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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252555, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364519

RESUMEN

The study was designed to investigate the effect of Coconut Oil on the levels of some liver and hematological parameters in carbon tetrachloride intoxicated rabbits. Also the antioxidant capacity of Coconut Oil for various concentrations was assessed on the basis of percent scavenging of (DPPH) free radical. Experimental animals were divided into five groups, eight rabbits in each group. These were: group A (Normal control), group B (Toxic control), group C (Standard control), group D (Treated with Coconut Oil 50 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication), group E (Treated with Coconut Oil 200 mL/kg body weight after CCl4 intoxication). The effects observed were compared with a standard hepatoprotective drug silymarine (50 mL/kg body weight). The Coconut Oil (200 mL/kg body weight) significantly (P<0.05) reduced the elevated serum levels of alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) when compared to a toxic control rabbits. The results of extract treated rabbits were similar to silymarine administered rabbits group. Treatment with Coconut Oil root and silymarine caused no significant changes in RBC, Platelets, (Hb), (MCH) concentration and (HCT) values. However, significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the total WBC count. The present study suggested that Coconut Oil can be used as an herbal alternative (need further exploration i.e to detect its bioactive compound and its efficacy) for hepatoprotective activit.


O estudo foi desenhado para investigar o efeito do óleo de coco nos níveis de alguns parâmetros hepáticos e hematológicos em coelhos intoxicados com tetracloreto de carbono. Também a capacidade antioxidante do óleo de coco para várias concentrações foi avaliada com base na porcentagem de eliminação de radicais livres (DPPH). Os animais experimentais foram divididos em cinco grupos, oito coelhos em cada grupo. Estes foram: grupo A (controle normal), grupo B (controle tóxico), grupo C (controle padrão), grupo D (tratado com óleo de coco 50 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4), grupo E (tratado com óleo de coco 200 mL/kg de peso corporal após intoxicação por CCl4). Os efeitos observados foram comparados com um fármaco hepatoprotetor padrão silimarina (50 mL/kg de peso corporal). O óleo de coco (200 mL/kg de peso corporal) reduziu significativamente (P<0,05) os níveis séricos elevados de alanina transaminase (ALT), aspartato transaminase (AST) e fosfatase alcalina (ALP), quando comparado a um coelho controle tóxico. Os resultados dos coelhos tratados com extrato foram semelhantes aos do grupo de coelhos administrados com silimarina. O tratamento com raiz de óleo de coco e silimarina não causou alterações significativas nos valores de RBC, Plaquetas, (Hb), (MCH) e (HCT). No entanto, observou-se aumento significativo (P<0,05) na contagem total de leucócitos. O presente estudo sugeriu que o óleo de coco pode ser usado como uma alternativa fitoterápica (precisa de mais exploração, ou seja, para detectar seu composto bioativo e sua eficácia) para atividade hepatoprotetora.


Asunto(s)
Conejos , Tetracloruro de Carbono , Aceite de Palma , Biomarcadores/sangre , Hígado
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e252575, 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355869

RESUMEN

Abstract Increased anxiety and depressive symptoms have reported to be its association with long term illness. Because of having unwanted effects of newly available drugs, patients administering anxiolytic drugs usually discontinue the treatment before they are completely recovered. Therefore, there is a serious need to develop new anxiolytic drugs. The anxiolytic effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei in animal models was assessed. 24 male mice (Mus musculus genus) were included in the study. Four groups were prepared and each group contained six animals. The groups were vehicle control, positive control (diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) as well as two treatment groups receiving Agaricus blazei hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.50 mg/kg and 273.0 mg/kg orally. The Marble burying test, Nestlet shredding test and Light and Dark box test used to assess anxiolytic activity. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. while hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) was administered via oral route which exhibited marked reduction in number of marbles-burying as compared to vehicle control group. Mice administered with diazepam 1.0 mg/kg, i.p. and Oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of AbM (136.50 and 273.0 mg/kg, respectively) exhibited significant decrease in nestlet shredding in comparison to vehicle control group. The oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract at a dose of 136.5mg/kg and 273mg/kg showed elevation in time spent in light box and was comparable to standard treated group while time spent by mice following oral administration of hydro-alcoholic extract of Agaricus blazei at a dose of 273.0 mg/kg also showed elevation and was found to be more near to standard treated group (diazepam 1 mg/kg, i.p.).


