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1.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(6): 706-715, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33911228

RESUMEN

Anti-intellectualism (the generalized distrust of experts and intellectuals) is an important concept in explaining the public's engagement with advice from scientists and experts. We ask whether it has shaped the mass public's response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provide evidence of a consistent connection between anti-intellectualism and COVID-19 risk perceptions, social distancing, mask usage, misperceptions and information acquisition using a representative survey of 27,615 Canadians conducted from March to July 2020. We exploit a panel component of our design (N = 4,910) to strongly link anti-intellectualism and within-respondent change in mask usage. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of anti-intellectualism's importance in information search behaviour with two conjoint studies (N ~ 2,500) that show that preferences for COVID-19 news and COVID-19 information from experts dissipate among respondents with higher levels of anti-intellectual sentiment. Anti-intellectualism poses a fundamental challenge in maintaining and increasing public compliance with expert-guided COVID-19 health directives.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comunicación en Salud , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción Social , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Comunicación en Salud/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información/ética , Conducta de Masa , Salud Pública/métodos , Opinión Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/ética , Participación Social , Percepción Social/ética , Percepción Social/psicología , Confianza
2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 5(6): 706-715, 2021 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207141

RESUMEN

Anti-intellectualism (the generalized distrust of experts and intellectuals) is an important concept in explaining the public's engagement with advice from scientists and experts. We ask whether it has shaped the mass public's response to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We provide evidence of a consistent connection between anti-intellectualism and COVID-19 risk perceptions, social distancing, mask usage, misperceptions and information acquisition using a representative survey of 27,615 Canadians conducted from March to July 2020. We exploit a panel component of our design (N = 4,910) to strongly link anti-intellectualism and within-respondent change in mask usage. Finally, we provide experimental evidence of anti-intellectualism's importance in information search behaviour with two conjoint studies (N ~ 2,500) that show that preferences for COVID-19 news and COVID-19 information from experts dissipate among respondents with higher levels of anti-intellectual sentiment. Anti-intellectualism poses a fundamental challenge in maintaining and increasing public compliance with expert-guided COVID-19 health directives.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Comunicación en Salud , Máscaras/estadística & datos numéricos , Percepción Social , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Canadá/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Comunicación en Salud/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Conducta en la Búsqueda de Información/ética , Conducta de Masa , Salud Pública/métodos , Opinión Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/ética , Participación Social , Percepción Social/ética , Percepción Social/psicología , Confianza
4.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Ramadan/2021.1).
en Inglés, Arabe | WHO IRIS | ID: who-340661
8.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/2019-nCoV/Eid_al_Adha/2021.1).
en Inglés, Arabe | WHO IRIS | ID: who-342788
9.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(12): 1570-1575, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-995096

RESUMEN

Background: During the 2019 Hajj, the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia implemented for the first time a health early warning system for rapid detection and response to health threats. Aims: This study aimed to describe the early warning findings at the Hajj to highlight the pattern of health risks and the potential benefits of the disease surveillance system. Methods: Using syndromic surveillance and event-based surveillance data, the health early warning system generated automated alarms for public health events, triggered alerts for rapid epidemiological investigations and facilitated the monitoring of health events. Results: During the deployment period (4 July-31 August 2019), a total of 121 automated alarms were generated, of which 2 events (heat-related illnesses and injuries/trauma) were confirmed by the response teams. Conclusion: The surveillance system potentially improved the timeliness and situational awareness for health events, including non-infectious threats. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, a health early warning system could enhance case detection and facilitate monitoring of the disease geographical spread and the effectiveness of control measures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Islamismo , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Aglomeración , Planificación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Región Mediterránea/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Vigilancia de Guardia , Viaje
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(12): 1570-1575, 2020 Dec 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355398

