Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 17.697
Filtrar
1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 35(2): 97-101, 2020.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191215

RESUMEN

The short literature overview is organized around the idea that during our life course there is a classic competition between accumulated experience and the increased metacognitive reflection possibilities as the positive side, and the rusting of fast mental processes, mental slowdown with age as a negative side. This is non trivially crossed by the issue that in language, grammar corresponds to the early stabilizing procedural system, while vocabulary is a system that remains open during all our life regarding its acquisition, but shows signs of access problems due to the age sensitivity of the declarative memory system. Language and speech in this regard as well are subject to multiple determination: different age parameters characterize its acquisition and usage. I show some summaries of age related changes in grammar, vocabulary, and articulation. The review specifically discusses the possible role of age related in memory and executive functions during physiological ageing. In this domain as well, the new IT system brought in new environmental and research method challenges.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Memoria , Habla , Conducta Verbal , Vocabulario , Función Ejecutiva , Humanos
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 705, 2020 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32019940

RESUMEN

A challenge for neuroscience is to understand the conscious and unconscious processes underlying construction of willed actions. We investigated the neural substrate of human motor awareness during awake brain surgery. In a first experiment, awake patients performed a voluntary hand motor task and verbally monitored their real-time performance, while different brain areas were transiently impaired by direct electrical stimulation (DES). In a second experiment, awake patients retrospectively reported their motor performance after DES. Based on anatomo-clinical evidence from motor awareness disorders following brain damage, the premotor cortex (PMC) was selected as a target area and the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) as a control area. In both experiments, DES on both PMC and S1 interrupted movement execution, but only DES on PMC dramatically altered the patients' motor awareness, making them unconscious of the motor arrest. These findings endorse PMC as a crucial hub in the anatomo-functional network of human motor awareness.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Motora/fisiología , Adulto , Concienciación , Mapeo Encefálico , Estimulación Eléctrica , Femenino , Mano/fisiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Actividad Motora , Corteza Motora/química , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal , Conducta Verbal
3.
Am J Med ; 133(4): 424-428.e2, 2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935351

RESUMEN

Health care providers are frequently faced with the challenge of caring for patients who have limited English proficiency. These patients experience challenges accessing health care and are at higher risk of receiving suboptimal health care than native English speakers. Health care interpreters are crucial partners to help break down communication barriers and prevent these patients from facing health care disparities. Many providers lack the skill set and knowledge that are vital to successful collaboration with an interpreter. The objective of this article is to address a number of questions surrounding the use of health care interpreters and to provide concrete suggestions that will enable providers to best serve their patients.


Asunto(s)
Barreras de Comunicación , Lenguaje , Humanos , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Traducciones , Conducta Verbal
4.
J Psychol ; 154(2): 129-143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644371

RESUMEN

In this research, we hypothesized that employees' belief in a just world (BJW) would be positively related to their voice behavior, i.e., the expression of ideas or opinions with the intention of engendering organizational improvement or change, and that this relation would be mediated by perceived voice efficacy and perceived voice risk. To test these hypotheses, we collected self-reported data from employees in two different countries: China (N = 313) and Germany (N = 190). The results revealed a positive association between BJW and employee voice behavior in both samples. The two-mediator model was confirmed in the Chinese sample, while only perceived voice efficacy played a mediating role in the German sample. Possible reasons for these differences may be related to differences in cultural dimensions and education levels between the samples. The findings emphasize the importance of bolstering employees' belief in justice and the organizational climate, which influence perceived voice efficacy and risk, as means to increase organizational voice behavior.


Asunto(s)
Actitud , Cultura Organizacional , Justicia Social/psicología , Conducta Verbal , Lugar de Trabajo/psicología , Adulto , China , Comparación Transcultural , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Organizaciones , Medición de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 202: 102957, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841879