Resumo O aumento da ansiedade e dos sintomas depressivos têm relatado sua associação com doenças de longa duração. Por causa dos efeitos indesejáveis dos novos medicamentos disponíveis, os pacientes que administram medicamentos ansiolíticos geralmente interrompem o tratamento antes de estarem completamente recuperados. Portanto, há uma necessidade séria de desenvolver novos medicamentos ansiolíticos. Foi avaliado o efeito ansiolítico do extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei em modelos animais. Vinte e quatro camundongos machos (gênero Mus musculus) foram incluídos no estudo. Quatro grupos foram preparados, e cada grupo continha seis animais. Os grupos foram controle de veículo, controle positivo (diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p.), bem como dois grupos de tratamento recebendo extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 136,50 mg/kg e 273,0 mg/kg por via oral. O teste de enterrar Marble, o teste de retalhamento Nestlet e o teste de caixa clara e escura são usados ​​para avaliar a atividade ansiolítica. Camundongos foram administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p., enquanto o extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) foi administrado por via oral, que exibiu redução acentuada no número de mármores enterrados em comparação com o grupo de controle de veículo. Camundongos administrados com diazepam 1,0 mg/kg, i.p. e a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de AbM (136,50 e 273,0 mg/kg, respectivamente) exibiu diminuição significativa na trituração de ninhos em comparação ao grupo de controle de veículo. A administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico na dose de 136,5mg/kg e 273mg/kg mostrou elevação no tempo gasto na caixa de luz e foi comparável ao grupo tratado padrão, enquanto o tempo gasto por camundongos após a administração oral de extrato hidroalcoólico de Agaricus blazei na dose de 273,0 mg/kg também mostrou elevação e foi mais próximo do grupo tratado padrão (diazepam 1 mg/kg, ip).


Asunto(s)
Animales , Masculino , Conejos , Agaricus , Conducta Exploratoria , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251289, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355889

RESUMEN

Abstract The present research was made to determine the micronuclei and cytotoxic capacity of the antidepressant venlafaxine in an in vivo acute and subchronic assays in mouse. In the first study, we administered once 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg of the drug, and included a negative and a daunorubicin treated group. Observations were daily made during four days. The subchronic assay lasted 5 weeks with daily administration of venlafaxine (1, 5, and 10 mg/kg) plus a negative and an imipramine administered groups. Observations were made each week. In the first assay results showed no micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPE) increase, except with the high dose at 72 h. The strongest cytotoxic effect was found with 250 mg/kg at 72 h (a 51% cytotoxic effect in comparison with the mean control level). In the subchronic assay no MNPE increase was found; however, with the highest dose a significant increase of micronucleated normochromatic erythrocytes was observed in the last three weeks (a mean of 51% respect to the mean control value). A cytotoxic effect with the two high doses in the last two weeks was observed (a polychromatic erythrocyte mean decrease of 52% respect to the mean control value). Results suggest caution with venlafaxine.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi feita para determinar a capacidade micronuclei e citotóxica do antidepressivo venlafaxina em ensaios agudos e subcrônicos in vivo em camundongos. No primeiro estudo, administramos uma vez 5, 50 e 250 mg/kg do medicamento e incluímos um grupo negativo e um grupo tratado com daunorubicina. As observações foram feitas diariamente durante quatro dias. O ensaio subcrônico durou cinco semanas com administração diária de venlafaxina (1, 5, e 10 mg/kg) mais um grupo negativo e um grupo administrado de imipramina. As observações foram feitas a cada semana. No primeiro ensaio, os resultados não mostraram aumento de eritrócitos policromáticos micronucleados (MNPE), exceto com a dose elevada a 72 h. O efeito citotóxico mais forte foi encontrado com 250 mg/kg a 72 h (um efeito citotóxico de 51% em comparação com o nível médio de controle). No ensaio subcrônico não foi encontrado aumento de MNPE; entretanto, com a dose mais alta, um aumento significativo de eritrócitos normocromáticos micronucleados foi observado nas últimas três semanas (média de 51% em relação ao valor médio de controle). Foi observado um efeito citotóxico com as duas altas doses nas últimas duas semanas (uma diminuição média de 52% em relação ao valor médio de controle dos eritrócitos policromáticos). Os resultados sugerem cautela com a venlafaxina.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Conejos , Daño del ADN , Antineoplásicos , Pruebas de Micronúcleos , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Eritrocitos , Clorhidrato de Venlafaxina/toxicidad
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251219, 2023. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345535

RESUMEN

Abstract The most common form of psycho-social dysfunction is anxiety with depression being related closely without any age bar. They are present with combined state of sadness, confusion, stress, fear etc. Glyoxalase system contains enzyme named glyoxalase 1 (GLO1).It is a metabolic pathway which detoxifies alpha-oxo-aldehydes, particularly methylglyoxal (MG). Methylglyoxal is mainly made by the breakdown of the glycolytic intermediates, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphates and dihydroxyacetone phosphate. Glyoxylase-1 expression is also related with anxiety behavior. A casual role or GLO-1 in anxiety behavior by using viral vectors for over expression in the anterior cingulate cortex was found and it was found that local GLO-1 over expression increased anxiety behavior. The present study deals with the molecular mechanism of protective activity of eugenol against anxiolytic disorder. A pre-clinical animal study was performed on 42 BALB/c mice. Animals were given stress through conventional restrain model. The mRNA expression of GLO-1 was analyzed by real time RT-PCR. Moreover, the GLO-1 protein expression was also examined by immunohistochemistry in whole brain and mean density was calculated. The mRNA and protein expressions were found to be increased in animals given anxiety as compared to the normal control. Whereas, the expressions were decreased in the animals treated with eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers in a dose dependent manner. However, the results were better in animals treated with nanocarriers as compared to the compound alone. It is concluded that the eugenol and its liposome-based nanocarriers exert anxiolytic activity by down-regulating GLO-1 protein expression in mice.


