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1.
Surg Clin North Am ; 101(2): 323-333, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743972

RESUMEN

Despite its important treatment implications for obesity and related comorbidities, bariatric surgery requires several behavioral changes that warrant comprehensive evaluation and support before and after surgery. This article outlines emerging scientific and anecdotal evidence for addiction transfer after bariatric surgery. Other common behavioral changes that impact adherence, weight loss, and psychiatric risk after surgery are also reviewed. Last, recommendations for presurgical psychological evaluation and postoperative support are provided.


Asunto(s)
Cirugía Bariátrica/métodos , Conducta , Trastornos Mentales/complicaciones , Obesidad Mórbida/cirugía , Cuidados Preoperatorios/métodos , Pérdida de Peso/fisiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Obesidad Mórbida/complicaciones , Obesidad Mórbida/psicología
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6569, 2021 03 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753851

RESUMEN

Does cognitive motivation influence how people gather and interpret information about COVID-19 and their adherence to measures? To address these questions, we conducted a longitudinal survey among European and American respondents. Wave 1 (N = 501) was conducted on March 27, 2020 and Wave 2 (N = 326) on July 1, 2020. We assessed COVID-19 knowledge, endorsement of COVID-19 conspiracy theories, media use, Need for Cognition (NC), Need for Cognitive Closure (NCC), and self-reported adherence to governmental measures taken. Results showed that nearly three-quarters of our respondents actively searched for information about COVID-19. Most at least once a day. Information seeking behaviour was not influenced by cognitive motivation (i.e., NC and NCC). However, cognitive motivation was related to (1) knowledge about COVID-19, (2) conspiracy rejection, and (3) change in knowledge over time. Respondents with more knowledge on COVID-19 also indicated to adhere more often to measures taken by their government. Self-reported adherence to measures was not influenced by cognitive motivation. Implications of these findings will be discussed.


Asunto(s)
/patología , Conocimiento , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Conducta , Cognición , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1391, 2021 03 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654105

RESUMEN

The brain systems underlying placebo analgesia are insufficiently understood. Here we performed a systematic, participant-level meta-analysis of experimental functional neuroimaging studies of evoked pain under stimulus-intensity-matched placebo and control conditions, encompassing 603 healthy participants from 20 (out of 28 eligible) studies. We find that placebo vs. control treatments induce small, widespread reductions in pain-related activity, particularly in regions belonging to ventral attention (including mid-insula) and somatomotor networks (including posterior insula). Behavioral placebo analgesia correlates with reduced pain-related activity in these networks and the thalamus, habenula, mid-cingulate, and supplementary motor area. Placebo-associated activity increases occur mainly in frontoparietal regions, with high between-study heterogeneity. We conclude that placebo treatments affect pain-related activity in multiple brain areas, which may reflect changes in nociception and/or other affective and decision-making processes surrounding pain. Between-study heterogeneity suggests that placebo analgesia is a multi-faceted phenomenon involving multiple cerebral mechanisms that differ across studies.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Sistema Nervioso/diagnóstico por imagen , Sistema Nervioso/fisiopatología , Adulto , Conducta , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Aumento de la Imagen , Masculino , Dolor/fisiopatología , Placebos
4.
J Vis Exp ; (168)2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682850

RESUMEN

Intraocular scatter, with its associated functional manifestations, is a leading cause of automotive accidents and a significant biomarker of covert and overt ocular disease (e.g., diseases of the cornea and lens). Nearly all current methods of measuring the behavioral consequences of light scatter, however, suffer from various limitations mostly reflecting a lack of construct and content validity: to wit, the measures do not adequately reflect real world conditions (e.g., artificial light vs. sunlight) or everyday tasks (e.g., recognition under visually demanding conditions). This protocol describes two novel, ecologically valid methods of measuring the behavioral effects of intraocular scatter by quantifying scatter geometry and visual recognition under glare conditions. The former was measured by assessing the diameter of halos and spokes that resulted from a bright point source. Light spread (essentially, the point spread function determined using Rayleigh criteria) was quantified by determining the minimum perceivable distance between two small points of broad-band light. The latter was done based on the identification of letters formed using apertures through which bright light was shone.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Oculares , Dispersión de Radiación , Conducción de Automóvil , Deslumbramiento , Humanos , Semántica , Luz Solar , Agudeza Visual , Adulto Joven
5.
Adv Pharmacol ; 90: 253-276, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706936

