lives of a diversity of animals, including all major classes of vertebrates. Recent studies suggest that culture's reach may extend also to invertebrates-notably, insects. In the present century, the reach of animal culture has been found to extend across many different behavioral domains and to rest on a suite of social learning processes facilitated by a variety of selective biases that enhance the efficiency and adaptiveness of learning. Far-reaching implications, for disciplines from evolutionary biology to anthropology and conservation policies, are increasingly being explored.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Invertebrados , Conducta Social , Vertebrados , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Mimetismo Biológico , Conducta Consumatoria , Evolución Cultural , Cultura , Herencia , Humanos , Invertebrados/genética , Invertebrados/fisiología , Aprendizaje , Comportamiento del Uso de la Herramienta , Vertebrados/genética , Vertebrados/fisiología , Vocalización Animal
3.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(9): 098301, 2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33750152

RESUMEN

Recommendations around epidemics tend to focus on individual behaviors, with much less efforts attempting to guide event cancellations and other collective behaviors since most models lack the higher-order structure necessary to describe large gatherings. Through a higher-order description of contagions on networks, we model the impact of a blanket cancellation of events larger than a critical size and find that epidemics can suddenly collapse when interventions operate over groups of individuals rather than at the level of individuals. We relate this phenomenon to the onset of mesoscopic localization, where contagions concentrate around dominant groups.


Asunto(s)
Epidemias/prevención & control , Modelos Teóricos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Humanos , Conducta Social
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191526, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787753

RESUMEN

The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Conducta Animal , Vivienda para Animales , Ratas , Conducta Social
5.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 34, 2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706700

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Arsenic is a developmental neurotoxicant. It means that its neurotoxic effect could occur in offspring by maternal arsenic exposure. Our previous study showed that developmental arsenic exposure impaired social behavior and serotonergic system in C3H adult male mice. These effects might affect the next generation with no direct exposure to arsenic. This study aimed to detect the social behavior and related gene expression changes in F2 male mice born to gestationally arsenite-exposed F1 mice. METHODS: Pregnant C3H/HeN mice (F0) were given free access to tap water (control mice) or tap water containing 85 ppm sodium arsenite from days 8 to 18 of gestation. Arsenite was not given to F1 or F2 mice. The F2 mice were generated by mating among control F1 males and females, and arsenite-F1 males and females at the age of 10 weeks. At 41 weeks and 74 weeks of age respectively, F2 males were used for the assessment of social behavior by a three-chamber social behavior apparatus. Histological features of the prefrontal cortex were studied by ordinary light microscope. Social behavior-related gene expressions were determined in the prefrontal cortex by real time RT-PCR method. RESULTS: The arsenite-F2 male mice showed significantly poor sociability and social novelty preference in both 41-week-old group and 74-week-old group. There was no significant histological difference between the control mice and the arsenite-F2 mice. Regarding gene expression, serotonin receptor 5B (5-HT 5B) mRNA expression was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in the arsenite-F2 male mice compared to the control F2 male mice in both groups. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and dopamine receptor D1a (Drd1a) gene expressions were significantly decreased (p < 0.05) only in the arsenite-F2 male mice of the 74-week-old group. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) gene expression was significantly increased (p < 0.001) in the arsenite-F2 male mice of both groups, but plasma 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression were not significantly different. Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) mRNA expression was significantly increased only in 41-week-old arsenite-F2 mice. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that maternal arsenic exposure affects social behavior in F2 male mice via serotonergic system in the prefrontal cortex. In this study, COX-2 were not increased although oxidative stress marker (HO-1) was increased significantly in arsnite-F2 male mice.