Resumo A forma mais comum de disfunção psicossocial é a ansiedade intimamente relacionada com a depressão, sem qualquer barreira de idade. Elas estão presentes em um estado combinado de tristeza, confusão, estresse, medo etc. O sistema de glioxalase contém uma enzima chamada glioxalase 1 (GLO1). É uma via metabólica que desintoxica alfa-oxo-aldeídos, particularmente metilglioxal (MG). O metilglioxal é produzido principalmente pela quebra dos intermediários glicolíticos, gliceraldeído-3-fosfatos e fosfato de diidroxiacetona. A expressão da glioxalase 1 também está relacionada ao comportamento de ansiedade. Um papel casual ou GLO1 no comportamento de ansiedade usando vetores virais para superexpressão no córtex cingulado anterior foi encontrado e descobriu-se que a superexpressão local de GLO1 aumentava o comportamento de ansiedade. O presente estudo trata do mecanismo molecular da atividade protetora do eugenol contra o transtorno ansiolítico. Um estudo pré-clínico em animais foi realizado em 42 camundongos BALB / c. Os animais foram submetidos ao estresse por meio do modelo de contenção convencional. A expressão de mRNA de GLO1 foi analisada por RT-PCR em tempo real. Além disso, a expressão da proteína GLO1 também foi examinada por imuno-histoquímica em todo o cérebro e a densidade média foi calculada. Verificou-se que as expressões de mRNA e proteínas estavam aumentadas em animais que receberam ansiedade em comparação com o controle normal. Considerando que as expressões foram diminuídas nos animais tratados com eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas de forma dependente da dose. No entanto, os resultados foram melhores em animais tratados com nanocarreadores em comparação com o composto sozinho. Conclui-se que o eugenol e seus nanocarreadores baseados em lipossomas exercem atividade ansiolítica por regulação negativa da expressão da proteína GLO1 em camundongos.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Conejos , Eugenol/uso terapéutico , Eugenol/farmacología , Lactoilglutatión Liasa/antagonistas & inhibidores , Ansiedad/tratamiento farmacológico , Liposomas , Ratones Endogámicos BALB C
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242818, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285628

RESUMEN

Abstract The study was aimed to assess impact of high fat diet (HFD) and synthetic human gut microbiota (GM) combined with HFD and chow diet (CD) in inducing type-2 diabetes (T2D) using mice model. To our knowledge, this is the first study using selected human GM transplantation via culture based method coupled dietary modulation in mice for in vivo establishment of inflammation leading to T2D and gut dysbiosis. Twenty bacteria (T2D1-T2D20) from stool samples of confirmed T2D subjects were found to be morphologically different and subjected to purification on different media both aerobically and anerobically, which revealed seven bacteria more common among 20 isolates on the basis of biochemical characterization. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, these seven isolates were identified as Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenes (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). The seven isolates were subsequently used as synthetic gut microbiome (GM) for their role in inducing T2D in mice. Inbred strains of albino mice were divided into four groups and were fed with CD, HFD, GM+HFD and GM+CD. Mice receiving HFD and GM+modified diet (CD/HFD) showed highly significant (P<0.05) increase in weight and blood glucose concentration as well as elevated level of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, and MCP-1) compared to mice receiving CD only. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 11 fecal bacteria obtained from three randomly selected animals from each group revealed gut dysbiosis in animals receiving GM. Bacterial strains including Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) and Lactobacillus gasseri (MT152635) were isolated from mice treated with GM+modified diet (HFD/CD) compared to strains Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629) which were isolated from mice receiving CD/HFD. In conclusion, these findings suggest that constitution of GM and diet plays significant role in inflammation leading to onset or/and possibly progression of T2D. .