RESUMEN

Schizophrenia is associated with a tremendous individual and societal burden. The disease is characterized by a complex set of symptoms including psychosis, hallucinations, delusions and related positive symptoms combined with social function deficits, cognitive disturbances and, often, devastating mood disorder, such as comorbid depression. Management of the disease often requires lifelong pharmacotherapy. However, many pharmacotherapies do not improve all symptoms (e.g., social withdrawal, depression, cognitive deficits) and can be associated with intolerable side effects such as weight gain and metabolic disturbances, motor dysfunction and endocrine dysregulation. Lumateperone (ITI-007, CAPLYTA™) is a novel antipsychotic agent, discovered and developed by Intra-Cellular Therapies, Inc. (ITCI) and approved for treatment of schizophrenia in adults in December 2019. Lumateperone simultaneously modulates serotonin, dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission, three key neurotransmitters implicated in schizophrenia. It achieves efficacy with a favorable safety profile. The clinical development program included 20 clinical trials with over 1900 individuals exposed to lumateperone. The program demonstrated the efficacy for lumateperone in two positive well controlled trials in patients with schizophrenia. The unique pharmacology of lumateperone supports the observed benefits across a wide range of symptoms, including social function and depression, and supports its favorable safety profile. Here, we review the discovery of lumateperone's unique biological effects and its clinical actions in the treatment of schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Heterocíclicos de 4 o más Anillos/uso terapéutico , Esquizofrenia/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Conducta , Compuestos Heterocíclicos de 4 o más Anillos/efectos adversos , Compuestos Heterocíclicos de 4 o más Anillos/química , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagen , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
Evol Anthropol ; 30(1): 71-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555109

RESUMEN

We examine the relationship between niche construction theory (NCT) and human behavioral ecology (HBE), two branches of evolutionary science that are important sources of theory in archeology. We distinguish between formal models of niche construction as an evolutionary process, and uses of niche construction to refer to a kind of human behavior. Formal models from NCT examine how environmental modification can change the selection pressures that organisms face. In contrast, formal models from HBE predict behavior assuming people behave adaptively in their local setting, and can be used to predict when and why people engage in niche construction. We emphasize that HBE as a field is much broader than foraging theory and can incorporate social and cultural influences on decision-making. We demonstrate how these approaches can be formally incorporated in a multi-inheritance framework for evolutionary research, and argue that archeologists can best contribute to evolutionary theory by building and testing models that flexibly incorporate HBE and NCT elements.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Arqueología , Conducta , Evolución Cultural , Humanos
7.
Neuron ; 109(5): 751-766, 2021 03 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596406

RESUMEN

Human and non-human animal behavior is highly malleable and adapts successfully to internal and external demands. Such behavioral success stands in striking contrast to the apparent instability in neural activity (i.e., variability) from which it arises. Here, we summon the considerable evidence across scales, species, and imaging modalities that neural variability represents a key, undervalued dimension for understanding brain-behavior relationships at inter- and intra-individual levels. We believe that only by incorporating a specific focus on variability will the neural foundation of behavior be comprehensively understood.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Encéfalo/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Conducta Animal , Interpretación Estadística de Datos , Humanos
8.
Behav Brain Sci ; 44: e14, 2021 02 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33599579

RESUMEN

Central to the account of grounded procedures is the premise that mental experiences are grounded in physical actions. We complement this account by incorporating frameworks in cultural psychology and developmental neuroscience, with new predictions. Through the examples of vicarious experiences and demerit transfer, we discuss why, and how, separation and connection may operate somewhat differently across cultures.


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Neurociencias , Conducta , Humanos
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1149, 2021 02 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608533

RESUMEN

An outstanding challenge for consciousness research is to characterize the neural signature of conscious access independently of any decisional processes. Here we present a model-based approach that uses inter-trial variability to identify the brain dynamics associated with stimulus processing. We demonstrate that, even in the absence of any task or behavior, the electroencephalographic response to auditory stimuli shows bifurcation dynamics around 250-300 milliseconds post-stimulus. Namely, the same stimulus gives rise to late sustained activity on some trials, and not on others. This late neural activity is predictive of task-related reports, and also of reports of conscious contents that are randomly sampled during task-free listening. Source localization further suggests that task-free conscious access recruits the same neural networks as those associated with explicit report, except for frontal executive components. Studying brain dynamics through variability could thus play a key role for identifying the core signatures of conscious access, independent of report.


