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1.
J Sch Health ; 92(4): 337-344, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35067924

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To determine if school engagement is a viable target for early prevention of adolescent substance use, this study investigated whether school engagement in early adolescence (ages 12-14) is a cause of alcohol and cannabis use during middle to late adolescence (ages 15-19). METHODS: To facilitate causal inference, inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTWs), which are based on estimated probabilities of treatment selection (ie, school engagement), were created based on a robust set of potential confounders. Using the IPTWs, a cumulative link mixed model was fit to examine the impact of school engagement on alcohol and cannabis use among an ethnically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 360). RESULTS: School engagement was associated with a lower level of alcohol and cannabis use from age 15 to 18. School engagement was not associated with change in alcohol and cannabis use over time, suggesting that school engagement emits its effect early in the developmental course of substance use and offers protection throughout adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a compensatory role of early school engagement in substance use across middle and late adolescence. School engagement is a malleable factor and thus offers an avenue for prevention efforts.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
2.
J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv ; 60(5): 15-18, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510911

RESUMEN

Adolescent girls from many urban communities are a vulnerable population, with high rates of school dropout, pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and substance use disorders. Mentorship programs can support the growth and development of this at-risk population. We report on the content of a pilot girls' empowerment program created by nurse faculty to promote health and self-awareness among underserved adolescent girls. Pre/post program scores of 15 participants using the Harter Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents found positive changes in seven of eight domains: scholastic (p = 0.001), social (p = 0.001), appearance (p = 0.001), job competence (p = 0.003), conduct (p = 0.02), close friendship (p = 0.006), and self-worth (p = 0.001). Nurse faculty and students might consider the development of similar mentorship programs for adolescent girls. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 60(5), 15-18.].


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Promoción de la Salud , Adolescente , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Mentores , Percepción , Embarazo , Autoimagen
3.
Pediatrics ; 149(Suppl 5)2022 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503311

RESUMEN

Adolescence is a critical transition period that sets the stage for adulthood and future health outcomes. Marked by key developmental milestones in brain maturation, increasing independence from parents, and greater connections to peers, adolescence is also a time of heightened risk for behavioral health problems, including substance use, violence, delinquency, and mental health issues. High school completion is a significant life course event and a powerful social determinant of health and health disparities. Jessor's Theory of Problem Behavior suggests that adolescent health behaviors and mental health problems are closely tied to poor educational outcomes and peer network formation in a reinforcing feedback loop, or vicious cycle, often leading to school failure, school disengagement, and drop-out. Schools are a novel platform through which vicious cycles can be disrupted and replaced with virtuous ones, simultaneously improving education and health. This article describes the potential for schools to transform health trajectories through interventions creating positive and supportive school climates. In addition, new models such as the Whole School Whole Community Whole Child Model promote whole child well-being, including cognitive, social, emotional, psychological, and physical development. Full-service community schools can serve as a hub coordinating and integrating all available resources to better respond to the needs of children and families. Present in every neighborhood, schools are a way to reach every school-age child and improve their health trajectories, providing an important platform for life course intervention research.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Acontecimientos que Cambian la Vida , Padres , Instituciones Académicas
4.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7458, 2022 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35523982

RESUMEN

Prosocial actions are a building block for developing mature and caring social relations. However, the global pandemic may hamper adolescents' prosocial actions. In this preregistered study, we examined the extent to which adolescents provided daily emotional support during the COVID-19 pandemic. In total, 10-25-year-old high school and university students participated at three timepoints (N = 888 at the first timepoint (May 2020); 494 at the second timepoint (Nov 2020) and 373 at the third timepoint (May 2021)). At the first and second timepoint, participants completed 2 weeks of daily diaries on providing emotional support. At all timepoints, participants performed Dictator Games to measure giving to peers, friends and COVID-19 targets (medical doctors, COVID-19 patients, individuals with a poor immune system). Across the three timepoints, adolescents gave more to COVID-19 targets than peers and friends, but giving to COVID-19 target was highest in the beginning of the pandemic (first timepoint relative to second and third timepoint). Results from the first timepoint showed that emotional support directed to friends peaked in mid-adolescence, whereas emotional support towards family members showed a gradual increase from childhood to young adulthood. Furthermore, daily emotional support increased between the first and second timepoint. Daily emotional support to friends predicted giving behavior to all targets, whereas emotional support to family was specifically associated with giving to COVID-19 targets. These findings elucidate the relation between daily actions and prosocial giving to societally-relevant targets in times of crisis, underlying the importance of prosocial experiences during adolescence.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Amigos , Humanos , Pandemias , Grupo Paritario , Adulto Joven
5.
Subst Abus ; 43(1): 1085-1093, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35442871