Resumo O estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da dieta rica em gordura (HFD) e da microbiota intestinal humana sintética (GM) combinada com HFD e dieta alimentar (CD) na indução de diabetes tipo 2 (T2D) usando modelo de camundongos. Para nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo usando transplante de GM humano selecionado através do método baseado em cultura acoplada à modulação dietética em camundongos para o estabelecimento in vivo de inflamação que leva a T2D e disbiose intestinal. Vinte bactérias (T2D1-T2D20) de amostras de fezes de indivíduos T2D confirmados verificaram ser morfologicamente diferentes e foram submetidas à purificação em meios diferentes aerobicamente e anaerobicamente, o que revelou sete bactérias mais comuns entre 20 isolados com base na caracterização bioquímica. Com base no sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA, esses sete isolados foram identificados como Bacteroides stercoris (MT152636), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152637), Lactobacillus salivarius (MT152638), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152639), Klebsiella aerogenides (MT152640), Bacteroides fragilis (MT152909), Clostridium botulinum (MT152910). Esses sete isolados foram, posteriormente, usados ​​como microbioma intestinal sintético (GM) por seu papel na indução de T2D em camundongos. Linhagens consanguíneas de camundongos albinos foram divididas em quatro grupos e foram alimentadas com CD, HFD, GM + HFD e GM + CD. Camundongos que receberam a dieta modificada com HFD e GM + (CD / HFD) mostraram um aumento altamente significativo (P < 0,05) no peso e na concentração de glicose no sangue, bem como um nível elevado de citocinas inflamatórias (TNF-α, IL-6 e MCP-1) em comparação com os ratos que receberam apenas CD. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA de 11 bactérias fecais obtidas de três animais selecionados aleatoriamente de cada grupo revelou disbiose intestinal em animais que receberam GM. Cepas bacterianas, incluindo Bacteroides gallinarum (MT152630), Ruminococcus bromii (MT152631), Lactobacillus acidophilus (MT152632), Parabacteroides gordonii (MT152633), Prevotella copri (MT152634) e Lactobacillus Gasseri (MT152635D), foram tratadas com dieta modificada / CD) em comparação com as linhagens Akkermansia muciniphila (MT152625), Bacteriodes sp. (MT152626), Bacteroides faecis (MT152627), Bacteroides vulgatus (MT152628), Lactobacillus plantarum (MT152629), que foram isoladas de camundongos recebendo CD / HFD. Em conclusão, esses resultados sugerem que a constituição de GM e dieta desempenham papel significativo na inflamação levando ao início ou/e possivelmente à progressão de T2D.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Conejos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Bacteroides , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Prevotella , Bacteroidetes , Ruminococcus , Dieta Alta en Grasa/efectos adversos , Disbiosis , Inflamación , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244551, 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285626

RESUMEN

Abstract Origanum vulgare has been of great interest in academia and pharma industry due to its antioxidant, antifungal and antitumor properties. The present study aimed to find the anti-MRSA potential and in vivo toxicity assessments of O. vulgare. O. vulgare extract was used to monitor anti-MRSA activity in mice. Following MRSA established infection in mice (Mus musculus), treatment with O. vulgare was continued for 7 days. Autopsies were performed and re-isolation, gross lesion scoring and bacterial load in various organs were measured. Additionally, blood sample was analysed for hematological assays. Toxicity assessment of O. vulgare potential as medicine was done at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg by evaluating liver and kidney functions. Bacterial load and gross lesion in lungs and heart were significantly low compared to positive control following O. vulgare treatment. Likewise, O. vulgare treated groups had hematological, neutrophil and TLC values similar to control groups. Increased AST, ALP and total bilirubin alongwith marked hepatocellular degeneration and distortion around the central vein, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cytoplasmic vacuolization of hepatic cells was observed at higher dose. It is concluded that crude extract of O. vulgare may contain beneficial secondary metabolites and in future may be explored for curing infectious diseases.


Resumo Origanum vulgare tem despertado grande interesse na academia e na indústria farmacêutica devido às suas propriedades antioxidantes, antifúngicas e antitumorais. O presente estudo teve como objetivo encontrar o potencial anti-MRSA e avaliações de toxicidade in vivo de O. vulgare. O extrato de O. vulgare foi usado para monitorar a atividade anti-MRSA em camundongos. Após infecção estabelecida por MRSA em camundongos (Mus musculus), o tratamento com O. vulgare foi continuado por 7 dias. As autópsias foram realizadas e o reisolamento, pontuação das lesões grosseiras e carga bacteriana em vários órgãos foram medidos. Além disso, a amostra de sangue foi analisada para ensaios hematológicos. A avaliação da toxicidade do potencial de O. vulgare como medicamento foi feita com 200 mg / kg e 400 mg / kg, avaliando as funções hepática e renal. A carga bacteriana e as lesões graves nos pulmões e no coração foram significativamente baixas em comparação com o controle positivo após o tratamento com O. vulgare. Da mesma forma, os grupos tratados com O. vulgare apresentaram valores hematológicos, de neutrófilos e de TLC semelhantes aos grupos de controle. Aumento de AST, ALP e bilirrubina total juntamente com degeneração hepatocelular marcada e distorção ao redor da veia central, infiltração de células inflamatórias e vacuolização citoplasmática de células hepáticas foram observados em doses mais altas. Conclui-se que o extrato bruto de O. vulgare pode conter metabólitos secundários benéficos e, no futuro, pode ser explorado para a cura de doenças infecciosas.


