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1.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1611, 2021 09 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479522

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Neighborhood social cohesion (NSC) is the network of relationships as well as the shared values and norms of residents in a neighborhood. Higher NSC has been associated with improved cardiovascular health, largely among Whites but not African Americans. In a bi-racial cohort, we aimed to study the association between NSC and chronic disease awareness and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors, two potential mechanisms by which NSC could impact cardiovascular health outcomes. METHODS: Using the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity Across the Lifespan Study (HANDLS), we cross-sectionally examined the association between NSC and awareness of three chronic conditions (diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD), and hypertension) and engagement in healthy self-management behaviors including physical activity, healthy eating, and cigarette avoidance. RESULTS: Study participants (n = 2082) had a mean age of 56.5 years; 38.7% were White and 61.4% African American. Of the participants, 26% had diabetes, 70% had hypertension and 20.2% had CKD. Mean NSC was 3.3 (SD = 0.80) on a scale of 1 (lowest score) to 5 (highest score). There was no significant association between NSC and any chronic disease awareness, overall or by race. However, each higher point in mean NSC score was associated with less cigarette use and healthier eating scores, among Whites (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: =0.76, 0.61-0.94; beta coefficient [ßc]:, 95% CI: 1.75; 0.55-2.97, respectively) but not African Americans (aOR = 0.95, 0.79-1.13; ßc: 0.46, - 0.48-1.39, respectively; Pinteraction = 0.08 and 0.06). Among both Whites and African Americans, higher NSC scores were associated with increases in self-reported physical activity (ßc: 0.12; 0.08-0.16; Pinteraction = 0.40). CONCLUSIONS: Community engagement and neighborhood social cohesion may be important targets for promotion of healthy behaviors and cardiovascular disease prevention. More research is needed to understand the different associations of NSC and healthy behaviors by race.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Cooperativa , Características de la Residencia , Afroamericanos , Enfermedad Crónica , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3839-3851, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468677

RESUMEN

The aim of the present study was to identify dietary patterns and associations with socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle, nutritional status, lipid profile and inflammatory profile in adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample using baseline data (2014) from the Longitudinal Study on Sedentary Behavior, Physical Activity, Eating Habits and Adolescent Health. A total of 1,438 adolescents (10 to 14 years old) from public schools in the city of João Pessoa, Brazil, participated in the study. Data were collected on socioeconomic characteristics, nutritional status, lifestyle and the results of biochemical tests. Dietary data were obtained using the 24-hour recall method and dietary patterns were identified by exploratory factor analysis. Associations of interest were estimated using multiple logistic regression. Three dietary patterns were found: "Traditional", "Snacks" and "Western". These patterns were associated with age, socioeconomic status, parental education and lifestyle. The "Traditional" pattern was associated lower adiposity and a better lipid profile. However, with the increase in age, greater frequencies of the "Snacks" and "Western" patterns were found. The present findings underscore the need for strategies that encourage healthy behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Factores Socioeconómicos
3.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256136, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469453

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Political ideologies drove public actions and health behaviors in the first year of the global pandemic. Different ideas about contagion, health behaviors, and the actions of governing bodies impacted the spread of the virus and health and life. Researchers used an immediate, mixed methods design to explore sociocultural responses to the virus and identified differences and similarities in anxiety, fear, blame, and perceptions of nation across political divides. METHODS: Researchers conducted 60 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and administered over 1,000 questionnaires with people living in the United States. The team analyzed data through an exploratory and confirmatory sequential mixed methods design. RESULTS: In the first months of the pandemic interviewees cited economic inequality, untrustworthy corporations and other entities, and the federal government as threats to life and pandemic control. Participants invoked ideas about others to determine blame. Findings reveal heavy associations between lack of safety during a public health crisis and blame of "culture" and government power across the political spectrum. CONCLUSION: Data indicate anxiety across political differences related to ideas of contagion and the maleficence of a powerful elite. Findings on how people understand the nation, politics, and pandemic management contribute to understanding dimensions of health behaviors and underlying connections between anxiety and the uptake of conspiracy theories in public health. The article ends with recommendations drawn from project findings for future pandemic response.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad , COVID-19 , Miedo/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Gobierno Federal , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 349, 2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496962