RESUMEN

Objective: While peer influence is a well-documented risk factor for adolescent substance use, it remains unclear whether peer or parental attitudes have greater impact, and if this relationship is moderated by having a confidant and the relationship between adolescents and their confidant. Method: Pooled (2015-2018) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) data on adolescents (12-17 years) were used. Perceived peer and parental disapproval of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were dichotomized. We assessed associations between disapproval and past-month tobacco (N = 51,352), alcohol (N = 51,407), and marijuana use (N = 51,355) using separate multivariable logistic regression models. We explored effect modification by the presence of a confidant, parental vs. non-parental disapproval, and peer vs. non-peer confidant relationship. Results: Peer and parental disapproval, presence of any confidant, and identifying a parental confidant were consistently protective against substance use; identifying a peer confidant increased odds of use across substances. For marijuana use, peer disapproval (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.07, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06, 0.08) was more protective than parental disapproval (aOR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.12, 0.15). The joint presence of peer/parental disapproval and any confidant decreased the odds of substance use beyond the individual effects of peer/parental disapproval and having a confidant. However, having a peer confidant attenuated the protective association between peer/parental disapproval and tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use. Conclusions: Both peer and parental relationships are salient when considering the social context of adolescent substance use and should be considered when studying the effects of perceived disapproval.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Uso de la Marihuana , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Actitud , Humanos , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Padres , Grupo Paritario , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 818894, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425750

RESUMEN

Background: Drug use among adolescents are still crucial issues that endanger their lifetime health. Evidence concerning the interpersonal-related factors influencing youngsters' experimental drug use behavior, especially from longitudinal and school-based prospective cohort studies, is insufficient. We aimed to describe the annual incidence rate and mean annual incidence rate of experimental drug use from childhood to adolescence by education stage, clarify the risk in childhood and examine the longitudinal relationship between social attachment factors and experimental drug use. Materials and Methods: The data were derived from the 1st to 11th wave of the longitudinal study. In total, 1,106 respondents aged 19-20-year-old were followed up for 11 years (from 9 to 10-year-old) in Taiwan. A survival analysis was used to analyze the time-invarying/time-dependent effects of social attachment factors on experimental drug use. Results: The mean annual incidence rate of experimental drug use from childhood to adolescence was 6.8‰. The incidence increased over time and was the highest in the first year of university (19.3‰). Boys were more likely to use drugs than girls. A low degree of self-perceived likeability in childhood was a risk factor influencing experimental drug use. On average, a low degree of parental supervision and a high degree of family conflict were both influential risk factors. According to the time-dependent models, a high degree of parental supervision, a high degree of family support and a low degree of family conflict in the current year can protect children and adolescents from drug use, whereas a sustained low degree of parental supervision and a high degree of family conflict may promote students' experimental drug use. Conclusion: Parents should be informed and educated to avoid family conflict during childhood, maintain consistent supervision of their children's behavior, provide adequate family support, and pay attention to their children's interpersonal relationships in school. Teachers should focus on the social attachment status of their students while considering their attachments to their families and peers.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Padres , Grupo Paritario , Estudios Prospectivos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e225127, 2022 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35377427