Asunto(s)
Animales , Conejos , Aceites Volátiles , Origanum , Antiinfecciosos/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/toxicidad , Hígado , Antioxidantes
7.
J Virol Methods ; 311: 114639, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36309206

RESUMEN

The titer of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) has been determined by conventional neutralization assay based on the observation of cytopathic effect (CPE) and plaque formation in cultured cells. However, this method requires several days for the determination and can be affected by operator bias. To develop a rapid and high-throughput neutralization assay against VHSV, we rescued a surrogate chimeric snakehead rhabdovirus, rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP, which has the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) gene between N and P genes and has VHSV G gene instead of SHRV G gene in the genome. The efficacy of rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP to determine serum neutralization activity was evaluated using various serum samples derived from New Zealand white rabbits and olive flounder (Paralichthys oliavaceus). Although neutralization titers analyzed using rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP were similar to the titers measured using rVHSV-A-eGFP, the time needed for the determination of neutralization titer was much shortened (24 h for rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP and 48 h for rVHSV-A-eGFP), proving the usefulness of rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP for the neutralization assay against VHSV. In addition, as the neutralization activities using rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP could be well-observed without adding fresh serum as a complement source, no preparation is required for the optimization of control fresh serum from naïve fish. The present results suggest that the rapid neutralization assay using rSHRV-Gvhsv-eGFP can be used to investigate neutralization activities against VHSV.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Peces , Lenguado , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral , Novirhabdovirus , Rhabdoviridae , Animales , Conejos , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/diagnóstico , Septicemia Hemorrágica Viral/prevención & control , Rhabdoviridae/genética , Novirhabdovirus/genética , Glicoproteínas , Enfermedades de los Peces/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de los Peces/prevención & control
8.
J Proteomics ; 270: 104734, 2023 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36174951

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A considerable body of clinical evidence suggests that systemic dehydration can negatively affect voice production, leading to the common recommendation to rehydrate. Evidence for the corrective benefits of rehydration, however, is limited with mixed conclusions, and biological data on the underlying tissue changes with rehydration is lacking. In this study, we used a rabbit model (n = 24) of acute (5 days) water restriction-induced systemic dehydration with subsequent rehydration (3 days) to explore the protein-level changes underlying the molecular transition from euhydration to dehydration and following rehydration using LC-MS/MS protein quantification in the vocal folds. We show that 5-day water restriction led to an average 4.3% decrease in body weight with relative increases in anion gap, Cl-, creatinine, Na+, and relative decreases in BUN, iCa2+, K+, and tCO2 compared to control (euhydrated) animals. A total of 309 differentially regulated (p < 0.05) proteins were identified between the Control and Dehydration groups. We observed a noteworthy similarity between the Dehydration and Rehydration groups, both well differentiated from the Control group, highlighting the distinct timelines of resolution of the clinical symptoms of systemic dehydration and the underlying molecular changes. SIGNIFICANCE: Voice disorders are a ubiquitous problem with considerable economic and psychological impact. Maintenance of proper hydration is commonly prescribed as a general vocal hygiene practice. There is evidence that dehydration negatively impacts phonation, but our understanding of the state of vocal folds in the context of systemic dehydration are limited, particular from a molecular perspective. Further, ours is a novel molecular study of the short-term impact of rehydration on the tissue. Given the relatively minimal difference in vocal fold proteomic profiles between the Dehydration and Rehydration groups, our data demonstrate a complex physiological response to acute systemic dehydration, and highlight the importance of considering persistent underlying molecular pathology despite the rapid resolution of clinical measures. This study sets a foundation for future research to confirm the nature of potential beneficial outcomes of clinical recommendations related to hydration.


Asunto(s)
Deshidratación , Pliegues Vocales , Animales , Conejos , Pliegues Vocales/metabolismo , Deshidratación/metabolismo , Proteómica , Cromatografía Liquida , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Fluidoterapia , Agua/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 398: 133876, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35969990

RESUMEN

Terasi is a fermented shrimp paste in Indonesia. We examined the effect of the Terasi manufacturing process on the abundance of the allergen tropomyosin (TM) and its IgG/IgE-binding ability. Terasi was produced from three shrimps, Akiami (Acetes japonicus), Okiami (Euphausia pacifica), and Isazaami (Neomysis awatchensis). Protein degradation and TM IgE-binding activity were examined by immunoblotting using anti-TM rabbit IgG and competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using shrimp-allergic patients' sera. The processing caused TM degradation, and the IgG-specific response in Akiami meat disappeared at the second fermentation step but remained in both Okiami and Isazaami Terasi. In contrast, TM IgE-binding in all meats decreased gradually during manufacturing and nearly completely disappeared in Akiami Terasi. Conclusively, Terasi production is an effective manufacturing process to reduce the IgE-binding ability of TM, and Terasi can be recognized as a low allergenic seafood when produced under an appropriate manufacturing condition.