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore current attitudes towards sun protection, and sun-seeking behaviour among young Australian adolescents. It was done as part of a larger project aiming to develop a digital resource to support young people in making informed sun-health decisions. RESULTS: Ten (4 male, 6 female) adolescents (12-13 years of age) living in Perth (Western Australia) were recruited through a social media-based strategy. Each participant engaged in a semi-structured telephone interview which explored their sun-health decision-making, with interview transcripts assessed qualitatively using NVivo. Three major themes (and eight sub-themes) were identified: (1) 'personal sun health considerations'; (2) 'attitudes towards sun protection'; and (3) 'recommendations'. The importance of sun protection was appreciated by participants. However, females were more diligent in the use of sun protection while males were indifferent. Behaviours were influenced by parental input, the school environment and engagement in sport. Adolescents had limited knowledge of the UV Index and its implications for sun protection, and the health importance of sun-derived vitamin D. Overall, the importance of sun protection was acknowledged but did not consistently translate into sun protective behaviours.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias Cutáneas , Quemadura Solar , Adolescente , Australia , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Cutáneas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/prevención & control , Quemadura Solar/tratamiento farmacológico , Quemadura Solar/prevención & control , Protectores Solares/uso terapéutico
5.
Work ; 69(4): 1283-1291, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Taxi drivers, an immigrant male population, may exhibit poor health behaviors and increased health risks. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined stress and demographics as predictors of physical activity (PA), nutrition, sleep, and smoking, and the co-occurrence of these behaviors among taxi drivers. METHODS: A cross-sectional needs assessment was conducted in New York City. The sample (n = 252) was comprised of male taxi drivers, 98%of whom were born outside of the U.S., with the majority from South Asian countries (62%), and 45 years old on average (SD = 11). RESULTS: We found low rates of fruit/vegetable consumption and PA. Rates of stress, PA, and smoking varied by demographic factors. Stress was positively associated with sleep disturbances and negatively associated with smoking. Aside from a relationship between sugar consumption and smoking, other health behaviors were not associated. CONCLUSIONS: While stress appears to impact some indicators of modifiable health behaviors, its lack of relationship with others points to more persistent health issues. Demographic differences found for PA and smoking also point to groups that may especially benefit from interventions. These findings suggest the need for targeted health interventions for taxi drivers in large metropolitan cities.


Asunto(s)
Conducción de Automóvil , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444845

RESUMEN

Rapid worldwide decreases in physical activity (PA), an increase in sedentary behaviour (SB) and poorer dietary patterns have been reported during COVID-19 confinement periods. However, as national variability has been observed, this study sought to describe PA, SB and eating patterns, and to explore their gender as well as other socio-demographic correlates and how they interrelate in a representative sample of Portuguese adults during the COVID-19 first mandatory social confinement. The survey was applied online and by telephone to 5856 adults (mean age = 45.8 years; 42.6% women). The majority reported high (46.0%) or moderate (20.5%) PA levels. Men, younger participants, those with higher education levels and a favourable perception of their financial situation reported higher PA levels, with the opposite pattern for SB. Physical fitness activities and household chores were more reported by women, with more strength training and running activities reported by men. Regarding eating behaviours, 45.1% reported changes, positive (58%) and negative (42%), with 18.2% reporting increases in consumption of fruit, vegetables, and fish and other seafood consumption, while 10.8% (most with lower educational level and less comfortable with their income) reported an increase in consumption of ready-to-eat meals, soft drinks, savoury snacks, and take-away and delivered meals. Two clusters-a health-enhancing vs. risky pattern-emerged through multiple correspondence analysis characterized by co-occurrence of high vs. low PA levels, positive vs. negative eating changes, awareness or not of the COVID-19 PA and dietary recommendations, perceived financial situation, higher vs. lower educational level and time in social confinement. In conclusion, while in social confinement, both positive and negative PA and eating behaviours and trends were displayed, highlighting the role of key sociodemographic correlates contributing to healthy vs. risky patterns. Results may inform future health interventions and policies to be more targeted to those at risk, and also advocate the promotion of PA and healthy eating in an integrated fashion.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Conducta Sedentaria , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Portugal/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444858