RESUMEN

Importance: Characterizing patterns of handgun carrying among adolescents and young adults can inform programs to reduce firearm-related harm. Longitudinal patterns of handgun carrying among rural adolescents have not been identified. Objectives: To assess specific points of intervention by characterizing patterns of handgun carrying by youths in rural communities from early adolescence to young adulthood and to quantify how age at initiation, duration, and frequency of carrying differ across identified patterns. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study uses the control group of the community-randomized trial of the Communities That Care prevention system, conducted among public school students in 12 rural communities across 7 states. Participants self-reported their handgun carrying at 10 data collection points from 12 to 26 years of age (2005-2019). Data were analyzed from January to July 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Handgun carrying in the past 12 months. Latent class growth analysis was used to estimate handgun carrying trajectories. Results: In this longitudinal rural sample of 2002 students, 1040 (51.9%) were male; 532 (26.6%) were Hispanic, Latino, Latina, or Latinx; 1310 (65.4%) were White; and the highest level of educational attainment of either parent was a high school degree or less for 649 students (32.4%). The prevalence of handgun carrying in the last 12 months ranged from 5.3% (95 of 1795) to 7.4% (146 of 1969) in adolescence and increased during the mid-20s (range, 8.9% [154 of 1722] to 10.9% [185 of 1704] from 23 to 26 years of age). Among the participants who reported handgun carrying at least once between 12 and 26 years of age (n = 601 [30.0%]), 320 (53.2%) reported carrying a handgun in only 1 wave. Latent class growth analysis indicated 6 longitudinal trajectories: never or low probability of carrying (1590 [79.4%]), emerging adulthood carrying (166 [8.3%]), steadily increasing carrying (163 [8.1%]), adolescent carrying (53 [2.6%]), declining carrying (24 [1.2%]), and high probability and persistent carrying (6 [0.3%]). The earliest mean (SD) age at initiation of handgun carrying occurred in both the adolescent and declining carrying groups at the ages of 12.6 (0.9) and 12.5 (0.7) years, respectively. More than 20% of some groups (emerging adulthood [age 26 years: 49 of 154 (31.8%)], steadily increasing [age 26 years: 37 of 131 (28.2%)], declining [age 13 years: 7 of 23 (30.4%)], and high probability and persistent carrying [age 15 years: 3 of 6 (50.0%)]) reported carrying 40 times or more in the past year by the age of 26 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found distinct patterns of handgun carrying from adolescence to young adulthood in rural settings. Findings suggest that promoting handgun safety in rural areas should start early. Potential high-risk trajectories, including carrying at high frequencies, should be the focus of future work to explore the antecedents and consequences of handgun carrying in rural areas.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Armas de Fuego , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Humanos , Masculino , Población Rural , Estudiantes , Adulto Joven
8.
J Genet Psychol ; 183(3): 263-277, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35383545

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected people's health, daily routine, and behaviors. Its effects have been most pronounced for the youngest and oldest generations. Their daily lives have completely changed throughout the pandemic. Self-transcendence values and positive orientation could facilitate optimal adjustment to this situation by promoting prosociality. The present study aimed to discover if applying a new, web-based intervention could activate self-transcendence values in a group of Italian adolescents, fostering COVID-19 prosocial behaviors while also considering the role of positive orientation. The study adopted a longitudinal, web-based, and quasi-experimental design. One hundred and forty adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age were involved in the study two times (T1-T2). Participants were assigned to an intervention or control group. All participants completed the self-transcendence subscale extracted from the 21-item Portrait Values Questionnaire, the Positive Orientation Scale, and the COVID-19 Prosocial Experiences Scale. The results showed that adolescents' self-transcendence values and positive orientation were positively associated with COVID-19 prosociality. However, the relationship between self-transcendence values and COVID-19 prosocial behaviors was significantly more robust in the intervention group. Finally, a three-way interaction (self-transcendence*group*positive orientation) emerged as significant. For the intervention group, the effect of self-transcendence values on COVID-19 prosocial behaviors was significant only for adolescents who reported a strong positive orientation. Limitations of the study, future research developments, and practical implications are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Altruismo , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 853, 2022 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35484506