Asunto(s)
Decápodos , Alimentos Fermentados , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Penaeidae , Alérgenos/metabolismo , Animales , Crustáceos/metabolismo , Decápodos/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina E/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Indonesia , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Conejos , Alimentos Marinos , Tropomiosina/metabolismo
10.
Magn Reson Med ; 89(1): 331-342, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36110062

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To assess the ability of MRI-DTI to evaluate growth plate morphology and activity compared with that of histomorphometry and micro-CT in rabbits. METHODS: The hind limbs of female rabbits aged 16, 20, and 24 wk (n = 4 per age group) were studied using a 9.4T MRI scanner with a multi-gradient echo 3D sequence and DTI in 14 directions (b-value = 984 s/mm2 ). After MRI, the right and left hind limb were processed for histological analysis and micro-CT, respectively. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to evaluate the height and volume of the growth plate. Intraclass correlation and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the association between DTI metrics and age. RESULTS: The growth plate height and volume were similar for all modalities at each time point and age. Age was correlated with all tractography and DTI metrics in both the femur and tibia. A correlation was also observed between all the metrics at both sites. Tract number and volume declined with age; however, tract length did not show any changes. The fractional anisotropy color map showed lateral diffusion centrally in the growth plate and perpendicular diffusion in the hypertrophic zone, as verified by histology and micro-CT. CONCLUSION: MRI-DTI may be useful for evaluating the growth plates.


Asunto(s)
Imagen de Difusión Tensora , Placa de Crecimiento , Animales , Conejos , Femenino , Imagen de Difusión Tensora/métodos , Placa de Crecimiento/diagnóstico por imagen , Anisotropía , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética , Imagen de Difusión por Resonancia Magnética/métodos
11.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 26(1): 201-227, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402482

RESUMEN

Rabbits occupy facets of veterinary medicine spanning from companion mammals, wildlife medicine, zoologic species, and research models. Therefore, analgesia is required for a variety of conditions in rabbits and is a critical component of patient care. Considerations when selecting an analgesic protocol in rabbits include timing of administration, route of administration, degree or anticipated pain, ability to access or use controlled drugs, systemic health, and any potential side effects. This review focuses on pharmacologic and locoregional management of pain in rabbits and emphasizes the need for further studies on pain management in this species.


Asunto(s)
Analgesia , Dolor , Conejos , Animales , Dolor/veterinaria , Dolor/tratamiento farmacológico , Analgésicos/uso terapéutico , Analgesia/veterinaria , Manejo del Dolor/veterinaria , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Mamíferos
12.
Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract ; 26(1): 187-199, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402481

RESUMEN

Rabbits typically undergo at least one painful procedure during their lifetime and appropriate methods of assessment are essential to reduce or alleviate pain. Various methods of assessing pain in rabbits have been investigated, with the validity of spontaneous behavior and grimace scale scoring being the most studied to date. Assessment of pain is challenging, compounded by rabbits being a prey species that display freezing behavior in the presence of unfamiliar caregivers. Here we discuss some key changes in rabbits that can be used in the assessment of pain and provide some practical suggestions to ensure that the assessment can be carried out effectively.


Asunto(s)
Dolor , Conejos , Animales , Dimensión del Dolor/veterinaria , Dolor/prevención & control , Dolor/veterinaria
13.
Anal Biochem ; 660: 114929, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36270332

RESUMEN

Detection and quantification of antibodies, especially immunoglobulin G (IgG), is a cornerstone of ELISAs, many diagnostics, and the development of antibody-based drugs. Current state-of-the-art immunoassay techniques for antibody detection require species-specific secondary antibodies and carefully-controlled bioconjugations. Poor conjugation efficiency degrades assay performance and increases the risk of clinical false positives due to non-specific binding. We developed a generic, highly-sensitive platform for IgG quantification by fusing the IgG-Fc binding Z domain of Staphylococcal Protein A with the ultrabright bioluminescence reporter Nanoluc-luciferase (Nluc). We demonstrated the application of this fusion protein in a sandwich IgG detection immunoassay using surface-bound antigens to capture target IgG and protein A-Nanoluc fusion as the detector. We optimized the platform's sensitivity by incorporating multiple repeats of the Z domain into the fusion protein constructs. Using rabbit and mouse anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein IgGs as model analytes, we performed ELISAs in two different formats, either with SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein as the capture antigen or with polyclonal chicken IgY as the capture antibody. Using standard laboratory equipment, the platform enabled the quantitation of antibody analytes at concentrations as low as 10 pg/mL (67 fM).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , Ratones , Conejos , Animales , Proteína Estafilocócica A , SARS-CoV-2 , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Nucleoproteínas , Sensibilidad y Especificidad
14.
J Gen Physiol ; 155(1)2023 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36383232