Asunto(s)
Encéfalo/fisiología , Estado de Conciencia/fisiología , Estimulación Acústica , Adolescente , Adulto , Percepción Auditiva/fisiología , Conducta , Neurociencia Cognitiva , Electroencefalografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepción Visual/fisiología , Adulto Joven
10.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e041453, 2021 01 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408203

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Examine compliance with personal protective measures in communities for the prevention and control of local transmission of the COVID-19, and explore indicators for such behavioural compliance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional design with a self-selecting sample. Data collected in February 2020. SETTING: Community dwellers in China. PARTICIPANTS: 2956 participants aged 16 and above completed the study and were included in the analysis. OUTCOME MEASURES: Nationwide COVID-19 survey. Demographics and self-reported compliance with four personal protective measures-home quarantine, mask-wearing, temperature-taking and hand-sanitising were collected. Outbreak severity and timeliness of personal protection order were obtained from the China Center for Disease Control and Prevention website. Logistic regression models were employed to examine the association between demographic and social indicators and behavioural compliance. RESULTS: Compliance with home quarantine was only associated with gender (men, OR=0.61 (0.51-0.73), inverse association) but no other indicators. In contrast, men had higher compliance with mask-wearing (OR=1.79 (1.49-2.16)) and temperature-taking (OR=1.27 (1.05-1.53)). Compared with younger adults (≤20 years), the middle-age groups (31-40 and 41-50 years of age) were more compliant with all protective behaviours, except for home quarantine (OR=0.71 (0.54-0.93) and 0.67 (0.46-0.97), respectively). CONCLUSION: Male gender was associated with lower compliance with home quarantine yet higher compliance with mask-wearing and temperature-taking. The middle-age participants (31-50 years) had lower compliance with home quarantine but higher with other measures. These findings may be supported by the economic considerations and the long-inherited Confucian values among Chinese. In light of the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, public health authorities should tailor policy implementation to disparities in psychosocial indicators.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Equipo de Protección Personal , Adulto , /transmisión , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Autoinforme
11.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 260, 2021 01 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431873

RESUMEN

Spite, costly behavior that harms others, presents an evolutionary puzzle: given that both the actor and recipient do worse, how could it emerge? We show that dynamically evolving interaction networks provide a novel explanation for the evolution of costly harm. Previous work has shown that anti-correlated interaction (e.g., negative assortment or negative relatedness) among behavioral strategies in populations can lead to the evolution of costly harm. We show that these approaches are blind to important features of interaction brought about by a co-evolution of network and behavior and that these features enable the emergence of spite. We analyze a new model in which agents can inflict harm on others at a cost to themselves, and simultaneously learn how to behave and with whom to interact. We find spite emerges reliably under a wide range of conditions. Our model reveals that when interactions occur in dynamic networks the population can exhibit correlated and anti-correlated behavioral interactions simultaneously, something not possible in standard models. In dynamic networks spite evolves due to transient and partial anti-correlated interaction, even when other behaviors are positively correlated and average degree of correlated interaction in the population is low.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Red Social , Teoría del Juego , Humanos , Aprendizaje , Modelos Teóricos
12.
Am J Primatol ; 83(2): e23228, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33400317