RESUMEN

Background: During the 2019 Hajj, the Ministry of Health in Saudi Arabia implemented for the first time a health early warning system for rapid detection and response to health threats. Aims: This study aimed to describe the early warning findings at the Hajj to highlight the pattern of health risks and the potential benefits of the disease surveillance system. Methods: Using syndromic surveillance and event-based surveillance data, the health early warning system generated automated alarms for public health events, triggered alerts for rapid epidemiological investigations and facilitated the monitoring of health events. Results: During the deployment period (4 July-31 August 2019), a total of 121 automated alarms were generated, of which 2 events (heat-related illnesses and injuries/trauma) were confirmed by the response teams. Conclusion: The surveillance system potentially improved the timeliness and situational awareness for health events, including non-infectious threats. In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, a health early warning system could enhance case detection and facilitate monitoring of the disease geographical spread and the effectiveness of control measures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Islamismo , Administración en Salud Pública/métodos , Vigilancia en Salud Pública/métodos , Aglomeración , Planificación en Salud/organización & administración , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Región Mediterránea/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología , Vigilancia de Guardia , Viaje
11.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 25(1): 72, 2020 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Rugby World Cup (RWC) is one of the biggest international mega sports events in the world. This study was conducted to identify and evaluate the volume, nature, and severity of spectator medical care in the stadiums of 12 venues across Japan during RWC 2019. METHOD: This was a retrospective review of medical records from spectator medical rooms of 45 official matches of RWC 2019 between September 20 and November 2, 2019. All patients in the stadium who visited the spectator medical room and were transferred to a hospital were included. The wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) value at the kick-off time of each match, the number of visits to the spectator medical room, and the number of transfers to a hospital were reviewed and analyzed. The patient presentation rate (PPR) was calculated per 10,000 attendees. Severity categories were defined as mild or severe. Mild cases were considered non-life threatening requiring minimal medical intervention, and severe cases required transport to a hospital. RESULT: The total number of visits to the spectator medical room was 449 with a PPR of 2.63. Most cases (91.5%) were mild in severity. The PPR was significantly higher for the matches held with a WBGT over 25 °C than for the matches under 21 °C (PPR 4.27 vs 2.04, p = 0.04). Thirty-eight cases were transferred to a hospital by ambulance; the PPR was 0.22. The most common reasons for transfer to the hospital were heat illness and fracture/dislocation, at a rate of 15.8% each. The incidence rate of cardiopulmonary arrest per 10,000 attendees was 0.0059 during RWC 2019. CONCLUSION: Preparation and provision of appropriate medical service for spectators is a key factor for mass-gathering events. During RWC 2019, the majority (91.5%) of patients who sought medical attention did so for minor complaints, which were easily assessed and managed. On the other hand, a higher WBGT situation contributes significantly to an increased PPR (< 21 versus > 25, 2.04 versus 4.27, p = 0.04). Careful medical preparation, management, and development of public education programs for higher WBGT situations will be required in the future for similar international mega sports events.


Asunto(s)
Atención Ambulatoria/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta de Masa , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Aniversarios y Eventos Especiales , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Fútbol Americano , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Japón , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007976

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Understanding SARS-CoV-2 dynamics and transmission is a serious issue. Its propagation needs to be modeled and controlled. The Alsace region in the East of France has been among the first French COVID-19 clusters in 2020. METHODS: We confront evidence from three independent and retrospective sources: a population-based survey through internet, an analysis of the medical records from hospital emergency care services, and a review of medical biology laboratory data. We also check the role played in virus propagation by a large religious meeting that gathered over 2000 participants from all over France mid-February in Mulhouse. RESULTS: Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 was circulating several weeks before the first officially recognized case in Alsace on 26 February 2020 and the sanitary alert on 3 March 2020. The religious gathering seems to have played a role for secondary dissemination of the epidemic in France, but not in creating the local outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate how the integration of data coming from multiple sources could help trigger an early alarm in the context of an emerging disease. Good information data systems, able to produce earlier alerts, could have avoided a general lockdown in France.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 76, 2020 07 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704481

RESUMEN

The unfortunate death of George Floyd in Minnesota, following police brutality, is deeply regrettable, and the ensuing protests in cities across the United States bring up issues on the potential impacts of the protests on the epidemiology of COVID-19 in the United States. Modelling scientists will need the best time-series estimates of the numbers of protesters in every city where protests took place; the length of time the protests were active, and what distance and routes were covered by the protesters; and the numbers and distribution of security personnel deployed to keep the protests safe, as well as curtail the chaotic exacerbations that were reported across many areas.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Aglomeración , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 1): 2423-2446, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520287

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has challenged researchers and policy makers to identify public safety measures forpreventing the collapse of healthcare systems and reducingdeaths. This narrative review summarizes the available evidence on the impact of social distancing measures on the epidemic and discusses the implementation of these measures in Brazil. Articles on the effect of social distancing on COVID-19 were selected from the PubMed, medRXiv and bioRvix databases. Federal and state legislation was analyzed to summarize the strategies implemented in Brazil. Social distancing measures adopted by the population appear effective, particularly when implemented in conjunction with the isolation of cases and quarantining of contacts. Therefore, social distancing measures, and social protection policies to guarantee the sustainability of these measures, should be implemented. To control COVID-19 in Brazil, it is also crucial that epidemiological monitoring is strengthened at all three levels of the Brazilian National Health System (SUS). This includes evaluating and usingsupplementary indicators to monitor the progression of the pandemic and the effect of the control measures, increasing testing capacity, and making disaggregated notificationsand testing resultstransparentand broadly available.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Espacio Personal , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Brasil/epidemiología , COVID-19 , Prueba de COVID-19 , Creación de Capacidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Atención a la Salud , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Regulación Gubernamental , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Política Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Aislamiento Social
16.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234977, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574190