Asunto(s)
Arsénico/toxicidad , Arsenitos/toxicidad , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente , Conducta Social , Compuestos de Sodio/toxicidad , Animales , Conducta Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Femenino , Marcadores Genéticos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C3H , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/genética , Corteza Prefrontal/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/genética , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/metabolismo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/psicología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Serotonina/genética , Serotonina/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1481, 2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674587

RESUMEN

Norm enforcement may be important for resolving conflicts and promoting cooperation. However, little is known about how preferred responses to norm violations vary across cultures and across domains. In a preregistered study of 57 countries (using convenience samples of 22,863 students and non-students), we measured perceptions of the appropriateness of various responses to a violation of a cooperative norm and to atypical social behaviors. Our findings highlight both cultural universals and cultural variation. We find a universal negative relation between appropriateness ratings of norm violations and appropriateness ratings of responses in the form of confrontation, social ostracism and gossip. Moreover, we find the country variation in the appropriateness of sanctions to be consistent across different norm violations but not across different sanctions. Specifically, in those countries where use of physical confrontation and social ostracism is rated as less appropriate, gossip is rated as more appropriate.


Asunto(s)
Percepción , Conducta Social , Normas Sociales , Atención , Comprensión , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio , Masculino , Negociación , Apoyo Social , Valor de la Vida , Violencia
7.
Science ; 371(6533)2021 03 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674468

RESUMEN

Spread of contagious pathogens critically depends on the number and types of contacts between infectious and susceptible hosts. Changes in social behavior by susceptible, exposed, or sick individuals thus have far-reaching downstream consequences for infectious disease spread. Although "social distancing" is now an all too familiar strategy for managing COVID-19, nonhuman animals also exhibit pathogen-induced changes in social interactions. Here, we synthesize the effects of infectious pathogens on social interactions in animals (including humans), review what is known about underlying mechanisms, and consider implications for evolution and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Conducta Social , Animales , Evolución Biológica , /prevención & control , Humanos , Riesgo
8.
Bioresour Technol ; 330: 124972, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743280

RESUMEN

To understand the microbial social behaviors regulated by acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) in the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) during the restored process after a shock loading, the correlation analyses of AHLs and components of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), AHLs genes and microbes, and AHLs and microbes were investigated. The results showed that the performance could be restored by regulating influent organic loading rate stage-by-stage. A variation in microbial community and endogenous AHLs was also found during the restoration process. It was found that C14-HSL had improved the synthesis of protein in EPS and resulted in better aggregation of microbes. C4-HSL, as well as C8-HSL and 3-oxoC14-HSL, could prompt the metabolism of acidogenic fermentation bacteria. While 3-oxoC6-HSL was identified as the key signal molecule in enhancing methanogenesis. The present work advanced the understanding of microbial social behaviors and provided an attractive strategy for the restoration of anaerobic digestion after shock loadings.


Asunto(s)
Percepción de Quorum , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Acil-Butirolactonas , Anaerobiosis , Conducta Social
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1775, 2021 03 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33741978

RESUMEN

Human society is cooperative and characterized by spontaneous prosociality. Comparative studies on endotherm vertebrates suggest that social interdependence causes the evolution of proactive prosociality. To test the generality of this hypothesis, we modify a prosocial choice task for application to the convict cichlid, Amatitlania nigrofasciata, a monogamous fish with biparental care and a strong pair bond. We also affirm that male subjects learn to favor prosocial choices when their mates are the recipients in a neighboring tank. When the neighboring tank is empty, males choose randomly. Furthermore, in the absence of their mates, males behave prosocially toward a stranger female. However, if the mate of the subjects is also visible in the third tank, or if a male is a potential recipient, then subjects make antisocial choices. To conclude, fish may show both spontaneous prosocial and antisocial behaviors according to their social relationships with conspecifics and the overall social context.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Cíclidos/fisiología , Conducta Sexual Animal/fisiología , Conducta Social , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Apareamiento , Reproducción/fisiología
10.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 150, 2021 Mar 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685439