RESUMEN

Lifestyle changes during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) lockdown have been previously examined, but there is limited understanding about changes after such restrictions were lifted. This study examines changes in lifestyle habits and body weight among the Japanese population with regard to the length of at-home hours both during (April to May) and after (September) the nationwide stay-at-home request compared to those before the COVID-19 pandemic (January 2020). An online survey was conducted in September 2020 involving 10,000 Japanese survey monitors, selected according to population distribution. During the stay-at-home request, 34% participants extended their at-home hours. More respondents in the group with extended at-home hours experienced an increase or decrease in total physical activity, snacking, food intake, alcohol drinking, and body weight than those in the group with nonextended at-home hours. Some of these changes had a trend according to age. The prevalence of most of these changes decreased when at-home hours returned to normal after the stay-at-home request period; however, increased alcohol consumption and increased or decreased body weight persisted. Our findings suggest that close monitoring for further health outcomes and age-appropriate measures to encourage favorable health behaviors is needed.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estilo de Vida , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444125

RESUMEN

Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) poses a disproportionate burden on Benin, West Africa. However, no diabetes intervention has yet been developed for Benin's contexts. This study aimed to explore specific cultural beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental factors to help adapt a diabetes self-management program to patients with T2D from Cotonou, in southern Benin. Methods: Qualitative data were collected through focus group discussions (FDGs) involving 32 patients with T2D, 16 academic partners, and 12 community partners. The FDGs were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim from French to English, and then analyzed thematically with MAXQDA 2020. Results: Healthy food was challenging to obtain due to costs, seasonality, and distance from markets. Other issues discussed were fruits and vegetables as commodities for the poor, perceptions and stigmas surrounding the disease, and the financial burden of medical equipment and treatment. Information about local food selections and recipes as well as social support, particularly for physical activity, were identified, among other needs. When adapting the curriculum, gender dynamics and spirituality were suggested. Conclusions: The study demonstrates the need for culturally sensitive interventions and a motivation-based approach to health (spiritual and emotional support). It also lays the groundwork for addressing T2D contextually in Benin and similar sub-Saharan African countries.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Automanejo , Benin , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Investigación Cualitativa
9.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047462, 2021 08 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344677

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to estimate the distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits by sociodemographics among public workers in China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: A representative sample was obtained from 10 government-run institutions in Hunan province of China. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 5029 public workers were included in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence on their sociodemographic characteristics, health-related behaviours and dietary habits. Socioeconomic status (SES) scores were calculated by multiplying ordinal numerical values assigned to consecutive categories of education level and annual household income. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and categorical principal component analysis were used to estimate differences in health-related behaviours and dietary habits by sociodemographics. RESULTS: The distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits was varied by sociodemographic groups. Middle-aged groups (41-60 years) were more likely to smoke (for men, 34.5%), use alcohol (for men, 22.5%), and have short sleep duration (for men, 36.3%; for women, 39.6%). Young participants (≤30 years) were more likely to have multiple unhealthy behaviours and dietary habits. Those in low-SES have a significant higher rate of smoking (ORadj=1.46, 95% CI: 1.15 to 1.85) and leisure-time physical inactivity (ORadj=1.18, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.37), but a lower rate of late sleeping (ORadj=0.69, 95% CI: 0.57 to 0.83) than those in high-SES. Notably, older men (≥51 years) with low-SES preferred the 'smoked and pickled foods and dessert' and 'fish and nut' pattern. In high-SES groups, 41-50 year old people preferred the 'traditional foods' and 'cereals and dairy product' pattern. No difference in dietary patterns by sociodemographics was found among women (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings of the disparity distribution of health-related behaviours and dietary habits by specific gender, age and SES among Chinese public workers have important policy implications for developing targeted health interventions to facilitate health-related behaviours and dietary habits in this population.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adulto , Anciano , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clase Social
10.
AIDS Behav ; 25(9): 2767-2778, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34389891