RESUMEN

We present a set of 423 animated action movie clips of 3 s, that we expect to be useful for a variety of experimental paradigms in which sentences are elicited. The clips either depict an action involving only an agent (intransitive action, e.g., a policeman that is sleeping), an action involving an agent and a patient (transitive action, e.g., a policeman shooting a pirate), or an action involving an agent, an object, and a beneficiary (ditransitive action, e.g., a policeman showing a hat to a pirate). In order to verify that the movie clips (when presented with a verb) indeed elicit intransitive, transitive, or ditransitive sentences, we conducted a written norming study with native speakers of American English. We asked 203 participants to describe the clips with a sentence using a given verb. The movie clips elicited valid responses in 90% of the cases. Moreover, there was an active response bias for the transitives, and a prepositional object dative (PO-dative) response bias for the ditransitives. This bias differed between verbs in the ditransitives. A list is provided with all clips and the proportion of each response type for each clip. The clips are stored as MP4-files and can be freely downloaded.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Películas Cinematográficas , Estimulación Luminosa/métodos , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Distribución Aleatoria , Adulto Joven
6.
Behav Modif ; 44(1): 92-113, 2020 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30136599

RESUMEN

We compared clinical outcomes in a treatment group of 98 individuals who received between 8 and 15 weekly hours (M = 10.6; SD = 1.7) of applied behavior analysis (ABA) intervention with a comparison group of 73 individuals who received another provision, including some ABA, (between 1.4-8 weekly hours, M = 5.7; SD = 1.6). After 2 years, the treatment group made greater gains than the comparison group on language and social skills, and other areas assessed by the Verbal Behavior Milestones Assessment and Placement Program (VB-MAPP). We evaluated the outcome on adaptive skills for a smaller sample of participants using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales II (VABS), but found no significant differences between the treatment (n = 17) and comparison groups (n = 11). Although the treatment group made important and clinically meaningful gains, the gains were moderate. These findings underline the importance of intervention intensity and provide further support for a dose-response relationship between ABA intervention hours and outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Aplicado de la Conducta , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/terapia , Habilidades Sociales , Conducta Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Resultado del Tratamiento , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226482, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869374

RESUMEN

In an overt visual priming experiment, we investigate the role of orthography in native (L1) and non-native (L2) processing of German morphologically complex words. We compare priming effects for inflected and derived morphologically related prime-target pairs versus otherwise matched, purely orthographically related pairs. The results show morphological priming effects in both the L1 and L2 group, with no significant difference between inflection and derivation. However, L2 speakers, but not L1 speakers, also showed significant priming for orthographically related pairs. Our results support the claim that L2 speakers focus more on surface-level information such as orthography during visual word recognition. This can cause orthographic priming effects in morphologically related prime-target pairs, which may conceal L1-L2 differences in morphological processing.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Lingüística , Multilingüismo , Lectura , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridad , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Lingüística/métodos , Masculino , Tiempo de Reacción , Semántica , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Vocabulario , Adulto Joven
8.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919879335, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564124

RESUMEN

Patterns of nonverbal and verbal behavior of interlocutors become more similar as communication progresses. Rhythm entrainment promotes prosocial behavior and signals social bonding and cooperation. Yet, it is unknown if the convergence of rhythm in human speech is perceived and is used to make pragmatic inferences regarding the cooperative urge of the interactors. We conducted two experiments to answer this question. For analytical purposes, we separate pulse (recurring acoustic events) and meter (hierarchical structuring of pulses based on their relative salience). We asked the listeners to make judgments on the hostile or collaborative attitude of interacting agents who exhibit different or similar pulse (Experiment 1) or meter (Experiment 2). The results suggest that rhythm convergence can be a marker of social cooperation at the level of pulse, but not at the level of meter. The mapping of rhythmic convergence onto social affiliation or opposition is important at the early stages of language acquisition. The evolutionary origin of this faculty is possibly the need to transmit and perceive coalition information in social groups of human ancestors. We suggest that this faculty could promote the emergence of the speech faculty in humans.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Conducta Cooperativa , Relaciones Interpersonales , Percepción Social , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Humanos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
9.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919874675, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564128

RESUMEN

In both correlational and experimental settings, studies on women's vocal preferences have reported negative relationships between perceived attractiveness and men's vocal pitch, emphasizing the idea of an adaptive preference. However, such consensus on vocal attractiveness has been mostly conducted with native English speakers, but a few evidence suggest that it may be culture-dependent. Moreover, other overlooked acoustic components of vocal quality, such as intonation, perceived breathiness and roughness, may influence vocal attractiveness. In this context, the present study aims to contribute to the literature by investigating vocal attractiveness in an underrepresented language (i.e., French) as well as shedding light on its relationship with understudied acoustic components of vocal quality. More specifically, we investigated the relationships between attractiveness ratings as assessed by female raters and male voice pitch, its variation, the formants' dispersion and position, and the harmonics-to-noise and jitter ratios. Results show that women were significantly more attracted to lower vocal pitch and higher intonation patterns. However, they did not show any directional preferences for all the other acoustic features. We discuss our results in light of the adaptive functions of vocal preferences in a mate choice context.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Elección/fisiología , Conducta Sexual/fisiología , Percepción Social , Conducta Verbal , Voz , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Res Dev Disabil ; 94: 103460, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476725

