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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 40392, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094841

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir sobre a aplicação do construto da perspectiva temporal e os principais instrumentos de análise utilizados em estudos na área da saúde e da enfermagem. Conteúdo: a perspectiva temporal é uma das forças fundamentais na vida das pessoas e desempenha influência nos comportamentos, atitudes e decisões. Por ter forte influência nos comportamentos, o campo da saúde pode se beneficiar da sua aplicação. As dimensões temporais de passado, presente e futuro são usadas na codificação, armazenamento e recuperação de experiências vividas, inclusive de saúde e doença, fornecendo interpretações, estabelecendo metas e auxiliando a tomada de decisões. Conclusão: destaca-se a importância da influência da perspectiva temporal no comportamento relacionado à saúde, visto que a incorporação da avaliação da perspectiva temporal nas ações de cuidado à saúde também pode contribuir na prática da assistência, tanto para prevenção de comportamentos considerados prejudiciais, quanto para o desenvolvimento de comportamentos protetores para a saúde.


Objective: to discuss the application of the temporal perspective construct and the main analytical tools used in health and nursing studies. Content: the time perspective is one of the fundamental forces in people's lives and influences behavior, attitudes and decisions. Because it has a strong influence on behaviors, the field of health can be benefited with its application. The time dimensions of past, present and future are used in the codification, storage and retrieval of lived experiences, including health and illness, providing interpretations, setting goals and assisting in decision making. Conclusion: the importance of the time perspective's influence on health-related behavior is highlighted, since the incorporation of the temporal perspective evaluation into health care actions can also contribute to the practice of care, both for the prevention of behaviors considered harmful and for the development of protective behaviors for health. Descriptors: Time perception; health behavior; delivery of health care; nursing.


Objetivo: discutir la aplicación del construco de la perspectiva temporal y las principales herramientas analíticas utilizadas en los estudios de salud y enfermería. Contenido: la perspectiva del tiempo es una de las fuerzas fundamentales en la vida de las personas e influye en el comportamiento, las actitudes y las decisiones. Debido a que tiene una fuerte influencia en los comportamientos, el campo de la salud se puede beneficiar con su aplicación. Las dimensiones de tiempo del pasado, presente y futuro se utilizan en la codificación, almacenamiento y recuperación de experiencias vividas, incluida la salud y la enfermedad, proporcionando interpretaciones, estableciendo objetivos y ayudando en la toma de decisiones. Conclusión: se destaca la importancia de la influencia de la perspectiva del tiempo en el comportamiento relacionado con la salud, ya que la incorporación de la evaluación de la perspectiva temporal en las acciones de atención de la salud también puede contribuir a la práctica de la atención, tanto para la prevención de comportamientos considerados perjudiciales como para el desarrollo de comportamientos protectores para la salud.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Percepción del Tiempo , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Calidad de Vida , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Atención de Enfermería
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1483, 2020 Oct 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004011

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Behavioural science can play a critical role in combatting the effects of an infectious disease outbreak or public health emergency, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The current paper presents a synthesis of review literature discussing the application of behaviour change theories within an infectious disease and emergency response context, with a view to informing infectious disease modelling, research and public health practice. METHODS: A scoping review procedure was adopted for the searches. Searches were run on PubMed, PsychInfo and Medline with search terms covering four major categories: behaviour, emergency response (e.g., infectious disease, preparedness, mass emergency), theoretical models, and reviews. Three further top-up reviews was also conducted using Google Scholar. Papers were included if they presented a review of theoretical models as applied to understanding preventative health behaviours in the context of emergency preparedness and response, and/or infectious disease outbreaks. RESULTS: Thirteen papers were included in the final synthesis. Across the reviews, several theories of behaviour change were identified as more commonly cited within this context, specifically, Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour, and Protection Motivation Theory, with support (although not universal) for their effectiveness in this context. Furthermore, the application of these theories in previous primary research within this context was found to be patchy, and so further work is required to systematically incorporate and test behaviour change models within public health emergency research and interventions. CONCLUSION: Overall, this review identifies a range of more commonly applied theories with broad support for their use within an infectious disease and emergency response context. The Discussion section details several key recommendations to help researchers, practitioners, and infectious disease modellers to incorporate these theories into their work. Specifically, researchers and practitioners should base future research and practice on a systematic application of theories, beginning with those reported herein. Furthermore, infectious disease modellers should consult the theories reported herein to ensure that the full range of relevant constructs (cognitive, emotional and social) are incorporated into their models. In all cases, consultation with behavioural scientists throughout these processes is strongly recommended to ensure the appropriate application of theory.