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Injury is one of the major causes of death and illness among children and adolescents worldwide. We sought to investigate the prevalence of serious injury and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in eight countries in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A sample of 14,967 in-school adolescents was drawn from the Global School-based Student Health Surveys conducted from 2012 to 2017 in eight sub-Saharan African countries. Data were collected using self-administered structured questionnaires. The prevalence of serious injuries was calculated using proportions while multivariable binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the factors associated with serious injuries. RESULTS: Approximately 45% of in-school adolescents had experienced serious injuries during the past 12 months to the survey in the eight sub-Saharan African countries, with variations from 32.3% in Mauritius to 68.2% in Liberia. Adolescents who experienced bullying [aOR = 2.37, CI = 2.10, 2.68], those who engaged in physical fight [aOR = 2.14, CI = [1.87, 2.44], those who experienced an attack [aOR = 1.96, CI = [1.73, 2.22], those who felt anxious [aOR = 1.47, CI = 1.22,1.77], those who attempted suicide [aOR = 1.38, CI = 1.14, 1.65], truants [aOR = 1.33, CI = [1.17,1.51], current tobacco users [aOR = 1.42, CI = [1.01, 2.01] and current marijuana users [aOR = 1.78, CI = 1.08, 2.93] had higher odds of experiencing serious injuries. However, those whose parents or guardians respected their privacy had lower odds of experiencing serious injuries [aOR =0.78, CI = [0.68, 0.88] compared to those whose parents or guardians did not respect their privacy. CONCLUSION: A relatively high prevalence of serious injuries among in-school adolescents was identified in the eight sub-Saharan African countries studied. Programs and interventions that target the reduction of injuries in educational institutions should take a keen interest in the factors identified in this study. To deal with injury victims, first aid services should be provided in school settings.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Acoso Escolar , Adolescente , Niño , Humanos , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457353

RESUMEN

Aggressive behavior in romantic relationship has serious effects, including both intra- and inter-personal issues. Aggressive behaviors in romantic relationships have been linked to underlying familial problems. While there have been previous reviews that studied on many interpersonal and dyadic implications of aggressive behavior in romantic relationships, there is nonetheless a lack of studies on the various components of familial factors for aggressive behavior in romantic relationships. The databases Scopus, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and SAGE Journals were used to search for terms that are related to familial factors (family factor, family support, family relationship) as well as terms related to aggressive behavior in romantic relationships (aggression in romantic relationship, violence in intimate relationship). The articles considered for this review were original studies, samples, or subsamples of males or females who reported any underlying familial factors in childhood or adulthood that contributed to aggressive behavior in romantic relationship, and the studies must be written in English. This review has 27 papers that met the inclusion criteria. The findings from this review revealed the presence of inconsistent conclusions between familial factors and aggressive behavior in romantic relationships, with some studies failing to establish such links. These findings are reviewed with regards to the existing gaps in the literature as well as potential research options.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Relaciones Interpersonales , Adolescente , Adulto , Agresión , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales
11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457779

RESUMEN

Although research generally showed that holding materialistic beliefs would lead to poor developmental outcomes, few studies have used adolescent delinquency as an outcome measure. In addition, the intervening processes between materialism and adolescent developmental outcomes are unclear. In particular, it is not clear how materialistic beliefs influence egocentrism and adolescent delinquency. Methodologically, the existing studies have several weaknesses, including small samples, cross-sectional research designs, and being limited to people living in Western cultures. Using two waves of data collected from Sichuan, China (N = 4981), we studied the predictive effect of adolescent materialism on delinquency and the mediating role of egocentrism. Over two occasions separated by six months, students aged 11 and above responded to a questionnaire evaluating adolescent materialism, egocentrism, and delinquency (mean Wave 1 age = 13.15, range between 11 and 20.38). Results of multiple regression analyses suggested that materialism at Time 1 positively predicted Time 2 egocentrism. Additionally, Time 1 materialism positively predicted the level and change in Time 2 delinquency. Finally, based on 5000 bootstrap samples with gender, age, ethnic group, and Time 1 delinquent behavior as covariates, PROCESS analyses showed that egocentrism partially mediated the influence of Time 1 materialism delinquency and its change at Time 2. This study suggests that materialistic beliefs shape egocentrism, which further strengthens adolescent delinquent behavior. This study also replicates the findings of a pioneer study in China reported previously.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adolescente , China , Estudios Transversales , Egocentrismo , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409535