RESUMEN

Respiratory illnesses, including COVID-19, present a serious threat to endangered wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations. In some parts of sub-Saharan Africa, chimpanzee tracking is a popular tourism activity, offering visitors a chance to view apes in their natural habitats. Chimpanzee tourism is an important source of revenue and thus benefits conservation; however, chimpanzee tracking may also increase the risk of disease transmission from people to chimpanzees directly (e.g., via aerosol transmission) or indirectly (e.g., through the environment or via fomites). This study assessed how tourist behaviors might facilitate respiratory disease transmission at a chimpanzee tracking site in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We observed tourists, guides, and student interns from the time they entered the forest to view the chimpanzees until they left the forest and noted behaviors related to disease transmission. Common behaviors included coughing, sneezing, and urinating, which respectively occurred during 88.1%, 65.4%, and 36.6% of excursions. Per excursion, individuals touched their faces an average of 125.84 ± 34.45 times and touched large tree trunks or branches (which chimpanzees might subsequently touch) an average of 230.14 ± 108.66 times. These results show that many pathways exist by which pathogens might move from humans to chimpanzees in the context of tourism. Guidelines for minimizing the risk of such transmission should consider tourist behavior and the full range of modes by which pathogen transmission might occur between tourists and chimpanzees.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/etiología , Pan troglodytes , Enfermedades Respiratorias/veterinaria , Turismo , África Oriental , Animales , Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/transmisión , Enfermedades del Simio Antropoideo/virología , Conducta , Conducta Animal , /virología , Humanos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/etiología , Enfermedades Respiratorias/virología , /patogenicidad
13.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 20211, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436567

RESUMEN

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have discovered numerous genetic variants associated with human behavioural traits. However, behavioural traits are subject to misreports and longitudinal changes (MLC) which can cause biases in GWAS and follow-up analyses. Here, we demonstrate that individuals with higher disease burden in the UK Biobank (n = 455,607) are more likely to misreport or reduce their alcohol consumption levels, and propose a correction procedure to mitigate the MLC-induced biases. The alcohol consumption GWAS signals removed by the MLC corrections are enriched in metabolic/cardiovascular traits. Almost all the previously reported negative estimates of genetic correlations between alcohol consumption and common diseases become positive/non-significant after the MLC corrections. We also observe MLC biases for smoking and physical activities in the UK Biobank. Our findings provide a plausible explanation of the controversy about the effects of alcohol consumption on health outcomes and a caution for future analyses of self-reported behavioural traits in biobank data.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Sesgo , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Carácter Cuantitativo Heredable , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/genética , Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Índice de Masa Corporal , Humanos , Análisis de la Aleatorización Mendeliana , Reino Unido
14.
Science ; 371(6527)2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479124

RESUMEN

The cerebral cortex is an intricate structure that controls human features such as language and cognition. Cortical functions rely on specialized neurons that emerge during development from complex molecular and cellular interactions. Neurodevelopmental disorders occur when one or several of these steps is incorrectly executed. Although a number of causal genes and disease phenotypes have been identified, the sequence of events linking molecular disruption to clinical expression mostly remains obscure. Here, focusing on human malformations of cortical development, we illustrate how complex interactions at the genetic, cellular, and circuit levels together contribute to diversity and variability in disease phenotypes. Using specific examples and an online resource, we propose that a multilevel assessment of disease processes is key to identifying points of vulnerability and developing new therapeutic strategies.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/anomalías , Trastornos Mentales/metabolismo , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/metabolismo , Neurogénesis/fisiología , Neuronas/fisiología , Animales , Conducta , Movimiento Celular/genética , Movimiento Celular/fisiología , Corteza Cerebral/metabolismo , Corteza Cerebral/ultraestructura , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/genética , Ratones , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/genética , Vías Nerviosas/anomalías , Vías Nerviosas/metabolismo , Vías Nerviosas/ultraestructura , Neurogénesis/genética , Neuronas/citología , Especificidad de Órganos/genética , Especificidad de Órganos/fisiología
15.
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e043577, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397669