Asunto(s)
Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Teoría Psicológica , Humanos , Literatura de Revisión como Asunto
5.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008059

RESUMEN

COVID-19 related restrictions aimed at curbing the spread of the coronavirus result in changes in daily routines and physical activity which can have a negative effect on eating and health habits. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients with diabetes and their nutrition and health behaviours. A survey conducted in July 2020 included 124 individuals with type 1 (n = 90) and 2 (n = 34) diabetes mellitus from Poland. To assess nutritional and health behaviours, an online questionnaire covering basic information, anthropometric data, and details regarding physical activity, eating, and hygiene habits was used. Almost 40% of all respondents with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) stated that their disease self-management had significantly improved. Over 60% of all participants declared that they had started eating more nutritious and regular meals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Enhanced hygiene, in particular, during the period, a statistically significant increase in hand sanitiser use was reported by respondents (18% vs. 82%, p < 0.001). The study demonstrated that the pandemic had a significant impact on the behaviour of patients with DM. Improved disease self-management and making healthy, informed food and hygiene choices were observed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Automanejo , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Ejercicio Físico , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Glob Heart ; 15(1): 58, 2020 08 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32923351

RESUMEN

Whilst current public health measures focused on good hygiene practices and limiting person-to-person transmission contribute effectively in managing the COVID-19 pandemic, they will not prevent all individuals from becoming infected. Thus, it is of importance to explore what individuals could do to mitigate adverse outcomes. The value of beneficial health behaviours and a healthy lifestyle to improve immune functioning and lower adverse consequences of COVID-19 are increasingly being emphasized. Here we discuss seven key health behaviours and corresponding recommendations that may assist in reducing unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estilo de Vida Saludable , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , Síndrome Metabólico/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Humanos , Pandemias , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
7.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1003-1006, 2020 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972218

RESUMEN

The significance of hand hygiene for preventing the transmission of microorganisms and reducing the spread of infection has been brought into sharp focus following the global coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. In the months since the initial outbreak, international public health campaigns and practitioner education has concentrated on hand washing and hand sanitising, with very little reference to hand drying, if any at all. However, hand drying is integral to effective hand hygiene, and is important in controlling the spread of microorganisms and maintaining healthy skin integrity. This research commentary will focus on two issues of importance with regards to hand drying: microbial transmission and skin irritation, with implications for healthcare practitioners and practice considered. It is argued that a more holistic approach to hand hygiene must be the ambition if health professional and public behaviour is to become embedded and sustained.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Higiene de las Manos/métodos , Higiene de las Manos/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Mano/virología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de la Piel
8.
Gesundheitswesen ; 82(S 03): S196-S206, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984943

RESUMEN

In this article, we present the Austrian data on physical activity, the societal costs and outcomes of physical inactivity, and the areas of influence to promote physical activity. Based on an analysis of the status quo and its consequences, suggestions on relevant measures to counter physical inactivity are made. While the proportion of Austrians that do not fulfill the current recommendations on physical activity is high, the Austrian population is physically more active than many populations of other countries. In Austria, major differences in physical activity are associated with demographic, socio-economic, and geographic factors. The economic burden related to physical inactivity is considerable, with regard to both societal costs and outcomes. This includes major health and social care costs, productivity losses (estimated at around 248 million Euro in 2017 in Austria), and life years lost due to premature death. Evidence-based areas of influence to increase physical activity include kindergartens and schools, the workplace, communities, cities, long-term care facilities, and nature.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Costos de la Atención en Salud , Promoción de la Salud , Conducta Sedentaria , Austria , Ejercicio Físico , Alemania , Humanos
9.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 14(8): 823-835, 2020 Aug 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903224