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The phenotype of Down syndrome (DS) is usually characterized by relative strengths in visual skills and severe deficits in auditory processing; this has consequences for language and communication. To date, it is not known whether this pattern characterizes the psycholinguistic profile of young adults with DS. AIMS: This study aimed to assess whether, relative to their cognitive level, young adults with DS present a specific and homogeneous phenotype for both auditory and visual psycholinguistic skills. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Fifty young adults with DS and 50 peers with other intellectual disability (ID) were equated in chronological age and nonverbal cognition and were compared regarding their performance in auditory and visual psycholinguistic functions. OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Participants with DS showed more phenotypic-specific deficits in auditory psycholinguistic skills than in those involved in visual processing. However, phenotypic-specific impairments in visual psycholinguistic skills were also observed, while no significant between-group differences were found for some auditory psycholinguistic skills. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The psycholinguistic pattern of young adults with DS is not homogeneous with respect to auditory and visual processing. The profile of specific deficits suggests that the educative support for young adults with DS may need to be specific.


Asunto(s)
Percepción Auditiva , Trastornos de la Comunicación , Síndrome de Down , Discapacidad Intelectual , Reconocimiento Visual de Modelos , Cognición , Trastornos de la Comunicación/diagnóstico , Trastornos de la Comunicación/etiología , Trastornos de la Comunicación/psicología , Síndrome de Down/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Down/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Discapacidad Intelectual/diagnóstico , Discapacidad Intelectual/psicología , Desarrollo del Lenguaje , Masculino , Fonética , Psicolingüística , Habla , Conducta Verbal , Adulto Joven
12.
Am J Audiol ; 28(3): 660-672, 2019 Sep 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430190

RESUMEN

Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the emotional tone and verbal behavior of social media users who self-identified as having tinnitus and/or hyperacusis that caused self-described negative consequences on daily life or health. Research Design and Method An explanatory mixed-methods design was utilized. Two hundred "initial" and 200 "reply" Facebook posts were collected from members of a tinnitus group and a hyperacusis group. Data were analyzed via the LIWC 2015 software program and compared to typical bloggers. As this was an explanatory mixed-methods study, we used qualitative thematic analyses to explain, interpret, and illustrate the quantitative results. Results Overall, quantitative results indicated lower overall emotional tone for all categories (tinnitus and hyperacusis, initial and reply), which was mostly influenced by higher negative emotion. Higher levels of authenticity or truth were found in the hyperacusis sample but not in the tinnitus sample. Lower levels of clout (social standing) were indicated in all groups, and a lower level of analytical thinking style (concepts and complex categories rather than narratives) was found in the hyperacusis sample. Additional analysis of the language indicated higher levels of sadness and anxiety in all groups and lower levels of anger, particularly for initial replies. These data support prior findings indicating higher levels of anxiety and depression in this patient population based on the actual words in blog posts and not from self-report questionnaires. Qualitative results identified 3 major themes from both the tinnitus and hyperacusis texts: suffering, negative emotional tone, and coping strategies. Conclusions Results from this study suggest support for the predominant clinical view that patients with tinnitus and hyperacusis have higher levels of anxiety and depression than the general population. The extent of the suffering described and patterns of coping strategies suggest clinical practice patterns and the need for research in implementing improved practice plans.