RESUMEN

Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs) have been used to screen and characterize drugs and to reveal mechanisms underlying cardiac diseases. However, before hiPSC-CMs can be used as a reliable experimental model, the physiological mechanisms underlying their normal function should be further explored. Accordingly, a major feature of hiPSC-CMs is automaticity, which is regulated by both Ca2+ and membrane clocks. To investigate the mechanisms coupling these clocks, we tested three hypotheses: (1) normal automaticity of spontaneously beating hiPSC-CMs is regulated by local Ca2+ releases (LCRs) and cAMP/PKA-dependent coupling of Ca2+ clock to M clock; (2) the LCR period indicates the level of crosstalk within the coupled-clock system; and (3) perturbing the activity of even one clock can lead to hiPSC-CM-altered automaticity due to diminished crosstalk within the coupled-clock system. By measuring the local and global Ca2+ transients, we found that the LCRs properties are correlated with the spontaneous beat interval. Changes in cAMP-dependent coupling of the Ca2+ and M clocks, caused by a pharmacological intervention that either activates the ß-adrenergic or cholinergic receptor or upregulates/downregulates PKA signaling, affected LCR properties, which in turn altered hiPSC-CMs automaticity. Clocks' uncoupling by attenuating the pacemaker current If or the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ kinetics, decreased hiPSC-CMs beating rate, and prolonged the LCR period. Finally, LCR characteristics of spontaneously beating (at comparable rates) hiPSC-CMs and rabbit SAN are similar. In conclusion, hiPSC-CM automaticity is controlled by the coupled-clock system whose function is mediated by Ca2+-cAMP-PKA signaling.


Asunto(s)
Células Madre Pluripotentes Inducidas , Miocitos Cardíacos , Animales , Humanos , Conejos , Nodo Sinoatrial/fisiología , Calcio , Potenciales de Acción/fisiología
15.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 125: 742-749, 2023 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36375956

RESUMEN

The concentrations and distributions of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the whole blood and meat of eight typical edible animals (chicken, donkey, horse, cattle, rabbit, sheep, duck, and pig) were illustrated. Total concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and PCBs (on a basis of liquid volume) in animal bloods were 142-484 pg/L and 46-62 ng/L, respectively. Total concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs (on a basis of dry weight (dw) and lipid weight (lw)) in animal meat samples were 0.47-1090 pg/g dw (0.47-4513 pg/g lw) and 7.2-23 ng/g dw (10-776 ng/g lw), respectively. TEQs for both PCDD/Fs and PCBs in animal blood and meat samples were (67 ± 27) pg/L and (5.3 ± 14) pg/g dw (24 ± 56 pg/g lw), respectively. Besides, the dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also estimated. Chicken and pig contributed more TEQs than other animals. Chicken contributed the most (95%) with high toxicity, followed by pig (3.4%) with high consumption. The dietary intake of chicken might pose risks to consumers who prefer to eat chicken products, who should comprehensively consider the essential nutrients and contaminants in food during dietary intake.


Asunto(s)
Benzofuranos , Dioxinas , Bifenilos Policlorados , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Bovinos , Porcinos , Ovinos , Conejos , Caballos , Animales , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/análisis , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Dibenzofuranos , Benzofuranos/análisis , Dibenzofuranos Policlorados/análisis , Carne , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Dioxinas/análisis
16.
Domest Anim Endocrinol ; 82: 106770, 2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36279747

RESUMEN

Early embryos of rodent species and rabbits but also farm animals such as pigs, horses and cattle produce estrogens, which are considered important regulators of the implantation process. In cattle, the exact stage at which embryonic estrogen synthesis commences is yet unknown. However, this information is regarded as important to consider a possible role of embryonic estrogens in preimplantation development. Therefore, in this study, we first used quantitative reverse transcription PCR to examine the mRNA expression of the enzymes required for the conversion of cholesterol into free and sulfonated estrogens (CYP11A1, CYP17A1, HSD3B, CYP19A1, and SULT1E1), the cholesterol carrier protein STAR, and the estrogen receptors ESR1 and ESR2 in in vitro produced morulae and unhatched blastocysts (d 6-9). Only in the blastocysts, were the mRNAs of the entire estrogen biosynthesis chain and of both estrogen receptors clearly present, whereas mRNA specific to ESRs was already detectable in the morulae. We also examined the expression of the corresponding enzymes in blastocysts at the protein level. None of the enzymes were detectable by capillary-based western analysis. Immunofluorescence methods were established for the detection of CYP17A1, CYP19A1, and SULT1E1. CYP17A1 was observed in the inner cell mass and trophectoderm, whereas CYP19A1 and SULT1E1 were present only in trophectoderm. An attempt to detect estrogen sulfotransferase activity was unsuccessful. Despite clear evidence that some elements of the estrogen biosynthetic pathway are also present at the protein level, it remains to be clarified whether the enzyme cascade underlying estrogen production is already functional in unhatched blastocysts.