RESUMEN

We investigated the prevalence of risk behaviors among Israeli adolescents (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Associations between different risk behaviors were examined and so was whether specific characteristics could predict risk behaviors in adolescents. The study consisted of 1020 Israeli adolescents aged 15-18. Study subjects completed an online survey between the first and second lockdowns in Israel (April 2020 to September 2020). Participants reported the frequency at which they engaged in four different risky behaviors: general risky behavior, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption (binge drinking), and cannabis use. The most prevalent risky behavior in the sample was binge drinking (33.8%). The four measured risky behaviors were significantly correlated. Among participants who had previously engaged in a risky behavior assessed, most did not change the behavior frequency during the pandemic. All independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics, family support, and emotional, health excluding friends' support, physical activity volume, and coronavirus restrictions) were significantly different between participants engaging vs. not engaging in risky behaviors. Our findings suggest that family support is one of the most influential factors in preventing risky behavior during the pandemic, and they emphasize the importance of family-based interventions with children and adolescents from elementary to high school.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Consumo Excesivo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Niño , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Israel/epidemiología , Pandemias , Asunción de Riesgos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(7): e28916, 2022 Feb 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363214

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Problematic Internet use (PIU) is common and likely to coexist with mental health problems among adolescents with school refusal behavior. To date, no study has revealed to what extent PIU relates to the daily burden compared with other mental health problems. This study has examined the association between daily difficulties and PIU among adolescents with school refusal behaviors.This cross-sectional study involved all first-visit patients, regardless of diagnosis, aged 10 to 18 years at 2 child/adolescent psychiatric outpatient clinics in Yokohama City, Japan, from April 2016 to March 2018. The Questionnaire-Children with Difficulties (QCD) were obtained from parents. Simultaneously, the severity of PIU was evaluated using the Internet Addiction Test and depressive and anxiety symptoms were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and General Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in the 2 weeks before the first-visit. From 684 first-visit patients, 227 with school refusal behaviors were enrolled in the study.PIU was observed in 40% of adolescents with school refusal behaviors. The QCD scores among patients with PIU were significantly lower than those in patients without PIU. Linear regression analysis revealed relationships between PIU and lower QCD scores throughout the day (except at night) and the total score of the day, after controlling for confounders such as depressive and anxiety symptoms.In conclusion, among adolescents with school refusal behaviors, PIU may affect their parent-assessed daily difficulties particularly experienced throughout the day.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Adictiva , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Conducta Adictiva/epidemiología , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Uso de Internet , Instituciones Académicas
14.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0265964, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417470

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study examines the associations between ten family structure types and delinquency, including four groups of symmetrical and asymmetrical living arrangements. We also adjust for attachment to parents and parental monitoring. METHODS: Data are drawn from four cross-sectional surveys conducted between 2016 and 2019 in southern Sweden. The sample consists of 3,838 adolescents, aged 14-15. Negative binomial models were used to calculate the associations between family structure and delinquency. RESULTS: The results show that those living in single-father, single-mother, father-stepmother, mother-stepfather families report significantly more delinquency than adolescents living with both their parents. Adolescents living in "symmetrical" family arrangements, i.e. both parents are single or have a new partner, reported lower levels of delinquency, whereas adolescents living in "asymmetrical" family arrangements, i.e. where either the mother or the father, but not both, have a new partner, reported higher levels of delinquency. Most of the associations between family structure and delinquency decline when adjusted for attachment to parents and parental monitoring. DISCUSSION: This study shows that it is important to move on to the use of more detailed categorisations of family structure in relation to delinquency. We need to increase our knowledge about the group of adolescents that moves between parents and especially about the different constellations of asymmetrical and symmetrical living arrangements.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Delincuencia Juvenil , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Familia , Humanos , Modelos Estadísticos , Padres
15.
Addict Behav ; 131: 107336, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436697