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine risk perceptions and behavioural responses of the UK adult population during the early phase of the COVID-19 epidemic in the UK. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Conducted with a nationally representative sample of UK adults within 48 hours of the UK Government advising the public to stop non-essential contact with others and all unnecessary travel. PARTICIPANTS: 2108 adults living in the UK aged 18 years and over. Response rate was 84.3% (2108/2500). Data collected between 17 March and 18 March 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Descriptive statistics for all survey questions, including number of respondents and weighted percentages. Robust Poisson regression used to identify sociodemographic variation in: (1) adoption of social distancing measures, (2) ability to work from home, and (3) ability and (4) willingness to self-isolate. RESULTS: Overall, 1992 (94.2%) respondents reported at least one preventive measure: 85.8% washed their hands with soap more frequently; 56.5% avoided crowded areas and 54.5% avoided social events. Adoption of social distancing measures was higher in those aged over 70 years compared with younger adults aged 18-34 years (adjusted relative risk/aRR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5). Those with lowest household income were three times less likely to be able to work from home (aRR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.24 to 0.45) and less likely to be able to self-isolate (aRR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.96). Ability to self-isolate was also lower in black and minority ethnic groups (aRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.0). Willingness to self-isolate was high across all respondents. CONCLUSIONS: Ability to adopt and comply with certain non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) is lower in the most economically disadvantaged in society. Governments must implement appropriate social and economic policies to mitigate this. By incorporating these differences in NPIs among socioeconomic subpopulations into mathematical models of COVID-19 transmission dynamics, our modelling of epidemic outcomes and response to COVID-19 can be improved.


Asunto(s)
Conducta , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Pandemias , Percepción/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Pap. psicol ; 41(3): 184-190, sept.-dic. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-197405

RESUMEN

La Psicología ha evolucionado desde la definición de tratado del alma hasta la actualidad, donde se la considera ciencia que estudia la mente y la conducta humana. El camino de alejarse de la filosofía para acercarse a la ciencia ha sido complejo porque la ciencia se ajustaba más a otras disciplinas donde puede evaluarse la causalidad más fácilmente que en la Psicología. A pesar de la complejidad del objeto de análisis, la Psicología ha aportado conocimientos que han mejorado la vida de las personas en ámbitos muy diversos. Asimismo, el acercamiento a la ciencia ha dotado a la Psicología de métodos sistemáticos para organizar el conocimiento Este artículo trata de profundizar en las fortalezas que tiene la Psicología para ser legítimamente ciencia y también señala que el deseo de aprender y la actitud científica como actitud crítica podría ser el camino para la mejora de la Psicología


Psychology has evolved from its definition as a treatise on the soul to the present day, where it is considered a science that studies the mind and human behavior. The path of moving away from philosophy and towards science has been complex because science was better suited to other disciplines where causality can be evaluated more easily than in psychology. In spite of the complexity of the object of analysis, psychology has contributed knowledge that has improved people's lives in very diverse areas. Similarly, the approach toward science has provided psychology with systematic methods with which to organize knowledge. This article aims to delve into the strengths that psychology has as a legitimate science and it also points out that the desire to learn and the scientific attitude as a critical attitude could be the way to improve psychology


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Psicología/métodos , Práctica Clínica Basada en la Evidencia , Ciencia , Conducta/fisiología , Psicoterapia , Características Humanas , Investigación Conductal
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33348890

RESUMEN

The rapid uptake of the internet has provided a new platform for people to engage with almost all aspects of life. As such, it is currently crucial to investigate the relationship between the internet and cognition across contexts and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms driving this. We describe the current understanding of this relationship across the literature and outline the state of knowledge surrounding the potential neurobiological drivers. Through focusing on two key areas of the nascent but growing literature, first the individual- and population-level implications for attention processes and second the neurobiological drivers underpinning internet usage and memory, we describe the implications of the internet for cognition, assess the potential mechanisms linking brain structure to cognition, and elucidate how these influence behaviour. Finally, we identify areas that now require investigation, including (i) the importance of the variation in individual levels of internet usage, (ii) potential individual behavioural implications and emerging population-level effects, and the (iii) interplay between age and the internet-brain relationships across the stages of development.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Memoria , Factores de Edad , Conducta , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición , Humanos , /estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1941): 20201756, 2020 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352071

RESUMEN

Economic preferences may be shaped by exposure to sex hormones around birth. Prior studies of economic preferences and numerous other phenotypic characteristics use digit ratios (2D : 4D), a purported proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure, whose validity has recently been questioned. We use direct measures of neonatal sex hormones (testosterone and oestrogen), measured from umbilical cord blood (n = 200) to investigate their association with later-life economic preferences (risk preferences, competitiveness, time preferences and social preferences) in an Australian cohort (Raine Study Gen2). We find no significant associations between testosterone at birth and preferences, except for competitiveness, where the effect runs opposite to the expected direction. Point estimates are between 0.05-0.09 percentage points (pp) and 0.003-0.14 s.d. We similarly find no significant associations between 2D : 4D and preferences (n = 533, point estimates 0.003-0.02 pp and 0.001-0.06 s.d.). Our sample size allows detecting effects larger than 0.11 pp or 0.22 s.d. for testosterone at birth, and 0.07 pp or 0.14 s.d. for 2D : 4D (α = 0.05 and power = 0.90). Equivalence tests show that most effects are unlikely to be larger than these bounds. Our results suggest a reinterpretation of prior findings relating 2D : 4D to economic preferences, and highlight the importance of future large-sample studies that permit detection of small effects.


Asunto(s)
Conducta/fisiología , Hormonas Esteroides Gonadales/sangre , Australia , Estudios de Cohortes , Economía , Estrógenos , Femenino , Sangre Fetal , Dedos , Humanos , Masculino , Parto , Embarazo , Caracteres Sexuales , Testosterona
19.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243863, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320864

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mass drug administration has implemented to reduce trachoma since 2001, however, trachoma is still the major public health problem in Amhara Region, Ethiopia. However, credible evidence on the prevalence of trachoma and its associated factors after the implementation of mass drug administration is limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma among children aged 1-9 years old in mass drug administration graduated and non-graduated districts in the Northwest Amhara Region. METHODS: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted from October to November, 2019. A stratified multistage random sampling was used to select 690 households having children aged 1-9 years. Data were collected using a pretested structured questionnaire. Data were entered into Epi-data version 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regressions were employed to identify factors associated with active trachoma. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were computed to assess the degree of association between the independent variables and active trachoma. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of active trachoma was 8.3% (95% CI: 6.2% -10.5%) and showed a significant variation between graduated [3.5% (95% CI: 1.8% -5.6%)] and non-graduated [13% (95% CI: 9.7%-16.8%)] districts. Living in graduated districts (AOR = 7.39, 95% CI: 3.19, 17.09), fly presence in the house (AOR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.43, 6.89), presence of more than two children in the family (AOR = 3.78, 95%CI: 1.79, 7.98), did not wash face daily (AOR = 6.31, 95% CI: 1.81, 21.98), did not use soap during face washing (AOR = 3.34, 95% CI: 1.37, 8.15), presence of sleep in eyes (AOR = 3.16, 95% CI: 1.42, 7.02) and presence of dirt on child face (AOR = 2.44, 95% CI: 1.08, 5.50) increased the odds of having active trachoma. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of active trachoma was high in the study area and showed a significant variation between graduated and non-graduated districts with mass drug administration. Living in non-graduated districts, fly presence in the house, more than two children in a household, did not wash the face daily, did not use soap during face washing, presence of sleep in eyes, and dirt on the child's face were the significant predictors of active trachoma. Therefore, the identified modifiable factors are the area of intervention to reduce the burden of active trachoma.


Asunto(s)
Administración Masiva de Medicamentos , Tracoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Tracoma/epidemiología , Conducta , Niño , Preescolar , Chlamydia trachomatis/fisiología , Estudios Transversales , Ambiente , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Vivienda , Humanos , Lactante , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Prevalencia , Tracoma/prevención & control
20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6441, 2020 12 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361766

RESUMEN

The learning of motor skills unfolds over multiple timescales, with rapid initial gains in performance followed by a longer period in which the behavior becomes more refined, habitual, and automatized. While recent lesion and inactivation experiments have provided hints about how various brain areas might contribute to such learning, their precise roles and the neural mechanisms underlying them are not well understood. In this work, we propose neural- and circuit-level mechanisms by which motor cortex, thalamus, and striatum support motor learning. In this model, the combination of fast cortical learning and slow subcortical learning gives rise to a covert learning process through which control of behavior is gradually transferred from cortical to subcortical circuits, while protecting learned behaviors that are practiced repeatedly against overwriting by future learning. Together, these results point to a new computational role for thalamus in motor learning and, more broadly, provide a framework for understanding the neural basis of habit formation and the automatization of behavior through practice.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Aprendizaje , Recuerdo Mental/fisiología , Vías Nerviosas/fisiología , Conducta , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Modelos Neurológicos , Neuronas/fisiología , Refuerzo en Psicología , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas
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