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3.
Am J Surg ; 219(2): 372-378, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870535

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: In surgical environments, work must be flexible, allowing practitioners to seek help when required. How surgeons navigate the complexity of interprofessional teams and collaborative care whilst attending to their own knowledge/skill gaps can be difficult. This study aims to understand helping behaviours in interprofessional surgical teams. DESIGN: Thirteen semi-structured interviews with participants were completed. Data collection and inductive analysis were conducted iteratively using thematic analysis. RESULTS: We found several intersecting features that influenced helping engagement. Work context, including nested and cross-sectional identities, physical and hierarchical environments, diversity, support for risk-taking and innovation and perceptions of a "speak up" culture shaped the way helping scenarios were approached. Intrinsic attributes influenced decisions to dis/engage. When united, these features shaped how helping behaviours became enacted. CONCLUSION: If we desire to create surgical teams that deliver quality care, we must consider not only individual attributes but the context in which teams are situated.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía General/organización & administración , Conducta de Ayuda , Relaciones Interprofesionales/ética , Grupo de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Centros Médicos Académicos/organización & administración , Adulto , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Comprensión , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , América del Norte
4.
Pap. psicol ; 40(3): 217-225, sept.-dic. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186997

RESUMEN

Las historias sociales, como técnica de intervención psicoeducativa, constituyen un elemento recurrente en la práctica de los profesionales responsables de la intervención con personas con Trastorno del Espectro Autista (TEA). Este trabajo presenta una revisión de la literatura científica de la última década en torno a la efectividad de la aplicación de las historias sociales en la intervención en habilidades comunicativas y sociales en personas con TEA. Se seleccionaron 29 trabajos empíricos bajo criterios específicos, analizados en función de seis categorías: edad de los participantes, objetivo de la intervención, contexto de aplicación, persona que aplica la intervención, validez social y comparación con otras estrategias de intervención. Aunque los resultados sobre su efectividad no son concluyentes, las historias sociales son valoradas como una herramienta significativa para implementar o desarrollar conductas en niños y preadolescentes con TEA en sus principales contextos de socialización y por parte de personas allegadas


Social stories, as a technique of psychoeducational intervention, constitute a recurring element in the practice of professionals responsible for intervention with people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This work presents a review of the scientific literature of the last decade about the effectiveness of the application of social stories in the intervention in communication and social skills in people with ASD. Twenty-nine empirical studies were selected according to specific criteria, analyzed according to six categories: age of the participants, objective of the intervention, context of application, person applying the intervention, social validity, and comparison with other intervention strategies. Although the results about the effectiveness of this intervention are not conclusive, social stories are valued as a significant tool to implement or develop behaviors in children and preadolescents with ASD in their main socialization contexts and with people close to them


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Trastorno del Espectro Autista/psicología , Habilidades Sociales , Conducta Social , Desarrollo Infantil , Efectividad , Conducta de Ayuda
5.
Evol Psychol ; 17(3): 1474704919867094, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392902

RESUMEN

According to inclusive fitness theory, people are more willing to help those they are genetically related to because relatives share a kin altruism gene and are able to pass it along. We tested this theory by examining the effect of reproductive potential on altruism. Participants read hypothetical scenarios and chose between cousins (Studies 1 and 2) and cousins and friends (Study 3) to help with mundane chores or a life-or-death rescue. In life-or-death situations, participants were more willing to help a cousin preparing to conceive rather than adopt a child (Study 1) and a cousin with high rather than low chance of reproducing (Studies 2 and 3). Patterns in the mundane condition were less consistent. Emotional closeness also contributed to helping intentions (Studies 1 and 2). By experimentally manipulating reproductive potential while controlling for genetic relatedness and emotional closeness, we provide a demonstration of the direct causal effects of reproductive potential on helping intentions, supporting the inclusive fitness explanation of kin altruism.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Relaciones Familiares/psicología , Familia/psicología , Reproducción/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Emociones/fisiología , Femenino , Conducta de Ayuda , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430939

RESUMEN

The Mates in Construction (MATES) program was developed to address the issue of high suicide rates among males in the Australian construction industry. The program delivers early intervention training and support to construction workers. This mixed-methods study aimed to (1) examine the effectiveness of training for MATES connectors and (2) examine the barriers, motivations and pathways to help-seeking and help-offering for both MATES connectors and clients. A total of 104 volunteers completed a short survey before and after connector training sessions. Quantitative data analysis showed significant increases in connectors' self-reported suicide awareness, and willingness to offer help to workmates and seek help themselves. For the qualitative component, 27 connectors and clients participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Thematic analysis identified six themes from the connectors' data: awareness, skills and confidence; removing stigma; making a difference; simplicity of the model; understanding the industry; and visibility, camaraderie and passion. For clients, three key themes emerged: barriers and pathways to help-seeking; speaking the same language; and flow-on effects. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of connector training and indicate that MATES's peer support model is enabling workers to overcome traditional barriers and attitudes to seeking and offering help.