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Cannabis use patterns among adolescents and young adults (AYAs) have changed recently, with increasing use of non-combustible cannabis products. Little is known about perceived risks or benefits related to non-combustible products (e.g., vaporized and edible cannabis). We examined whether AYAs' perceived risks and benefits differ across four cannabis products, and by use status. METHODS: We conducted a survey of 433 California AYAs (Mage = 18.9 years old, 66.5% females) during 2017-2018. We compared a variety of perceived risks and benefits corresponding to short-term and long-term use of each product (combustible, blunt, vaporized, and edible cannabis), and between ever and never users. RESULTS: Participants perceived combustible cannabis and blunts conferred the greatest risk for short-term (bad cough, trouble catching breath) and long-term (lung disease, oral and lung cancer, and heart attack) health outcomes and short-term social risks (friends upset, getting into trouble). These products were also perceived to have greater short-term and long-term benefits (i.e., reducing mental health problems) than vaporized and edible cannabis. The most common perceived risks were "get into trouble" and "become addicted." The most common benefits were "feel high or buzzed" and "feel less anxious." Ever cannabis users perceived less risks and greater benefits related to cannabis use than never users. CONCLUSIONS: AYAs differentially perceived risks and benefits related to use of four cannabis products. Public health and education efforts should address both perceived and real risks and benefits of specific cannabis products to prevent cannabis use among AYAs.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Cannabis , Alucinógenos , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Pediatrics ; 149(5)2022 05 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35470394

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the changing prevalence of adolescent handgun carriage, with attention to differences across sociodemographic groups. METHODS: Data were drawn from repeated cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys conducted annually from 2002 to 2019, the National Survey on Drug Use & Health. The study sample included adolescents aged 12 to 17 (N = 297 055). Logistic regression models estimated the prevalence of past year handgun carriage across cohort and sociodemographic subgroups. Interactions between 4-time cohorts and other variables explored sociodemographic variability in prevalence rates over time. RESULTS: Handgun carriage increased significantly, particularly among rural, White, and higher-income adolescents. Carriage increased by 41% over cohorts, with predicted prevalence rates increasing from 3.3% in 2002-2006 to 4.6% in 2015-2019. Across cohorts, rural (5.1%), American Indian/Alaskan Native (5.2%), lower-income (<$20 000; 3.9%), male (5.9%), and older (16-17 years old; 4.5%) adolescents were the most likely to report carriage. However, these patterns changed significantly over time, with White and higher-income adolescents (>$75 000) most likely to carry in the most recent cohorts. Predicted carriage rates increased from 3.1% to 5.3% among White adolescents, from 2.6% to 5.1% among higher-income adolescents, and from 4.3% to 6.9% among rural adolescents between the 2002-2006 and 2015-2019 cohorts. Carriage among Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and lower-income adolescents decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent handgun carriage is increasing, concentrated among particular subgroups of youth, and carriage patterns across sociodemographic groups have changed over time. Programs to address the risk of adolescent gun carriage should be tailored to the specific sociocultural and place-based concerns of diverse adolescents.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Armas de Fuego , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Renta , Masculino , Prevalencia
17.
Addict Behav ; 131: 107309, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405478

RESUMEN

Prior studies have found that emotional neglect in childhood exert a far-reaching influence on adolescent problematic behaviors. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of childhood emotional neglect on adolescent PSMU remains largely unknown. Thus, the present study tested whether future negative time perspective (FNTP) mediated, and student-student relationship moderated, the link between childhood emotional neglect and adolescent PSMU. A sample of 842 Chinese adolescents (46.9% girls; Mage = 14.76 years; SDage = 1.64) responded anonymously to questionnaires regarding demographic variables, childhood emotional neglect, FNTP, student-student relationship, and PSMU. The results showed that after controlling for gender and age, FNTP mediated the association between childhood emotional neglect and adolescent PSMU. Further, student-student relationship moderated the association between childhood emotional neglect and FNTP, and the positive association was stronger for adolescents with positive student-student relationship. These findings highlight those tailored approaches are necessary for the prevention and intervention of adolescent PSMU.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Maltrato a los Niños , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Adolescente , Niño , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409439