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, despite many widespread calls for social distancing, recommendations have not been followed by some people and the high rate of non-compliance has significantly affected lives all around the world. It seems that the rate of non-compliance with the recommendations among medical students has been as high as the rest of the other youth. In the time that students are removed from clinical environments and most physician teachers are strained in providing services to patients, medical students can be trained in interdisciplinary behavior change counseling programs and they can be employed in delivering virtual consultations to the patients referred to medical centers.In this quick review, we provide an argument regarding the importance of integrating the topic of patients' social history into the undergraduate medical curriculum and the necessity of teaching theories of behavior change to medical students. Hypotheses are proposed that focus on the importance of integrating behavioral and social sciences into the medical curriculum and to teach theories or models of behavior change to students. Health professions educators can design and implement interventions to teach hypothesized models of behavioral change to medical students and evaluate the effectiveness of those interventions. The impacts of such educational interventions on increasing people's compliance with recommendations to improve public health can be evaluated as well.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista/educación , Consejo/educación , Curriculum , Educación de Pregrado en Medicina/métodos , Pacientes/psicología , Conducta Social , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Humanos , Pandemias , Enseñanza
11.
Am J Occup Ther ; 75(2): 7502205050p1-7502205050p11, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657347

RESUMEN

IMPORTANCE: Limited research has described the timing of acquisition of the broad range of skills required for the transition to adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To describe the timing of the shift of responsibility for daily tasks from parent to child. DESIGN: This study used an existing data set of parent responses to 49 items in the Responsibility domain of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory Computer Adaptive Tests. PARTICIPANTS: A U.S. nationally representative sample of 2,205 typically developing children and youth ages 0 to 20 yr. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Descriptive analyses focused on two ages: (1) starting age (when >50% of parents reported their child was taking at least some responsibility for a task) and (2) full responsibility age (when >50% of parents reported their child was taking full responsibility for the task). RESULTS: The process of shifting responsibility for daily life tasks from parent to child typically occurred over a long period. Many task items had an interval of 5 yr from starting age to full responsibility age; the longest interval was 15 yr. Youth began assuming responsibility for more complex tasks and tasks that involved more risk at ages 10 to 15. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Results can serve as a reference for the timing of the transition to greater self-management of daily life tasks across childhood and adolescence. Timing of responsibility shifts may reflect a combination of development of underlying capacities and social transitions. Executive functioning may be especially relevant for management of the more complex tasks required in daily life in adulthood. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: The transfer of responsibility for managing tasks of daily life from parents to children often extends over a period of many years. Clinicians may find the results helpful when discussing the future with parents of young people with disabilities and other chronic conditions and the tasks that their children must learn to manage for independent living as an adult.


Asunto(s)
Personas con Discapacidad , Automanejo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Familia , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Padres , Conducta Social , Adulto Joven
12.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645561

RESUMEN

The unique traits of eusocial insects, such as social behavior and reproductive division of labor, are controlled by their genetic system. To address how genes regulate social traits, we have developed mutant ants via delivery of CRISPR complex into young embryos during their syncytial stage. Here, we provide a protocol of CRISPR-mediated mutagenesis in Harpegnathos saltator, a ponerine ant species that displays striking phenotypic plasticity. H. saltator ants are readily reared in a laboratory setting. Embryos are collected for microinjection with Cas9 proteins and in vitro synthesized small guide RNAs (sgRNAs) using home-made quartz needles. Post-injection embryos are reared outside the colony. Following emergence of the first larva, all embryos and larvae are transported to a nest box with a few nursing workers for further development. This protocol is suitable for inducing mutagenesis for analysis of caste-specific physiology and social behavior in ants, but may also be applied to a broader spectrum of hymenopterans and other insects.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas/fisiología , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Larva/fisiología , Mutagénesis , Reproducción , Conducta Social , Animales , Hormigas/genética , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas , Larva/genética , Fenotipo
13.
Zool Res ; 42(2): 195-206, 2021 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709634

RESUMEN

Although widely thought to be aggressive, solitary, and potentially cannibalistic, some spider species have evolved group-living behaviors. The distinct transition provides the framework to uncover group-living evolution. Here, we conducted a comparative transcriptomic study and examined patterns of molecular evolution in two independently evolved group-living spiders and twelve solitary species. We report that positively selected genes among group-living spider lineages are significantly enriched in nutrient metabolism and autophagy pathways. We also show that nutrient-related genes of group-living spiders convergently experience amino acid substitutions and accelerated relative evolutionary rates. These results indicate adaptive convergence of nutrient metabolism that may ensure energy supply in group-living spiders. The decelerated evolutionary rate of autophagy-related genes in group-living lineages is consistent with an increased constraint on energy homeostasis as would be required in a group-living environment. Together, the results show that energy metabolic pathways play an important role in the transition to group-living in spiders.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Metabolismo Energético/fisiología , Conducta Social , Arañas/fisiología , Sustitución de Aminoácidos , Animales , Metabolismo Energético/genética , Regulación de la Expresión Génica/fisiología , Arañas/genética
14.
J Psychol ; 155(3): 309-333, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656964