Asunto(s)
Industria de la Construcción , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Conducta de Ayuda , Relaciones Interpersonales , Salud Laboral , Apoyo Social , Suicidio/prevención & control , Australia , Grupos Focales , Humanos , Masculino , Salud del Hombre , Investigación Cualitativa , Estigma Social , Suicidio/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Work ; 63(3): 469-477, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of cyberbullying is on the rise among adolescents and in schools. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between personality characteristics such as empathy, the tendency to implement cognitive mechanisms aimed at moral disengagement, and the use of social media. PARTICIPANTS: Italian students from first to fifth year in high school classes (n = 264). METHODS: A questionnaire was used to gather information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants, their use of social media, their level of empathy (Basic Empathy Scale, BES), and mechanisms of moral disengagement (Moral Disengagement Scale MDS). Two questions were included to determine whether each participant had ever been a victim of or witness to cyberbullying. RESULTS: Results suggest that offensive behaviors are related to mechanisms of moral disengagement and to interaction using forms of communication that allow anonymity. In addition, offensive behavior appears to be related to forms of Internet addiction, while prosocial behavior is linked with cognitive empathy. CONCLUSION: In order to promote the establishment of prosocial behavior, it would seem necessary for the various players involved - schools, parents, social network developers - to make an effort to implement educational environments and virtual social networks based on a hypothesis of "design for reflection", educating young people about the need to take the time to understand their feelings and relationships expressed via social media.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ayuda , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Ciberacoso/psicología , Empatía , Femenino , Humanos , Internet , Italia , Masculino , Psicometría/instrumentación , Psicometría/métodos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Transfus Clin Biol ; 26(3): 184-187, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253495

RESUMEN

Among the research developed in social psychology, there is a field of study questioning the mechanisms that explain prosocial behaviors. In 1956, the first links between transfusion medicine and social psychology were formed, with the study of underlying motivations to blood donation behavior. Sixty years later, the number of "fundamental" and "applied" research has widely increased, and we now have a theoretical understanding of blood donation engagement's levers, as well as experimental demonstrations of methods to activate these levers. Thus, the literature offers several strategies experimentally verified to improve the recruitment and retaining of blood donors. These methods can go from specific speeches when soliciting donors, to changes in the blood donation environment, etc. They aim either at impacting the donation experience, at obtaining a change in the donor's behavior, or at changing the determinants of blood donation. Yet, it is clear that the knowledge from the research in social psychology is not really deployed on the field by the organizations that could benefit from it. In this article, we will try to develop the difficulty regarding the application of fundamental and experimental knowledge, and to underline the implications for the blood transfusion establishments. We will then present the psychosocial and cognitive engineering method, and argue its relevance to answer this problematic.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Sangre/organización & administración , Donantes de Sangre/psicología , Innovación Organizacional , Comunicación Persuasiva , Altruismo , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Donantes de Sangre/provisión & distribución , Transfusión Sanguínea/economía , Transfusión Sanguínea/psicología , Conducta de Ayuda , Humanos , Motivación , Flebotomía/efectos adversos , Plasma , Remuneración , Síncope Vasovagal/etiología , Voluntarios
10.
Behav Cogn Psychother ; 47(6): 697-708, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is limited research into the experiences of receiving and providing help in the context of hoarding disorder. AIMS: The present study aimed to explore the experiences of older people with hoarding difficulties receiving help and volunteers providing support to people with hoarding problems. METHOD: Qualitative methods were adopted to investigate the lived experience of participants. A total of seven volunteer helpers and four people with hoarding disorder were recruited and interviewed using a semi-structured interview, designed to explore experiences of providing and receiving help. Qualitative analysis of the interview data was performed using interpretive phenomenological analysis. RESULTS: Four superordinate themes were identified: relationship between client and volunteer; 'live life again'; challenges; and supporting volunteers. The relationship was crucial in providing a trusting foundation from which clients felt able to move forward. Volunteers provided a space for clients to talk and appropriate self-disclosure helped to build a relationship. The informal and 'non-professional' status of volunteers enabled clients to take the lead and feel more in control of the therapeutic process. Volunteer flexibility and lack of time constraints contributed to clients 'making space' for themselves, both in their home and their lives. The support from volunteers enabled clients to 'live life again' and created a domino effect, bringing about improvements in other areas of their lives. CONCLUSIONS: The findings are discussed in relation to the training of health professionals to work with people with hoarding difficulties and the implications of the findings for treatment approaches and service provision.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ayuda , Acaparamiento/psicología , Voluntarios/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Confianza
11.
J Pers Soc Psychol ; 117(1): 124-141, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945902

RESUMEN

The last decades of research have provided overwhelming evidence that compassion fosters a vast range of behaviors toward reducing suffering of others. In this regard, compassion has been described as a prosocial tendency par excellence, fostering helping behavior across a variety of social situations. With the present contribution, we apply a differentiated perspective on compassion. Building on just deserts theory, we argue that when other individuals suffer from unjust actions, compassion for the suffering individuals can foster harmful tendencies toward those who caused the suffering (i.e., third-party punishment). In Studies 1a to 1f, we examined a rich variety of situations in which unjust suffering occurs (i.e., terrorist attacks, sexual assaults, rape of children, and war) and documented a positive relation between compassion for suffering victims and punishment inclinations toward those who caused the suffering. Applying an experimental approach using various paradigms in Studies 2 through 6, compassion was shown to increase third-party punishment. Additional analyses revealed that (a) this increase occurs because compassion intensified moral outrage, which in turn predicted third-party punishment (Studies 2 to 6), and (b) compassion only fosters third-party punishment when suffering was caused by high (vs. low) unjust acts (Study 5). Overall, the present research discusses compassion in a different light in that harmful consequences of compassion are considered. Implications are discussed from a perspective of basic research on compassion and third-party punishment as well as from a societal perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Empatía/fisiología , Conducta de Ayuda , Principios Morales , Castigo/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
12.
Behav Processes ; 164: 54-58, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31026488

RESUMEN

Although bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are known for being a highly social species that live in complex societies that rely on coalition formation and cooperative behaviours, experimental studies on prosocial behaviour in this species are scarce. Helping others reach their goals (instrumental helping) is considered as an example of prosocial behaviour. Thus, in this pilot study, we examined whether a group of five captive bottlenose dolphins would behave prosocially in an instrumental helping task. Dolphins were given the opportunity to share tokens that allow their partners to obtain a preferred toy. Dolphins were tested in their free time and they could choose to share the tokens or do nothing. None of the dolphins shared the tokens, instead, they preferred to play with them, ignoring their partners. They did transfer the tokens to other sides of the pool but out of the reach of their partners. Therefore, this group of dolphins did not spontaneously help their partners in this task, showing no preference for other-regarding behaviour in this context.


Asunto(s)
Delfín Mular/psicología , Conducta de Ayuda , Animales , Condicionamiento Operante , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto
14.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213582, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875386

RESUMEN

Prosocial spending has been linked to positive benefits for individuals and societies. However, little is known about the precursors of prosocial spending directed to vulnerable people. We experimentally tested the effect of a first exposure to a prosocial donation decision on subsequent prosocial spending. We also examined the direct links from eudaimonic well-being beliefs (contribution-to-others and self-development) to prosocial spending, as well as the interaction between these beliefs and autonomy in predicting the money given. A total of 200 individuals participated in the study. Results showed that, compared to two control groups ("totally self-focused" and "no first-exposure"), an initial exposure to a prosocial donation decision increases subsequent prosocial spending. In addition, we observed an anchoring bias from the initial prosocial donation to subsequent prosocial spending. Regression analyses also confirmed the existence of a positive significant relationship between contribution-to-others beliefs and prosocial spending. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between autonomy and self-development well-being beliefs, such that autonomy strengthens the link from self-development beliefs to prosocial spending. In general, our results confirmed the significant role of exposure, anchoring, autonomy, and well-being beliefs in predicting the money spent to help vulnerable people.


Asunto(s)
Altruismo , Toma de Decisiones , Conducta de Ayuda , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1301, 2019 03 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899016

RESUMEN

Helping by group members is predicted to lead to delayed senescence by affecting the trade-off between current reproduction and future survival for dominant breeders. Here we investigate this prediction in the Seychelles warbler, Acrocephalus sechellensis, in which mainly female subordinate helpers (both co-breeders and non-breeding helpers) often help dominants raise offspring. We find that the late-life decline in survival usually observed in this species is greatly reduced in female dominants when a helper is present. Female dominants with a female helper show reduced telomere attrition, a measure that reflects biological ageing in this and other species. Finally, the probability of having female, but not male, helpers increases with dominant female age. Our results suggest that delayed senescence is a key benefit of cooperative breeding for elderly dominants and support the idea that sociality and delayed senescence are positively self-reinforcing. Such an effect may help explain why social species often have longer lifespans.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Conducta de Ayuda , Longevidad/fisiología , Comportamiento de Nidificación/fisiología , Reproducción/fisiología , Pájaros Cantores/fisiología , Animales , Cruzamiento , Femenino , Masculino , Factores Sexuales
16.
Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci ; 23(2): 297-313, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898196

RESUMEN

Most relevant theories of prosocial behavior aim at exploring and understanding helping motivations from an evolutionary perspective. This article summarizes findings from research on prosocial behavior from both a socio-economic and psychological perspective. Building on literature exploring the basic processes and determinant variables of helping, we propose a stochastic and dynamic model to simulate prosocial behaviors over time and recreate evolutionary processes of helping behaviors. Such a mathematical model formalizes a procedure for dynamic simulations, including agent-based modeling, which implies non-linear dynamics of prosocial processes underlying helping motivations. Practical implications for organizations and societies are addressed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Ayuda , Motivación , Conducta Social , Humanos , Modelos Psicológicos
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(13): 6025-6034, 2019 03 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30858320

RESUMEN

Adults and older children are more likely to punish a wrongdoer for a moral transgression when the victim belongs to their group. Building on these results, in violation-of-expectation experiments (n = 198), we examined whether 2.5-year-old toddlers (Exps. 1 and 2) and 1-year-old infants (Exps. 3 and 4) would selectively expect an individual in a minimal group to engage in third-party punishment (TPP) for harm to an ingroup victim. We focused on an indirect form of TPP, the withholding of help. To start, children saw a wrongdoer steal a toy from a victim while a bystander watched. Next, the wrongdoer needed assistance with a task, and the bystander either helped or hindered her. The group memberships of the wrongdoer and the victim were varied relative to that of the bystander and were marked with either novel labels (Exps. 1 and 2) or novel outfits (Exps. 3 and 4). When the victim belonged to the same group as the bystander, children expected TPP: At both ages, they detected a violation when the bystander chose to help the wrongdoer. Across experiments, this effect held whether the wrongdoer belonged to the same group as the bystander and the victim or to a different group; it was eliminated when the victim belonged to a different group than the bystander, when groups were not marked, and when either no theft occurred or the wrongdoer was unaware of the theft. Toddlers and infants thus expect individuals to refrain from helping an ingroup victim's aggressor, providing further evidence for an early-emerging expectation of ingroup support.


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Conducta de Ayuda , Psicología Infantil , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Motivación , Castigo/psicología
20.
Saúde Soc ; 28(1): 235-249, jan.-mar. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-991671

RESUMEN

Resumo Este artigo trata das visões de mundo e práticas das parteiras tradicionais que moram em Santana (AP, Brasil). Tendo como base pesquisa de campo de caráter etnográfico e entrevistas semiestruturadas, apresentamos o entendimento dessas mulheres acerca do seu ofício, destacando a centralidade desempenhada pelas noções nativas de dom e de divino nesse universo. Também apresentamos e interpretamos a dimensão simbólica das relações estabelecidas entre essas mulheres, as parturientes e a entidade nomeada por elas como Deus. Neste contexto, observamos que as obrigações relacionadas aos endividamentos não compulsórios no dar-receber-retribuir, apontado na maioria dos estudos sobre parteiras, não se restringem à relação entre família da parturiente e parteira. Na concepção local, as relações relevantes de obrigação concatenadas ao dom para o ofício se estabelecem entre humanos e Deus. Grosso modo, a contradádiva é efetivada no atendimento às gestantes, mas como uma espécie de obrigação diante de Deus. Assim, o atendimento às mulheres que procuram as parteiras é entendido como o meio adequado de saldar a dívida adquirida com o ser divino.


Abstract This article studies the world conceptions and practices of traditional midwives who live and work in Santana (Amapá, Brazil). Based on an ethnographic fieldwork including semi-structured interviews, we present how these women perceive their craft, highlighting the centrality of the category dom and the notion of divine in this universe. We also discuss the symbolic dimension of the relationships established between the midwives, the pregnant women and the entity known by them as God. In this regard, the obligations associated to the non-compulsory debts in the giving, receiving and returning cycle, pointed out by most studies on traditional midwives, are not restricted to the relation between the patient's family and the midwife. According to the local conception, the most relevant relations of obligation associated to the dom for their craft are those established between humans and God. The counter-gift is accomplished through patient care, but as a sort of obligation towards God. Assisting the women who seek midwives is, thus, understood as the adequate means to settle the debt with this divine entity.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Conducta de Ayuda , Antropología Cultural , Partería
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