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The world is facing a formidable challenge to prevent the COVID-19 global outbreak, and health care systems are under pressure globally. The governments alone cannot prevent the spread of this pandemic without creating a sensitive public opinion and cooperation. Therefore, this study analyzed the knowledge, behavior, and precautionary measures taken by the general public to protect themselves from COVID-19 pandemic. METHODOLOGY: For this purpose, snowball sampling technique was used to collect data from 401 respondents through an online survey in the Punjab province of Pakistan. A Multivariate Probit Model was used to determine the factors affecting the choice of precautionary measures to avoid COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: Majority of the respondents (58.1%) belonged to urban areas in this study. The urban respondents had higher knowledge about Coronavirus disease as compared to rural respondents. Similarly, the hygienic behavior of urban respondents was better than rural respondents. But unavailability of hygienic material (mask and hand sanitizer) was the main problem faced by the general public. Public transportation was considered the most risk-prone place to COVID-19 by the respondents. Majority of the respondents perceived medium to highest risk from COVID-19, and it was found one of the most influential factors affecting the adoption of precautionary measures along with knowledge of this pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Government needs to start a comprehensive awareness campaign on social media along with the mainstream media create awareness about the importance of social distancing, washing hands and wearing masks among the general public to enhance knowledge and improve the behavior of the general public about COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Anciano , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Distancia Social
10.
Biomed Environ Sci ; 33(8): 639-645, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32933618

RESUMEN

An online survey conducted March 18-19, 2020 on the official China CDC WeChat account platform was used to evaluate the effect of public education about masks usage during the new coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic. Chinese nationals older than 18 were eligible for the survey. The survey collected 5,761 questionnaires from the 31 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions of mainland China. 99.7% and 97.2% of the respondents answered correctly that respiratory droplets and direct contact were the main transmission routes. 73.3% of the respondents considered COVID-19 to be 'serious' or 'very serious'. When going to the hospital, 96.9% (2,885/2,976 had gone to a hospital) used a mask during the COVID-19 epidemic, while 41.1% (2,367/5,761) did not use a mask before the epidemic. Among the respondents that used public transportation and went shopping, 99.6% and 99.4%, respectively, wore masks. Among respondents who returned to work, 75.5% wore a mask at the workplace, while 86.3% of those who have not returned to work will choose to use masks when they return to the workplace. The Chinese public is highly likely to use a mask during COVID-19 epidemic, and the mask usage changed greatly since the COVID-19 outbreak. Therefore, public education has played an important role during the COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Máscaras , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , China/epidemiología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Adulto Joven
11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 92, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901756