RESUMEN

Existing trait-based and cognitive models of psychopathy and narcissism fail to provide a comprehensive framework that explains the continuum between sub-clinical and clinical presentations of those personalities and to predict associated maladaptive behavior in different social and cultural contexts. In this article, a socio-cognitive information-processing framework for narcissism and psychopathy (SCIPNP) is proposed to explain how psychopathic and narcissistic schemata influence the activation of psychological processes that interact with social and cultural contexts to display those personalities at a sub-clinical level. The proposed framework enables us to predict maladaptive behavior and to explain how sub-clinical narcissists and psychopaths develop personality disorders. The SCIPNP emphasizes the role of culture in shaping motives, appraisals, behavior and affect. Recommendations for future research are provided.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Cognición , Narcisismo , Conducta Social , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Cognición/fisiología , Humanos
15.
Nurs Res ; 70(2): 114-122, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630534

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A permissive drinking culture is one reason for the high level of alcohol consumption among Korean men. Despite shared experiences of the Korean drinking culture that often encourages social drinking, Korean American and Korean male workers may differ in their drinking behavior. This study examines the predictors of controlled drinking behavior and between these two groups. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the predictors of controlled drinking behavior between Korean American and Korean male workers. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two male participants (141 Korean Americans and 141 Koreans) who engaged in social drinking were surveyed. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior was used to examine the predictors of controlled drinking behavior. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the theoretical model for each group, followed by multiple-group analyses. RESULTS: Most participants were college-educated and white-collar workers. Korean American workers had fewer heavy episodic drinking days in the past month than Korean workers. Model testing for each group revealed that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions of controlled drinking, but only perceived behavioral control was a significant predictor of controlled drinking behavior. Multiple-group analyses indicated no difference between the two groups regarding the predictors of controlled drinking behaviors. DISCUSSION: Programs to promote controlled drinking for Korean American and Korean male workers should incorporate strategies to increase perceived behavioral control, such as training on how to decline drinking. In addition, early education for healthy drinking culture with a strict drinking environment needs to be considered to improve controlled drinking behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Autoimagen , Adulto , Bebidas Alcohólicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Conducta Social , Identificación Social
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1311, 2021 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637702

RESUMEN

Social media has become a modern arena for human life, with billions of daily users worldwide. The intense popularity of social media is often attributed to a psychological need for social rewards (likes), portraying the online world as a Skinner Box for the modern human. Yet despite such portrayals, empirical evidence for social media engagement as reward-based behavior remains scant. Here, we apply a computational approach to directly test whether reward learning mechanisms contribute to social media behavior. We analyze over one million posts from over 4000 individuals on multiple social media platforms, using computational models based on reinforcement learning theory. Our results consistently show that human behavior on social media conforms qualitatively and quantitatively to the principles of reward learning. Specifically, social media users spaced their posts to maximize the average rate of accrued social rewards, in a manner subject to both the effort cost of posting and the opportunity cost of inaction. Results further reveal meaningful individual difference profiles in social reward learning on social media. Finally, an online experiment (n = 176), mimicking key aspects of social media, verifies that social rewards causally influence behavior as posited by our computational account. Together, these findings support a reward learning account of social media engagement and offer new insights into this emergent mode of modern human behavior.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje , Recompensa , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Refuerzo en Psicología , Conducta Social
17.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 921, 2021 02 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568667