RESUMEN

Between 2010 and 2015, Eswatini conducted mass media health behavior campaigns (HBCs) designed to avert new HIV infections. Using longitudinal data from the nationally representative Swaziland HIV Incidence Measurement Survey of 2011, we describe the impact of exposure to HBCs on selected HIV risk behaviors and HIV incidence among sexually active, HIV-negative adults (n = 11,232). Exposure to partner reduction HBCs was significantly associated with reporting fewer (i.e., 1 versus 2, or 2 versus ≥ 3) sexual partners in the prior 6 months at baseline among women (aOR = 3.02; 95% CI 1.38, 6.62); and at both baseline and at 6-months follow-up for men (aOR = 2.26; 95% CI 1.49, 3.44; aOR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.26-3.00], respectively). Despite these reported partner reductions, there was no association between HBC exposure and prospectively observed HIV seroconversions (n = 121). This analysis strengthens the evidence that HIV prevention at the population level requires integrated strategies.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Esuatini , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Parejas Sexuales
11.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 34(7): 509-519, 2021 Jul 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353414

RESUMEN

Objective: Evidence regarding alcohol consumption and cognitive impairment is controversial. Whether cessation of drinking alcohol by non-dependent drinkers alters the risk of cognitive impairment remains unknown. This study prospectively evaluated the potential association between the history of lifetime alcohol cessation and risk of cognitive impairment. Methods: This study included 15,758 participants age 65 years or older, selected from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) that covered 23 provinces in China. Current alcohol use status, duration of alcohol cessation, and alcohol consumption before abstinence were self-reported by participants; cognitive function was evaluated using Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE). Cause-specific hazard models and restricted cubic splines were applied to estimate the effect of alcohol use on cognitive impairment. Results: Among the 15,758 participants, mean (± SD) age was 82.8 years (± 11.9 years), and 7,199 (45.7%) were males. During a mean of 3.9 years of follow-up, 3,404 cases were identified as cognitive impairment. Compared with current drinkers, alcohol cessation of five to nine years [adjusted HR, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.66-0.96)] and more than nine years [adjusted HR, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.69-0.98)] were associated with lower risk of cognitive impairment. Conclusion: A longer duration of alcohol cessation was associated with a lower risk of cognitive impairment assessed by MMSE. Alcohol cessation is never late for older adults to prevent cognitive impairment.


Asunto(s)
Abstinencia de Alcohol , Disfunción Cognitiva/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , China , Cognición , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Pruebas de Estado Mental y Demencia , Riesgo
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444523

RESUMEN

As gestational diabetes, which is increasing steadily around the world, can cause complications in the mother and fetus, it is essential to change eating habits and eating behavior to prevent this. According to the 2020 American Diabetes Association recommendations, the food plan should be designed for the adequate calorie intake to achieve glycemic goals and consequently promote maternal and fetal health. Thus, the following study has used the qualitative theme analysis method to assess what it means for 28 South Korean women, who were diagnosed with gestational diabetes for the first time, to change their eating habits and behaviors. As a result, themes were derived related to reflection on daily life, formation of new relationships in the same group, efforts that must be made, rediscovery of couples, and lifestyles reborn as new roles. Based on the results of the study, it is shown that the study participants recovered the peace in their mental state after the crisis of gestational diabetes to pursue relaxation and ultimately higher quality of life by following the plan to fulfill healthy achievements, such as changing their eating habits and behaviors. Therefore, future research and support measures to help the healthy behaviors should be sought by comprehensively exploring the effects of women's experiences in changing their eating habits and behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Embarazo , Calidad de Vida
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444544