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence of self-reported exposure to chemical substances at work and its associated factors in a sample of Brazilian adults that participated in the National Health Survey, conducted between 2013 and 2014. METHODS: Our sample consisted of adults aged 18 years or older that answered question E1 of module E: "In the week of July 21-27, 2013 (reference week), did you work as regular employee or intern for at least an hour in any activity paid with cash?" Sociodemographic data, situation and health behaviors were analyzed with single and multivariate binary logistic regression. The model was adjusted by the variables of all groups, adopting a 5% significance level. The values of odds ratio (OR) and respective confidence intervals were obtained. RESULTS: Women (OR = 0.74; 95%CI 0.66-0.82) had a lower chance of exposure to chemicals. The highest chances were observed in groups with no instruction or that attended up to middle-school (OR = 1.77; 95%CI 1.50-2.08), high school (OR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.37-1.91), age between 25 and 54 years (OR = 1.26; 95%CI 1.07-1.48), current smokers (OR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.07-1.37), who reported tiredness (OR = 1.35; 95%CI 1.21-1.50), hearing difficulties (OR = 1.24; 95%CI 1.04-1.48) and who reported having suffered an accident at work (OR = 2.00; 95%CI 1.57-2.54). CONCLUSIONS: The unprecedented results cover the entire workforce. Positive associations with hearing loss, smoking and history of work accidents are consistent, as well as the inverse association with education level and gender differences. The absence of association with asthma was surprising. To fill gaps in investigations on chronic non-communicable diseases, we suggested improving the PNS collection instrument in the occupational dimension.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Salud Laboral/estadística & datos numéricos , Lugar de Trabajo , Adulto , Brasil , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Autoinforme
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238830, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32903286

RESUMEN

We sought to evaluate the adherence of Vietnamese adults to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) preventive measures, and gain insight into the effects of the epidemic on the daily lives of Vietnamese people. An online questionnaire was administered from March 31 to April 6, 2020. The questionnaire assessed personal preventive behavior (such as physical distancing, wearing a face mask, cough etiquette, regular handwashing and using an alcohol hand sanitizer, body temperature check, and disinfecting mobile phones) and community preventive behavior (such as avoiding meetings, large gatherings, going to the market, avoiding travel in a vehicle/bus with more than 10 persons, and not traveling outside of the local area during the lockdown). A total adherence score was calculated by summing the scores of the 9 personal and the 11 community prevention questions. In total, 2175 respondents completed the questionnaire; mean age: 31.4 ± 10.7; (range: 18-69); 66.9% were women; 54.2% were health professionals and 22.8% were medical students. The mean adherence scores for personal and community preventive measures were 7.23 ± 1.63 (range 1-9) and 9.57 ± 1.12 (range 1-11), respectively. Perceived adaptation of the community to lockdown (Beta (ß) = 2.64, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.25-4.03), fears/worries concerning one's health (ß = 2.87, 95% CI 0.04-5.70), residing in large cities (ß = 19.40, 95% CI 13.78-25.03), access to official COVID-19 information sources (ß = 16.45, 95% CI 6.82-26.08), and working in healthcare/medical students (ß = 22.53, 95% CI 16.00-29.07) were associated with a higher adherence score to anti-COVID instructions. In conclusion, this study confirmed a high degree of adherence to personal and community preventive behavior among Vietnamese people. Our findings are consistent with the epidemiology of COVID-19 in Vietnam, where there have been few infections and no recorded deaths up to the first week of July 2020.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Actividades Cotidianas , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Femenino , Adhesión a Directriz , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Máscaras , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Viaje , Vietnam , Adulto Joven
13.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis ; 15: 2127-2133, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982205

RESUMEN

Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an important, evidence-based treatment that improves outcomes for people with COPD. Individualized exercise programmes aim to improve exercise capacity; self-management education and psychological support are also provided. Translating increased exercise capacity into sustained behavioural change of increased physical activity is difficult. Other unresolved problems with PR programmes include improving uptake, completion, response and sustaining long-term benefit. We offer a different perspective drawn from clinical experience of PR, quantitative and qualitative studies of singing groups for people with COPD, and stroke rehabilitation research that gives psychological factors a more central role in determining outcomes after PR. We discuss Take Charge; a simple but effective psychological intervention promoting self-management--that could be used as part of a PR programme or in situations where PR was declined or unavailable. This may be particularly relevant now when traditional face-to-face group programmes have been disrupted by COVID-19 precautions.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Terapia por Ejercicio , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica , Investigación en Rehabilitación , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Terapia por Ejercicio/métodos , Terapia por Ejercicio/organización & administración , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Sistemas de Apoyo Psicosocial , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/psicología , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/rehabilitación , Proyectos de Investigación , Automanejo/métodos , Automanejo/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239961, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991611