Asunto(s)
Emociones , Hiperacusia , Redes Sociales en Línea , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Acúfeno , Conducta Verbal , Adaptación Psicológica , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Procesamiento de Lenguaje Natural , Investigación Cualitativa
13.
J Integr Neurosci ; 18(2): 95-105, 2019 06 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321950

RESUMEN

This research investigates the chronic effect of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury on brain white matter integrity, as reflected by diffusion tensor imaging metrics, and the assessment of their correlation to neuropsychological response. Thirteen male participants with traumatic brain injury (8.4 years average post-injury time) were compared to a matched group of neurologically healthy controls. None of the traumatic brain injury subjects had received post-acute neurocognitive and/or neuropsychological rehabilitation. Between-group comparison of fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity was performed for the whole brain and corpus callosum. An extensive battery of visual and verbal memory tasks was employed for the comparative assessment of neurocognitive performance. Between-group and within-group performance differences were correlated with fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity of corpus callosum. Significant changes in global fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and radial diffusivity were associated with traumatic brain injury. Visual memory capacity was reduced in traumatic brain injury, and this deficit was correlated to white matter integrity loss at the corpus callosum. Participants with traumatic brain injury underperformed controls in verbal memory as well, but no correlation with corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging properties was established. Between-group performance difference was correlated with corpus callosum diffusion metrics in several tasks. Significant correlations were found between corpus callosum diffusion tensor imaging metrics and neuropsychological response within the traumatic brain injury group. Changes in whole brain and corpus callosum diffusion tensor metrics inflicted by moderate to severe traumatic brain injury are still evident several years post-injury and relate to neurocognitive impairment, while loss of white matter integrity seems to correlate with episodic and working memory impairment.


Asunto(s)
Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/patología , Lesiones Traumáticas del Encéfalo/psicología , Encéfalo/patología , Cuerpo Calloso/patología , Memoria/fisiología , Adulto , Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
14.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002852, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31276501

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Acute illness requiring hospitalization frequently is a sentinel event leading to long-term disability in older people. Prolonged bed rest increases the risk of developing cognitive impairment and dementia in acutely hospitalized older adults. Exercise protocols applied during acute hospitalization can prevent functional decline in older patients, but exercise benefits on specific cognitive domains have not been previously investigated. We aimed to assess the effects of a multicomponent exercise intervention for cognitive function in older adults during acute hospitalization. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a secondary analysis of a single-blind randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted from February 1, 2015, to August 30, 2017 in an Acute Care of the Elderly (ACE) unit in a tertiary public hospital in Navarre (Spain). 370 hospitalized patients (aged ≥75 years) were randomly allocated to an exercise intervention (n = 185) or a control (n = 185) group (usual care). The intervention consisted of a multicomponent exercise training program performed during 5-7 consecutive days (2 sessions/day). The usual care group received habitual hospital care, which included physical rehabilitation when needed. The main outcomes were change in executive function from baseline to discharge, assessed with the dual-task (i.e., verbal and arithmetic) Gait Velocity Test (GVT) and the Trail Making Test Part A (TMT-A). Changes in the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) test and verbal fluency ability were also measured after the intervention period. The physical exercise program provided significant benefits over usual care. At discharge, the exercise group showed a mean increase of 0.1 m/s (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07, 0.13; p < 0.001) in the verbal GVT and 0.1 m/s (95% CI, 0.08, 0.13; p < 0.001) in the arithmetic GVT over usual care group. There was an apparent improvement in the intervention group also in the TMT-A score (-31.1 seconds; 95% CI, -49.5, -12.7 versus -3.13 seconds; 95% CI, -16.3, 10.2 in the control group; p < 0.001) and the MMSE score (2.10 points; 95% CI, 1.75, 2.46 versus 0.27 points; 95% CI, -0.08, 0.63; p < 0.001). Significant benefits were also observed in the exercise group for the verbal fluency test (mean 2.16 words; 95% CI, 1.56, 2.74; p < 0.001) over the usual care group. The main limitations of the study were patients' difficulty in completing all the tasks at both hospital admission and discharge (e.g., 25% of older patients were unable to complete the arithmetic GVT, and 47% could not complete the TMT-A), and only old patients with relatively good functional capacity at preadmission (i.e., Barthel Index score ≥60 points) were included in the study. CONCLUSIONS: An individualized, multicomponent exercise training program may be an effective therapy for improving cognitive function (i.e., executive function and verbal fluency domains) in very old patients during acute hospitalization. These findings support the need for a shift from the traditional (bedrest-based) hospitalization to one that recognizes the important role of maintaining functional capacity and cognitive function in older adults, key components of intrinsic capacity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02300896.