RESUMEN

This study extends existing research on the relationship between psychoactive substance use among young people and violent behaviour, by evaluating the possible effect of the modification of parenting in a nationally representative sample of 14,685 Italian students drawn from the 2019 wave of the ESPAD Italia survey (51% male; mean age about 17 years). Parental dimensions considered in the study were rule-setting, monitoring, and emotional support, as well as the possible absence of a parent. Relative risk ratios and binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the associations separately for adolescents (15-17) and young adults (18-19). Overall, parental rule-setting, perceived parental monitoring, and emotional support were protective factors for substance use, and the strength of this relationship increased with the frequency of use. Among adolescents, the absence of a parent represented a risk factor. In both age groups, the odds of engaging in violent behaviour was increased among those reporting alcohol intoxication and substance use and the greater the frequency of use, the greater the increase in the odds. As parental monitoring and emotional support decreased, the odds of engaging in violent behaviour increased (except in the case of lower parental support among young adults), while the opposite applies to parental rule-setting. The odds of engaging in violent behaviour were increased among those reporting the absence of a parent only in the adolescent age group. Parental rule-setting was found to have an effect only among adolescents, increasing the odds of violent behaviour among frequent drinkers. Our results might be helpful to signal adolescents who would be more prone to adopt violent behaviour in order to target prevention policies.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Intoxicación Alcohólica , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409754

RESUMEN

Adolescents' depressive social withdrawal is a relevant concern for mental health professionals, and it is widespread among community teenagers in form of subclinical symptoms. Different studies suggest that insecure attachment representations increase the adolescents' likelihood to show symptoms of withdrawal (e.g., loneliness). This study explored the effect of the general attachment internal working model (IWM) and the independent and cumulative effects of the specific attachment representations of parents-in terms of secure base/safe haven-and peers on adolescents' withdrawal. Additionally, the mediation of peer attachment on the effect of parental attachment on symptoms was explored. All analyses were conducted controlling for the difference between teenagers living with parents together or divorced/separated, as children of divorcees are considered more exposed to stressors. Ninety-one adolescents aged 12-17 years old were assessed online during the COVID pandemic period, employing the Youth Self-Report to assess withdrawal and the Friends and Family Interview to assess attachment-general IWM and attachment-specific representations. Results show no influence of parents together/separated or of the general IWM on withdrawal, but higher parent secure base/safe haven and peer attachment cumulatively predicted 10-21% less withdrawal. Moreover, more positive peer attachment mediated 61% of the effect of the parental secure attachment on withdrawal, revealing an indirect effect of parental attachment on withdrawal through peer attachment. In conclusion, both parents and peers are influential on adolescent mental health, and fostering positive peer relationships can buffer the effect of dysfunctional family relationships on teenagers' withdrawal.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , COVID-19 , Adolescente , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial , Niño , Humanos , Salud Mental , Apego a Objetos , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Grupo Paritario
20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409784

RESUMEN

Crouched in the socioecological framework, the present research compared the subjective well-being of left-behind youth with their non-left-behind peers. Furthermore, this research investigated the association of parental warmth and teacher warmth using a person-centered approach with adolescents' subjective well-being on the whole sample, and examined its conditional processes by ascertaining the moderating role of openness to experience and left-behind status in this association. A total of 246 left-behind youth (53.6% girls; Mage = 15.77; SD = 1.50) and 492 socio-demographically matched, non-left-behind peers (55.1% girls; Mage = 15.91; SD = 1.43) was involved in this study. During school hours, these adolescents were uniformly instructed to complete a set of self-report questionnaires. The results from ANCOVA exhibited no significant differences in subjective well-being between these two groups of youth. Moreover, four warmth profiles were revealed: congruent low, congruent highest, congruent lowest, and incongruent moderate, and youth within the congruent highest profile were more likely than the other three profiles to report higher subjective well-being. Additionally, moderation analyses demonstrated that high openness was one protective factor for subjective well-being, when left-behind youth perceived the lowest levels of parental warmth and teacher warmth congruently. These findings indicate that left-behind youth may not be psychologically disadvantaged in terms of positive psychosocial outcomes, such as subjective well-being, and school activities or social initiatives emphasizing openness to experience would be essential for them to facilitate positive adaptive patterns after parental migration.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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