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 pandemic led to major life changes. We assessed the psychological impact of COVID-19 on dental academics globally and on changes in their behaviors. METHODS: We invited dental academics to complete a cross-sectional, online survey from March to May 2020. The survey was based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The survey collected data on participants' stress levels (using the Impact of Event Scale), attitude (fears, and worries because of COVID-19 extracted by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), perceived control (resulting from training on public health emergencies), norms (country-level COVID-19 fatality rate), and personal and professional backgrounds. We used multilevel regression models to assess the association between the study outcome variables (frequent handwashing and avoidance of crowded places) and explanatory variables (stress, attitude, perceived control and norms). RESULTS: 1862 academics from 28 countries participated in the survey (response rate = 11.3%). Of those, 53.4% were female, 32.9% were <46 years old and 9.9% had severe stress. PCA extracted three main factors: fear of infection, worries because of professional responsibilities, and worries because of restricted mobility. These factors had significant dose-dependent association with stress and were significantly associated with more frequent handwashing by dental academics (B = 0.56, 0.33, and 0.34) and avoiding crowded places (B = 0.55, 0.30, and 0.28). Low country fatality rates were significantly associated with more handwashing (B = -2.82) and avoiding crowded places (B = -6.61). Training on public health emergencies was not significantly associated with behavior change (B = -0.01 and -0.11). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 had a considerable psychological impact on dental academics. There was a direct, dose-dependent association between change in behaviors and worries but no association between these changes and training on public health emergencies. More change in behaviors was associated with lower country COVID-19 fatality rates. Fears and stresses were associated with greater adoption of preventive measures against the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Docentes de Odontología/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Teoría Psicológica , Adulto , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Desinfección de las Manos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estrés Laboral/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Análisis de Componente Principal , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238684, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970716

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the Republic of Korea (ROK), social distancing and public behavior changes mitigated COVID-19 spread. However, a second wave of the epidemic is expected in the fall if neither vaccine nor antiviral drugs become available. This study investigated the impact of non-pharmaceutical measures on short- and long-term outbreak dynamics. METHODS: A mathematical model based on Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered model is developed considering isolated and behavior-changed groups. Using the least-squares fitting method, transmission and behavior change rates were estimated using cases reported from February 16 to April 20, 2020. FINDINGS: The estimated transmission rate of COVID-19 was 4·6180 and behavior change rate was 2·6044. The model predicted the number of new cases to continuously decrease, with less than one case expected after May 6, 2020. Concurrently, a 25% reduction in behavioral changes during the outbreak would increase the case count by 60,000, resulting in 4,000 cases at maximum, exceeding the medical system's capacity. As behavioral restrictions are eased, local transmission will likely increase, with forecasted second wave peak in October 2020. INTERPRETATION: Social distancing and public behavior changes have curbed the spread of COVID-19 in the ROK. Mathematical modeling demonstrates the importance of these measures in reducing and delaying outbreaks. Nevertheless, non-pharmaceutical interventions cannot eliminate the disease. In the future, vaccines and antiviral treatments combined with social distancing and public behavior changes will be paramount to ending COVID-19 epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Aislamiento Social , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Predicción , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , República de Corea/epidemiología
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977571