Asunto(s)
Reposo en Cama/efectos adversos , Trastornos del Conocimiento/prevención & control , Cognición , Terapia por Ejercicio , Hospitalización , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Trastornos del Conocimiento/diagnóstico , Trastornos del Conocimiento/etiología , Trastornos del Conocimiento/psicología , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Método Simple Ciego , Factores de Tiempo , Resultado del Tratamiento , Conducta Verbal , Velocidad al Caminar
15.
PLoS One ; 14(6): e0217814, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31185027

RESUMEN

Individual variability in word generation is a product of genetic and environmental influences. The genetic effects on semantic verbal fluency were estimated in 1,735 participants from the Brazilian Baependi Heart Study. The numbers of exemplars produced in 60 s were broken down into time quartiles because of the involvement of different cognitive processes-predominantly automatic at the beginning, controlled/executive at the end. Heritability in the unadjusted model for the 60-s measure was 0.32. The best-fit model contained age, sex, years of schooling, and time of day as covariates, giving a heritability of 0.21. Schooling had the highest moderating effect. The highest heritability (0.17) was observed in the first quartile, decreasing to 0.09, 0.12, and 0.0003 in the following ones. Heritability for average production starting point (intercept) was 0.18, indicating genetic influences for automatic cognitive processes. Production decay (slope), indicative of controlled processes, was not significant. The genetic influence on different quartiles of the semantic verbal fluency test could potentially be exploited in clinical practice and genome-wide association studies.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Semántica , Conducta Verbal , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 76(7): 448-454, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31186370

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Violence from care recipients and family members, including both verbal and physical abuse, is a serious occupational hazard for healthcare and social assistance workers. Most workplace violence studies in this sector focus on hospitals and other institutional settings. This study examined verbal abuse in a large home care (HC) aide population and evaluated risk factors. METHODS: We used questionnaire survey data collected as part of a larger mixed methods study of a range of working conditions among HC aides. This paper focuses on survey responses of HC aides (n=954) who reported on verbal abuse from non-family clients and their family members. Risk factors were identified in univariate and multivariable analyses. RESULTS: Twenty-two per cent (n=206) of aides reported at least one incident of verbal abuse in the 12 months before the survey. Three factors were found to be important in multivariable models: clients with dementia (relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.78), homes with too little space for the aide to work (RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.97) and predictable work hours (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.94); two additional factors were associated with verbal abuse, although not as strongly: having clients with limited mobility (RR 1.35, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93) and an unclear plan for care delivery (RR 1.27, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.69). Aides reporting verbal abuse were 11 times as likely to also report physical abuse (RR 11.53; 95% CI 6.84 to 19.45). CONCLUSIONS: Verbal abuse is common among HC aides. These findings suggest specific changes in work organisation and training that may help reduce verbal abuse.


Asunto(s)
Auxiliares de Salud a Domicilio/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta Verbal , Violencia Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Demencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Massachusetts/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Limitación de la Movilidad , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lugar de Trabajo/estadística & datos numéricos
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 767-769, 2019 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207864

RESUMEN

Evaluating patients' verbal fluency by counting the number of unique words (e.g., animals) produced in a short-period (e.g., 1-3 min) is one of the most widely employed cognitive tests in psychiatric research. We introduce new methods to analyze fluency output that leverage modern computational language technology. This enables moving beyond simple word counts to charting the temporal dynamics of speech and objectively quantifying the semantic relationship of the utterances. These metrics can greatly expand the current psychiatric research toolkit and can help refine clinical theories regarding the nature of putative language differences in patients.


Asunto(s)
Pruebas del Lenguaje , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Psiquiatría/métodos , Habla/fisiología , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Lenguaje , Masculino , Psiquiatría/tendencias , Semántica
18.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 791-804, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204834