RESUMEN

We investigate the relationship between individual differences in cognitive reflection and behavior on the social media platform Twitter, using a convenience sample of N = 1,901 individuals from Prolific. We find that people who score higher on the Cognitive Reflection Test-a widely used measure of reflective thinking-were more discerning in their social media use, as evidenced by the types and number of accounts followed, and by the reliability of the news sources they shared. Furthermore, a network analysis indicates that the phenomenon of echo chambers, in which discourse is more likely with like-minded others, is not limited to politics: people who scored lower in cognitive reflection tended to follow a set of accounts which are avoided by people who scored higher in cognitive reflection. Our results help to illuminate the drivers of behavior on social media platforms and challenge intuitionist notions that reflective thinking is unimportant for everyday judgment and decision-making.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Juicio , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Social , Adulto Joven
18.
Ecol Lett ; 24(4): 676-686, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583128

RESUMEN

The structure of wild animal social systems depends on a complex combination of intrinsic and extrinsic drivers. Population structuring and spatial behaviour are key determinants of individuals' observed social behaviour, but quantifying these spatial components alongside multiple other drivers remains difficult due to data scarcity and analytical complexity. We used a 43-year dataset detailing a wild red deer population to investigate how individuals' spatial behaviours drive social network positioning, while simultaneously assessing other potential contributing factors. Using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) multi-matrix animal models, we demonstrate that social network positions are shaped by two-dimensional landscape locations, pairwise space sharing, individual range size, and spatial and temporal variation in population density, alongside smaller but detectable impacts of a selection of individual-level phenotypic traits. These results indicate strong, multifaceted spatiotemporal structuring in this society, emphasising the importance of considering multiple spatial components when investigating the causes and consequences of sociality.


Asunto(s)
Ciervos , Animales , Fenotipo , Conducta Social , Red Social , Conducta Espacial
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578678

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 emergency has imposed distanced education and has interrupted most rehabilitation services. Adolescents with disabilities have been isolated, and the burden on their families has been exacerbated. A cross-sectional survey was administered to adolescents with disability and to parents of disabled children to describe their experience during lockdown and their concerns or expectations about rehabilitation. A sample of 53 adolescents and 239 parents completed the survey. Adolescents were ages 13-18 years old (45.3% female). Most parents were between 35 and 55 years old (84.9% female). While 53.6% of the parents reported no positive effects of the lockdown, 92.5% of the adolescents expressed favorable consequences. The increased time spent with family members was judged positively by 27.2% of parents and by 64.2% of adolescents. Concern for their child's disability was expressed by 47.3% of parents, while 73.6% of adolescents expressed concerns regarding the ban on meeting friends. In both groups, anxiety symptoms were correlated with the fear of contracting COVID-19 and with financial problems. Parents would have liked even more remote support from school and healthcare professionals, which was available for most participants. Thus, socioeconomic support, assistive technology and telerehabilitation strategies might help families with disabilities during a lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Niños con Discapacidad/rehabilitación , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Italia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Conducta Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573163

RESUMEN

Understanding social behaviour in livestock groups requires accurate geo-spatial localisation data over time which is difficult to obtain in the field. Automated on-animal devices may provide a solution. This study introduced an Real-Time-Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System (RTK-GNSS) localisation device (RTK rover) based on an RTK module manufactured by the company u-blox (Thalwil, Switzerland) that was assembled in a box and harnessed to sheep backs. Testing with 7 sheep across 4 days confirmed RTK rover tracking of sheep movement continuously with accuracy of approximately 20 cm. Individual sheep geo-spatial data were used to observe the sheep that first moved during a grazing period (movement leaders) in the one-hectare test paddock as well as construct social networks. Analysis of the optimum location update rate, with a threshold distance of 20 cm or 30 cm, showed that location sampling at a rate of 1 sample per second for 1 min followed by no samples for 4 min or 9 min, detected social networks as accurately as continuous location measurements at 1 sample every 5 s. The RTK rover acquired precise data on social networks in one sheep flock in an outdoor field environment with sampling strategies identified to extend battery life.


Asunto(s)
Movimiento , Conducta Social , Animales , Fenómenos Biomecánicos , Femenino , Ovinos , Red Social , Suiza
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