RESUMEN

The declaration of the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in drastic changes to life worldwide. In Spain, the state of alarm caused the confinement of 47 million inhabitants, affecting every aspect of life. This study analyzes the impact of such confinement on the health of men and women, as well as the effect on the practice of physical activity (PA) of both genders. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered. A total of 1046 people (48.57% men and 51.43% women) with an average age of 40 years (SD ± 13.35) participated in this study. For both genders, there was a significant decrease in quantity and intensity (p = 0.000). There was also an alteration in the type of PA practiced, shifting from cardiorespiratory exercise and muscular fitness to flexibility and neuromotor exercise (especially in women). The most popular way of practicing PA during the confinement was "autonomously" (statistically higher in men (M = 3.58) compared to women (M = 3.18)) and the most frequent format was "virtual" (statistically higher in women (M = 2.81) compared to men (M = 1.94)). Confinement modifies the habits of PA practice, especially in men. Both genders put their health and quality of life at risk by not following the PA guidelines of the health authorities World Health Organization (WHO) and American College of Sports Medicine ACSM). These conclusions highlight the importance of considering gender when designing programs and PA formats for the promotion of physical activity to reduce the existing gender divide.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Cuarentena/psicología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977538

RESUMEN

COVID-19 presents unprecedented challenges to the global public health response. Preventive behaviors and keeping social distance are regarded as compelling ways to prevent COVID-19. This study focused on the sociological and psychological factors associated with proper and excessive preventive behaviors of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. For the sample, we collected the data of 4788 participants who were surveyed between 4 April and 15 April 2020 from eight provinces in China. This study designed a self-filled questionnaire that included demographic information, six components of the Health Belief Model, and target preventive behaviors. Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test, logistic regression analysis, Mantel-Haenszel hierarchical analysis, and propensity score matching were employed in this study. The results showed that 54.7% of the participants had adequate basic prevention, 63.6% of the participants had adequate advanced prevention, and 5.8% of the participants practiced excessive prevention. The elder participants were less likely to engage in proper preventive behaviors. Perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, cues to action, and knowledge levels were associated with preventive behaviors. Excessive preventive behaviors in high-risk groups with suspected symptoms were associated with their extreme psychological condition, while the support from the community and family plays an important role in avoiding these behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena/psicología , Anciano , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
18.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1810415, 2020 12 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867606

RESUMEN

At the time of writing, it is unclear how the COVID-19 pandemic will play out in rapidly urbanising regions of the world. In these regions, the realities of large overcrowded informal settlements, a high burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases, as well as malnutrition and precarity of livelihoods, have raised added concerns about the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in these contexts. COVID-19 infection control measures have been shown to have some effects in slowing down the progress of the pandemic, effectively buying time to prepare the healthcare system. However, there has been less of a focus on the indirect impacts of these measures on health behaviours and the consequent health risks, particularly in the most vulnerable. In this current debate piece, focusing on two of the four risk factors that contribute to >80% of the NCD burden, we consider the possible ways that the restrictions put in place to control the pandemic, have the potential to impact on dietary and physical activity behaviours and their determinants. By considering mitigation responses implemented by governments in several LMIC cities, we identify key lessons that highlight the potential of economic, political, food and built environment sectors, mobilised during the pandemic, to retain health as a priority beyond the context of pandemic response. Such whole-of society approaches are feasible and necessary to support equitable healthy eating and active living required to address other epidemics and to lower the baseline need for healthcare in the long term.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Población Urbana , Urbanización , Betacoronavirus , Entorno Construido , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 546-556, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970542

RESUMEN

With the COVID-19 pandemic threatening millions of lives around the world with no clear promises for treatment or vaccine yet, motivating the public to change their behaviors to prevent the spread of the disease becomes crucial and moral imperative. The current study investigated the associations between self-reported intentions to perform protective behaviors against COVID-19, the seven constructs of the Protection Motivation Theory PMT, trust in government, and sociodemographic factors within the general population in Kuwait. A cross-sectional design was adapted to explore the associations between study factors in a nonprobability voluntary response sample of 679 participants who completed an online public survey. Results indicate that the scores of trust in government and the severity, vulnerability, response efficacy, and self-efficacy subconstructs of the PMT were positively related to protective behavior intention, whereas intrinsic and extrinsic reward and response cost subconstructs were negatively associated with protective behavior intention. The results were discussed considering previous literature and future applications.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Motivación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Confianza , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Gobierno , Humanos , Kuwait/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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