RESUMEN

Contemporary research on aging has provided mixed evidence for whether older adults are less effective than younger adults at designing and delivering spoken utterances. However, most of these studies have focused on only specific aspects of this process. In addition, they tend to vary significantly in terms of the degree of complexity in their chosen stimuli or task. The present study compares younger and older adults' performance using a referential production paradigm involving simple everyday objects. We varied referential context such that a target object was either unique in its category (e.g., one shirt), or was accompanied by a same-category object (e.g., two shirts). We evaluated whether speakers' descriptions provided listeners with sufficient information for identification, and whether speakers spontaneously adapt their speech for different addressee types (younger adult, older adult, automated dialogue system). A variety of measures were included to provide a comprehensive perspective on adults' performance. Interestingly, the results revealed few or no age differences in measures related to production performance (speech onset latency, speech rate, and fluency). In contrast, consistent differences were observed for measures related to descriptive content, both in terms of informativity and variability in lexical selection: Older adults not only provided more information than necessary for referential success (e.g., superfluous modifiers), but also exhibited greater variability in their selection of modifiers. The results show that, although certain aspects of the production process are well-preserved across the adult lifespan, meaningful age-related differences can still be found in simple referential tasks with everyday objects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/psicología , Comunicación , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Habla , Conducta Verbal/fisiología , Adolescente , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Percepción Auditiva , Femenino , Humanos , Longevidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Habla/fisiología , Adulto Joven
19.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 104, 2019 06 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155009

RESUMEN

Reducing maternal mortality is a key focus of development strategies and one of the indicators used to measure progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In the absence of medical certification of the cause of deaths that occur in the community, verbal autopsy (VA) methods are the only available means to assess levels and trends of maternal deaths that occur outside health facilities. The 2016 World Health Organization VA Instrument facilitates the identification of eight specific causes of maternal death, yet maternal deaths are often unsupervised, leading to sparse and generally poor symptom reporting to inform a reliable diagnosis using VAs. There is little research evidence to support the reliable identification of specific causes of maternal death in the context of routine VAs. We recommend that routine VAs are only used to capture the event of a maternal death and that more detailed follow-up interviews are used to identify the specific causes.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/métodos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Muerte Materna/etiología , Mortalidad Materna/tendencias , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Estadísticas Vitales , Adolescente , Adulto , Autopsia/normas , Causas de Muerte , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Asunto/normas , Muerte Materna/prevención & control , Muerte Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embarazo , Resultado del Embarazo/epidemiología , Desarrollo Sostenible , Conducta Verbal , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
20.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 102, 2019 05 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146736

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Verbal autopsy is an increasingly important methodology for assigning causes to otherwise uncertified deaths, which amount to around 50% of global mortality and cause much uncertainty for health planning. The World Health Organization sets international standards for the structure of verbal autopsy interviews and for cause categories that can reasonably be derived from verbal autopsy data. In addition, computer models are needed to efficiently process large quantities of verbal autopsy interviews to assign causes of death in a standardised manner. Here, we present the InterVA-5 model, developed to align with the WHO-2016 verbal autopsy standard. This is a harmonising model that can process input data from WHO-2016, as well as earlier WHO-2012 and Tariff-2 formats, to generate standardised cause-specific mortality profiles for diverse contexts. The software development involved building on the earlier InterVA-4 model, and the expanded knowledge base required for InterVA-5 was informed by analyses from a training dataset drawn from the Population Health Metrics Research Collaboration verbal autopsy reference dataset, as well as expert input. RESULTS: The new model was evaluated against a test dataset of 6130 cases from the Population Health Metrics Research Collaboration and 4009 cases from the Afghanistan National Mortality Survey dataset. Both of these sources contained around three quarters of the input items from the WHO-2016, WHO-2012 and Tariff-2 formats. Cause-specific mortality fractions across all applicable WHO cause categories were compared between causes assigned in participating tertiary hospitals and InterVA-5 in the test dataset, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.92 for children and 0.86 for adults. The InterVA-5 model's capacity to handle different input formats was evaluated in the Afghanistan dataset, with concordance correlation coefficients of 0.97 and 0.96 between the WHO-2016 and the WHO-2012 format for children and adults respectively, and 0.92 and 0.87 between the WHO-2016 and the Tariff-2 format respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the inherent difficulties of determining "truth" in assigning cause of death, these findings suggest that the InterVA-5 model performs well and succeeds in harmonising across a range of input formats. As more primary data collected under WHO-2016 become available, it is likely that InterVA-5 will undergo minor re-versioning in the light of practical experience. The model is an important resource for measuring and evaluating cause-specific mortality globally.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Integración de Sistemas , Adulto , Afganistán/epidemiología , Autopsia/normas , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Simulación por Computador/normas , Conjuntos de Datos como Asunto , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos/métodos , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos/normas , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto/métodos , Entrevistas como Asunto/normas , Masculino , Salud Poblacional , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Programas Informáticos , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Incertidumbre , Conducta Verbal , Organización Mundial de la Salud
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA