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1.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 76, 2020 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704481

RESUMEN

The unfortunate death of George Floyd in Minnesota, following police brutality, is deeply regrettable, and the ensuing protests in cities across the United States bring up issues on the potential impacts of the protests on the epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States. Modelling scientists will need the best time-series estimates of the numbers of protesters in every city where protests took place; the length of time the protests were active, and what distance and routes were covered by the protesters; and the numbers and distribution of security personnel deployed to keep the protests safe, as well as curtail the chaotic exacerbations that were reported across many areas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Aglomeración , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2423-2446, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-594954

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers and policy makers to identify public safety measures forpreventing the collapse of healthcare systems and reducingdeaths. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of social distancing measures on the epidemic and discusses the implementation of these measures in Brazil. Articles on the effect of social distancing on COVID-19 were selected from the PubMed, medRXiv and bioRvix databases. Federal and state legislation was analyzed to summarize the strategies implemented in Brazil. Social distancing measures adopted by the population appear effective, particularly when implemented in conjunction with the isolation of cases and quarantining of contacts. Therefore, social distancing measures, and social protection policies to guarantee the sustainability of these measures, should be implemented. To control COVID-19 in Brazil, it is also crucial that epidemiological monitoring is strengthened at all three levels of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). This includes evaluating and usingsupplementary indicators to monitor the progression of the pandemic and the effect of the control measures, increasing testing capacity, and making disaggregated notificationsand testing resultstransparentand broadly available.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Distancia Social , Brasil/epidemiología , Creación de Capacidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política Pública , Aislamiento Social
3.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2423-2446, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520287

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers and policy makers to identify public safety measures forpreventing the collapse of healthcare systems and reducingdeaths. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of social distancing measures on the epidemic and discusses the implementation of these measures in Brazil. Articles on the effect of social distancing on COVID-19 were selected from the PubMed, medRXiv and bioRvix databases. Federal and state legislation was analyzed to summarize the strategies implemented in Brazil. Social distancing measures adopted by the population appear effective, particularly when implemented in conjunction with the isolation of cases and quarantining of contacts. Therefore, social distancing measures, and social protection policies to guarantee the sustainability of these measures, should be implemented. To control COVID-19 in Brazil, it is also crucial that epidemiological monitoring is strengthened at all three levels of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). This includes evaluating and usingsupplementary indicators to monitor the progression of the pandemic and the effect of the control measures, increasing testing capacity, and making disaggregated notificationsand testing resultstransparentand broadly available.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , Creación de Capacidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política Pública , Aislamiento Social
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234977, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mass gathering manifestations attended by large crowds are an increasingly common feature of society. In parallel, an increased number of studies have been conducted that developed and/or validated a model to predict medical usage rates at these manifestations. AIMS: To conduct a systematic review to screen, analyse and critically appraise those studies that developed or validated a multivariable statistical model to predict medical usage rates at mass gatherings. To identify those biomedical, psychosocial and environmental predictors that are associated with increased medical usage rates and to summarise the predictive performance of the models. METHOD: We searched for relevant prediction modelling studies in six databases. The predictors from multivariable regression models were listed for each medical usage rate outcome (i.e. patient presentation rate (PPR), transfer to hospital rate (TTHR) and the incidence of new injuries). The GRADE methodology (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 7,036 references and finally included 16 prediction models which were developed (n = 13) or validated (n = 3) in the USA (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Japan (n = 1), Singapore (n = 1), South Africa (n = 1) and The Netherlands (n = 1), with a combined audience of >48 million people in >1700 mass gatherings. Variables to predict medical usage rates were biomedical (i.e. age, gender, level of competition, training characteristics and type of injury) and environmental predictors (i.e. crowd size, accommodation, weather, free water availability, time of the manifestation and type of the manifestation) (low-certainty evidence). Evidence from 3 studies indicated that using Arbon's or Zeitz' model in other contexts significantly over- or underestimated medical usage rates (from 22% overestimation to 81% underestimation). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified multivariable models with biomedical and environmental predictors for medical usage rates at mass gatherings. Since the overall certainty of the evidence is low and the predictive performance is generally poor, proper development and validation of a context-specific model is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Aglomeración , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230302, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226045

RESUMEN

In recent years, the reach and influence of far-right ideologies have been extended through online communities with devastating effects in the real world. In this research, we examine how far-right online communities can be empowered by socio-political events that are significant to them. Using over 14 years of data extracted from an Australian national sub-forum of a global online white supremacist community, we investigate whether the group cohesion of the community is affected by local race riots. Our analysis shows that the online community, not only became more cohesive after the riots, but was also reinvigorated by highly active new members who joined during the week of the riots or soon after. These changes were maintained over the longer-term, highlighting pervasive ramifications of the local socio-political context for this white supremacist community. Pre-registered analyses of data extracted from other white supremacist online communities (in South Africa and the United Kingdom) show similar effects on some of the indicators of group cohesion, but of reduced magnitude, and not as enduring as the effects found in the context of the Australian far-right online community.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Masa , Política , Racismo/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos
7.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229664, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32130236

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is one of the major global health emergencies. One potential source of dissemination of resistant bacteria is mass gatherings, e.g. mass bathing events. We evaluated the physicochemical parameters of water quality and the antibiotic resistance pattern in commensal Escherichia coli from river-water and river-sediment in pre-, during- and post-mass bathing events in river Kshipra, Central India. METHOD/DESIGN: Water and sediment samples were collected from three selected points during eight mass bathing events during 2014-2016. Water quality parameters (physical, chemical and microbiological) were analyzed using standard methods. In river water and sediment samples, antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolated E. coli to 17 antibiotics were tested. RESULTS: pH, turbidity and dissolved oxygen were significantly lower and total dissolved solid, free carbon dioxide were higher during mass bathing, whilst TSS, BOD and COD were lowest in pre-bathing and highest in post-bathing period. E.coli with multi drug resistance (MDR) or extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production were between 9-44% and 6-24%, respectively in river-water as well as river-sediment. Total coliform count/ml and E. coli count were higher during-and post-bathing in river water than in pre-bathing period. Thus, the percentage of resistance was significantly higher during and post-bathing period (p<.05) than in pre-bathing. Colony forming unit (CFU)/ml in river-sediment was much higher than in river-water. Percentage of resistance was significantly higher in river-water (p<.05) than in river-sediment. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic resistance in E.coli isolated from the Kshipra River showed significant variation during mass bathing events. Guidelines and regulatory standards are needed to control environmental dissemination of resistant bacteria.


Asunto(s)
Baños/efectos adversos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Ríos/microbiología , Microbiología del Agua , Carga Bacteriana , Farmacorresistencia Microbiana , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Humanos , India , Conducta de Masa , Calidad del Agua
11.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Eid_al_Adha/2020.1).
en Inglés, Arabe, Ruso, Chino | WHO IRIS | ID: who-333454
12.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Mass_Gatherings_Sports_RAtool/2020.2).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-333187
13.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Religious_Leaders_RAtool/2020.2).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-333186
14.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Mass_gathering_RAtool/2020.2).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-333185
15.
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