RESUMEN

This study classified the changes in alcohol use behavior among Korean adults and explored the related factors. The study used data from the 4th (2009) to 14th (2019) waves of the Korean Welfare Panel Study. The subjects were 8267 adults aged 19-60 years. Latent class growth analysis was used to classify the latent classes of alcohol use behavior among Korean adults, and logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the specific factors that form the classes. Additionally, the 11-year trajectories of major variables associated with alcohol use behavior for the derived classes were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. Four classes were identified according to the trajectories of alcohol use behavior. There were statistically significant differences in the trajectories of depression, self-esteem, satisfaction in family relationships, and satisfaction in leisure activities according to the class of alcohol use behavior. In particular, self-esteem and satisfaction in family relationships indicated distinctly decreasing trajectories in the low- to moderate-risk class, which suggested the need for longitudinal analysis of the factors that influence alcohol use behavior. Moreover, it is recommended that interventions for the prevention of high-risk drinking target not only individuals but also family units.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Estudios Longitudinales , Satisfacción Personal , República de Corea/epidemiología
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 880, 2021 Aug 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Changing people's behaviour by giving advice and instruction, as traditionally provided in healthcare consultations, is usually ineffective. Healthy Conversation Skills (HCS) training enhances health professionals' communication skills and ability to empower and motivate people in health behaviour change. Guided by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), this study examined the impact of HCS training on health professional barriers to conducting behaviour change conversations in both clinical and non-clinical settings. Secondary aims were to i) identify health professionals' barriers to having behaviour change conversations, and explore the ii) effect of HCS training on health professionals' competence and attitudes to adopting HCS, iii) feasibility, acceptability and appropriateness of using HCS in their clinical and non-clinical roles, and iv) acceptability and quality of HCS training. METHODS: HCS training was conducted in October-November 2019 and February 2020. Pre-training (T1), post-training (T2) and follow-up (T3; 6-10 weeks post-training) surveys collected data on demographics and changes in competence, confidence, importance and usefulness (10-point Likert scale, where 10 = highest score) of conducting behaviour change conversations. Validated items assessing barriers to having these conversations were based on eight TDF domains. Post-training acceptability and quality of training was assessed. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics, and differences between TDF domain scores at the specific time points were analysed using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank tests. RESULTS: Sixty-four participants consented to complete surveys (97% women; 16% identified as Aboriginal), with 37 employed in clinical settings and 27 in non-clinical settings. The training improved scores for the TDF domains of skills (T1: median (interquartile range) = 4.7(3.3-5.3); T3 = 5.7(5.3-6.0), p < 0.01), belief about capabilities (T1 = 4.7(3.3-6.0); T3 = 5.7(5.0-6.0), p < 0.01), and goals (T1 = 4.3(3.7-5.0); T3 = 4.7(4.3-5.3), p < 0.01) at follow-up. Competence in using 'open discovery questions' increased post-training (T1 = 25% of responses; T2 = 96% of responses; T3 = 87% of responses, p < 0.001), as did participants' confidence for having behaviour change conversations (T1 = 6.0(4.7-7.6); T2 = 8.1(7.1-8.8), p < 0.001), including an increased confidence in having behaviour change conversations with Aboriginal clients (T1 = 5.0(2.7-6.3); T2 = 7.6(6.4-8.3), p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Provision of additional support strategies to address intentions; memory, attention and decision processes; and behavioural regulation may enhance adoption and maintenance of HCS in routine practice. Wider implementation of HCS training could be an effective strategy to building capacity and support health professionals to use a person-centred, opportunistic approach to health behaviour change.


Asunto(s)
Comunicación , Personal de Salud , Competencia Clínica , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 181, 2021 08 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34384447

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The cultural determinants of health centre an Indigenous definition of health, and have been linked to positive health and wellbeing outcomes. There is growing evidence for the importance of the cultural determinants of health; however, to date, no high-level overview of the evidence-base has been provided. Synthesising existing literature on cultural determinants of health for Aboriginal peoples in a single manuscript will highlight what we know, and what needs to be explored in future research. It will also contribute to global efforts to capture the evidence of cultural determinant approaches amongst Indigenous populations. We therefore endeavoured to identify cultural determinants and highlight their impact on Aboriginal health and wellbeing outcomes, and outline the relationship and interconnection of different cultural determinants of health. METHODS: An overview of reviews was conducted. Medline (Ovid) and Scopus were searched using terms related to 'cultural determinants of health' and an 'Aboriginal definition of health'. The database search was complemented by a web-based search of grey literature. Nine reviews were retrieved and included in our overview. RESULTS: Family/community, Country and place, cultural identity and self-determination were strongly identified across reviews as having a positive impact on the health and wellbeing outcomes of Aboriginal peoples. Family/community and Country and place were found to be components of 'culture' that shaped cultural identity. Self-determination was outlined as a requirement for Aboriginal peoples to pursue their cultural, social, and economic rights. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSIONS: Cultural determinants are associated with health benefits for Indigenous peoples. A causal framework, developed to discuss the relationship and interconnection of the cultural determinants of health, demonstrates that cultural identity at an individual-level is important to benefiting from other cultural determinants of health. While self-determination and connection to culture and community-controlled organisations are integral factors to increase Aboriginal resilience and resistance and improve health and wellbeing outcomes. Further research is required to shift towards a multi-level understanding of the cultural determinants of health and to develop an Indigenous-led evidence-base around causal pathways. Such a shift would ensure priorities important to Indigenous peoples are captured in policy and practice.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/etnología , Servicios de Salud del Indígena , Autonomía Personal , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud/etnología , Niño , Asistencia Sanitaria Culturalmente Competente , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Grupo de Ascendencia Oceánica , Embarazo
16.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 184, 2021 08 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391423

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors have been attributed to both structural and individual factors, but untangling the complex, dynamic pathways through which these factors influence inequalities requires more empirical research. This study examined whether and how two factors, material conditions and time orientation, sequentially impact socioeconomic inequalities in health behaviors. METHODS: Dutch adults 25 and older self-reported highest attained educational level, a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP); material conditions (financial strain, housing tenure, income); time orientation; health behaviors including smoking and sports participation; and health behavior-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI) and self-assessed health in three surveys (2004, 2011, 2014) of the longitudinal GLOBE (Dutch acronym for "Health and Living Conditions of the Population of Eindhoven and surroundings") study. Two hypothesized pathways were investigated during a ten-year time period using sequential mediation analysis, an approach that enabled correct temporal ordering and control for confounders such as baseline health behavior. RESULTS: Educational level was negatively associated with BMI, positively associated with sports participation and self-assessed health, and not associated with smoking in the mediation models. For smoking, sports participation, and self-assessed health, a pathway from educational level to the outcome mediated by time orientation followed by material conditions was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Time orientation followed by material conditions may play a role in determining socioeconomic inequalities in certain health behavior-related outcomes, providing empirical support for the interplay between structural and individual factors in socioeconomic inequalities in health behavior. Smoking may be determined by prior smoking behavior regardless of SEP, potentially due to its addictive nature. While intervening on time orientation in adulthood may be challenging, the results from this study suggest that policy interventions targeted at material conditions may be more effective in reducing socioeconomic inequalities in certain health behaviors when they account for time orientation.


Asunto(s)
Escolaridad , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Renta , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Análisis de Clases Latentes , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Países Bajos , Estudios Prospectivos , Condiciones Sociales , Factores Socioeconómicos
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(29): e26675, 2021 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398035

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Population aging and air pollution are global concerns. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship among particulate matter with a diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) knowledge, PM2.5 preventive attitude, and PM2.5 preventive behavioral intention in the elderly.A cross-sectional survey design was applied in this study, including usage intention and snowball sampling. A total of 617 elderly people aged over 65 participated, and the collected data were quantitatively analyzed.The results showed that the mean score of PM2.5 knowledge of the elderly was 10.34 (79.53%) with the standard deviation (SD) of 3.42, the mean score of PM2.5 preventive attitude was 4.58 (91.60%) with SD of 0.49, and the mean score of PM2.5 preventive behavioral intention was 4.72 (94.40%) with SD of 0.40. Elderly people's characteristics regarding PM2.5 knowledge and PM2.5 preventive attitude explained 22% (adjusted R2 = 0.22, F = 30.44, P < .001) of the variance in PM2.5 preventive behavioral intention.It is concluded that we found no difference in PM2.5 knowledge, PM2.5 preventive attitude, or PM2.5 preventive behavioral intention among the elderly with or without chronic diseases. In our opinion, health education regarding the threat of PM2.5 to the health of the elderly should be strengthened, to enhance their knowledge, preventive attitude, and preventive behavioral intention of PM2.5.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Material Particulado/análisis , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(9): 2605-2611, 2021 08 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348875

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To analyze lifestyle habits and weight evolution during the COVID-19 pandemic-associated lockdown, in diabetes and overweight/obesity patients (body mass index (BMI) [25-29.9] and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively). METHODS AND RESULTS: We collected information on participants' characteristics and behavior regarding lifestyle before and during the lockdown, through the CoviDIAB web application, which is available freely for people with diabetes in France. We stratified the cohort according to BMI (≥25 kg/m2vs < 25 kg/m2) and examined the determinants of weight loss (WL), WL > 1 kg vs no-WL) in participants with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, in both univariate and multivariate analyses. Of the 5280 participants (mean age, 52.5 years; men, 49%; diabetes, 100% by design), 69.5% were overweight or obese (mean BMI, 28.6 kg/m2 (6.1)). During the lockdown, patients often quit or decreased smoking; overweight/obese participants increased alcohol consumption less frequently as compared with normal BMI patients. In addition, overweight/obese patients were more likely to improve other healthy behaviors on a larger scale than patients with normal BMI: increased intake of fruits and vegetables, reduction of snacks intake, and reduction of total dietary intake. WL was observed in 18.9% of people with a BMI ≥25 kg/m2, whereas 28.6% of them gained weight. Lifestyle favorable changes characterized patients with WL. CONCLUSIONS: A significant proportion of overweight/obese patients with diabetes seized the opportunity of lockdown to improve their lifestyle and to lose weight. Identifying those people may help clinicians to personalize practical advice in the case of a recurrent lockdown.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/prevención & control , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Obesidad/terapia , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Pérdida de Peso , Adulto , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/transmisión , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Dieta Saludable , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Hábitos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Valor Nutritivo , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Obesidad/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Factores de Tiempo , Aumento de Peso
19.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256063, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383837

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic incited unprecedented restrictions on the behavior of society. The aims of this study were to quantify changes to sleep/wake behavior and exercise behavior, as well as changes in physiological markers of health during COVID-19 physical distancing. A retrospective analysis of 5,436 US-based subscribers to the WHOOP platform (mean age = 40.25 ± 11.33; 1,536 females, 3,900 males) was conducted covering the period from January 1st, 2020 through May 15th, 2020. This time period was separated into a 68-day baseline period and a 67-day physical distancing period. To provide context and allow for potential confounders (e.g., change of season), data were also extracted from the corresponding time periods in 2019. As compared to baseline, during physical distancing, all subjects fell asleep earlier (-0.15 hours), woke up later (0.29 hours), obtained more sleep (+0.21 hours) and reduced social jet lag (-0.13 hours). Contrasting sleep behavior was seen in 2019, with subjects falling asleep and waking up at a similar time (-0.01 hours; -0.03 hours), obtaining less sleep (-0.14 hours) and maintaining social jet lag (+0.06 hours) in corresponding periods. Individuals exercised more intensely during physical distancing by increasing the time spent in high heart rate zones. In 2020, resting heart rate decreased (-0.90 beats per minute) and heart rate variability increased (+0.98 milliseconds) during physical distancing when compared to baseline. However, similar changes were seen in 2019 for RHR (-0.51 beats per minute) and HRV (+2.97 milliseconds), suggesting the variation may not be related to the introduction of physical distancing mandates. The findings suggest that individuals improved health related behavior (i.e., increased exercise intensity and longer sleep duration) during physical distancing restrictions. While positive changes were seen to cardiovascular indicators of health, it is unclear whether these changes were a direct consequence of behavior change.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Distanciamiento Físico , Sueño/fisiología , Dispositivos Electrónicos Vestibles , Adulto , COVID-19 , Femenino , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos
20.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e047925, 2021 08 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34373303

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: We developed (a) a survey to investigate the knowledge of childhood health experts on public policies and behavioural insights (BI), as well as its use in Latin American and the Caribbean countries (LACs), and (b) an intervention (randomised controlled trial) to test the influence of nudges on the effect of a simulated public health programme communication. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A total of 2003 LACs childhood health professionals participated in the study through a Hispanic online platform. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOMES: We used regression models analysing expertise-related information, individual differences and location. We extracted several outcome variables related to (a) 'Public Policy Knowledge Index' based on the participants' degree of knowledge on childhood health public policies and (b) BI knowledge, perceived effectiveness and usefulness of a simulated public programme communication. We also analysed a 'Behavioural Insights Knowledge Index' (BIKI) based on participants' performance in BI questions. RESULTS: In general, health professionals showed low BI knowledge (knowledge of the term BI: χ2=210.29, df=1 and p<0.001; BIKI: χ2=160.5, df=1 and p<0.001), and results were modulated by different factors (age, academic formation, public policy knowledge and location). The use of BI principles for the communication of the public programme revealed higher impact and clarity ratings from professionals than control messages. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide relevant knowledge about BI in health professionals to inform governmental and non-governmental organisations' decision-making processes related with childhood public policies and BI designs.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Política Pública , Gobierno , Humanos , América Latina , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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