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mass gathering manifestations attended by large crowds are an increasingly common feature of society. In parallel, an increased number of studies have been conducted that developed and/or validated a model to predict medical usage rates at these manifestations. AIMS: To conduct a systematic review to screen, analyse and critically appraise those studies that developed or validated a multivariable statistical model to predict medical usage rates at mass gatherings. To identify those biomedical, psychosocial and environmental predictors that are associated with increased medical usage rates and to summarise the predictive performance of the models. METHOD: We searched for relevant prediction modelling studies in six databases. The predictors from multivariable regression models were listed for each medical usage rate outcome (i.e. patient presentation rate (PPR), transfer to hospital rate (TTHR) and the incidence of new injuries). The GRADE methodology (Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) was used to assess the certainty of evidence. RESULTS: We identified 7,036 references and finally included 16 prediction models which were developed (n = 13) or validated (n = 3) in the USA (n = 8), Australia (n = 4), Japan (n = 1), Singapore (n = 1), South Africa (n = 1) and The Netherlands (n = 1), with a combined audience of >48 million people in >1700 mass gatherings. Variables to predict medical usage rates were biomedical (i.e. age, gender, level of competition, training characteristics and type of injury) and environmental predictors (i.e. crowd size, accommodation, weather, free water availability, time of the manifestation and type of the manifestation) (low-certainty evidence). Evidence from 3 studies indicated that using Arbon's or Zeitz' model in other contexts significantly over- or underestimated medical usage rates (from 22% overestimation to 81% underestimation). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified multivariable models with biomedical and environmental predictors for medical usage rates at mass gatherings. Since the overall certainty of the evidence is low and the predictive performance is generally poor, proper development and validation of a context-specific model is recommended.


Asunto(s)
Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducta de Masa , Modelos Teóricos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Aglomeración , Humanos
17.
Forensic Sci Int ; 313: 110367, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599345

RESUMEN

Music festivals and other recreational events are common settings for illicit drug use with the intention of socialising, relaxing and creating a memorable experience. The use of stimulants is commonly reported at music festivals, with a general preference for MDMA, cocaine, cathinones and LSD. The results from this survey of drugs seized at New Zealand music festivals show a similar trend, with MDMA accounting for two-thirds of the 305 samples seized. The second most popular drug in this survey was cannabis plant material, which is not generally noted as being a common festival drug but reflect New Zealand drug culture. On-site drug testing services can provide valuable information and education to potential drug users. In this study, a handheld Raman spectrometer was able to correctly identify at least one of the components in 54% of the samples analysed, meaning a large proportion of samples tested were unable to be identified using this device. A collaborative testing approach between on-site testing services and laboratory-based scientists is recommended in order to improve testing accuracy and provide additional information that might assist in harm reduction from drug use at music festivals.


Asunto(s)
Drogas Ilícitas/química , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Conducta de Masa , Música , Nueva Zelanda/epidemiología , Espectrometría Raman
18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230302, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226045

RESUMEN

In recent years, the reach and influence of far-right ideologies have been extended through online communities with devastating effects in the real world. In this research, we examine how far-right online communities can be empowered by socio-political events that are significant to them. Using over 14 years of data extracted from an Australian national sub-forum of a global online white supremacist community, we investigate whether the group cohesion of the community is affected by local race riots. Our analysis shows that the online community, not only became more cohesive after the riots, but was also reinvigorated by highly active new members who joined during the week of the riots or soon after. These changes were maintained over the longer-term, highlighting pervasive ramifications of the local socio-political context for this white supremacist community. Pre-registered analyses of data extracted from other white supremacist online communities (in South Africa and the United Kingdom) show similar effects on some of the indicators of group cohesion, but of reduced magnitude, and not as enduring as the effects found in the context of the Australian far-right online community.


Asunto(s)
Conducta de Masa , Política , Racismo/psicología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Procesos de Grupo , Humanos
20.
Forensic Sci Int ; 309: 110226, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32200174

RESUMEN

Illicit drugs consumption can be back-calculated based on the analysis of drug residues in wastewater using the wastewater-based epidemiology method. The Music Day, held on June 21 in France since 1982, has grown to global proportions and is now celebrated as World Music Day. This large outdoor event takes place in many cities with people allowed to play music in the streets. As psychotropic drugs are often associated with music events, the goal of this study is to investigate the use of illicit drugs on this day in Bordeaux, the fifth largest urban area in France. Daily sampling campaigns of composite wastewater were carried out for seven days in two wastewater treatment plants in Bordeaux in 2017 (Music Day) and 2018. World Music Day in Bordeaux has no observable effect on illicit drug consumption even if this event has massive public participation: this is the first report of the absence of an illicit drug consumption increase in a festival of such magnitude, corroborating the effect of others' views and opinions, because this event takes place publicly in the street and not among peers. Different hypothesizes are put forward to explain this fact: inappropriate type of event for drug consumption, effect of other festivals, and influence of the event's timing on a weekday.


Asunto(s)
Drogas Ilícitas/análisis , Conducta de Masa , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Aguas Residuales/química , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Actividades Recreativas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/orina , Población Urbana
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