Asunto(s)
Vías Biosintéticas , Receptores de Estrógenos , Bovinos/genética , Animales , Porcinos , Conejos , Caballos/genética , Blastocisto/fisiología , Estrógenos/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/genética , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Esteroides/metabolismo
17.
Gen Comp Endocrinol ; 330: 114140, 2023 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228737

RESUMEN

The effects of newt motilin on the contractility of the isolated gastrointestinal (GI) tract from Japanese fire belly newts (newt) were examined to clarify whether motilin regulates GI motility in urodele amphibians. In addition, contractile responsiveness to motilins from seven species of vertebrates (human, chicken, turtle, alligator, axolotol, newt and zebrafish) were compared in GI preparations from three different animals (rabbit duodenum, chicken ileum and newt stomach) to determine the species-specific action of motilin. Newt motilin (10-10 M - 10-6 M) caused a contraction of cognate gastric strips, while the upper, middle, and lower intestinal strips were insensitive. The rank order of motilins for contractile activity in newt gastric strips was newt > alligator > axolotol > chicken > turtle > human ≫ zebrafish. On the other hand, newt motilin caused a weak contraction in the rabbit duodenum (human > alligator = chicken > turtle > newt ≧ axolotol > zebrafish), and it was ineffective in the chicken ileum (chicken > turtle > alligator > human ≫ newt, axolotol and zebrafish). This study demonstrates that motilin induces contraction in the GI tract of a urodele amphibian, the newt, in a region (stomach)-specific manner and further indicates that a ligand-receptor interaction of the motilin system is a species-specific manner probably due to differences in the amino acid sequence of motilin.


Asunto(s)
Motilidad Gastrointestinal , Tracto Gastrointestinal , Motilina , Contracción Muscular , Animales , Humanos , Conejos , Pollos , Tracto Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Motilina/química , Salamandridae , Estómago , Pez Cebra
18.
J Virol Methods ; 311: 114627, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36191664

RESUMEN

Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is the causative agent of EEHV-hemorrhagic disease (EEHV-HD) in elephants worldwide. This disease is highly virulent and a predominant cause of fatalities in young Asian elephants. Rapid diagnosis and aggressive therapies have been determined to be a key strategy in the successful treatment of this disease. Herein, we have developed the immunochromatographic strip test for EEHV detection. Accordingly, 31.2 kDa of partial EEHV DNA polymerase (DNApol) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and used to generate rabbit polyclonal anti-EEHV DNApol antibodies. These were then used to develop an ICS test for EEHV antigen detection using the double-antibody sandwich colloidal gold method. Anti-EEHV DNApol antibodies conjugated with 40 nm colloidal gold solution were used as a detector, while rabbit anti-EEHV DNApol and goat anti-rabbit IgG antibodies immobilized on the nitrocellulose membrane were used as the test and control lines, respectively. The test had a detection limit of 1.25 × 105 viral genome copies (vgc)/mL of EEHV obtained from blood samples. Moreover, no specialized equipment or laboratory infrastructure was required in the administration of this test. This developed ICS test for EEHV antigen detection can be used in field application for the rapid detection of EEHV in resource-limited environments.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Infecciones por Herpesviridae , Herpesviridae , Animales , Conejos , Herpesviridae/genética , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Herpesviridae/veterinaria , Antígenos Virales , Oro Coloide
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 857(Pt 2): 159479, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265628

RESUMEN

Invasive alien mammals cause huge adverse ecological impact on human society and natural ecosystems. Although studies have estimated economic costs of mammal invasions at regional scales, there is lacking the large-scale comprehensive assessment of currency costs for this taxon. Here, we estimated the economic cost of invasive alien mammals on a global scale using the most comprehensive global database compiling economic costs of invasive species (InvaCost). From 1960 to 2021, mammal invasions caused costs (summing damage costs and management costs) of US$ 462.49 billion to the global economy, while the total amount of robust costs reached US$ 52.49 billion. The majority of the total economic costs corresponded to damage costs (90.27 %), while only 7.43 % were related to management cost. Economic costs showed an increasing trend over time. The distribution of costs was uneven among taxonomic groups and regions, with the global total cost highly biasing toward to 5 species (European rabbit, Domestic cat, Black rat, Wild boar and Coypu), and North America reporting much higher costs (60.78 % of total economic costs) than other regions. The total costs were borne by agriculture, environment, authorities stakeholders and other sectors. Geographic and taxonomic biases suggested that total economic costs caused by invasive alien mammals were underestimated. Integrated research efforts are needed to fill in knowledge gaps in the economic costs generated by mammal invasions and to identify the drivers of the economic costs.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Especies Introducidas , Animales , Gatos , Conejos , Agricultura , Especies Introducidas/economía , Mamíferos , América del Norte
20.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 38(2): 287-294, 2022 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812897

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: An extensive literature has postulated multiple etiologies for aqueductal stenosis. No publications were found, discussing that evolutionary modifications might explain aqueductal anomalies. This study's objectives were to review the evolutionary modifications of vertebrates' tectum structures that might explain human aqueduct anomalies. Undertaking vertebrate comparative study is currently not feasible in view of limitations in obtaining vertebrate material. Thus, vertebrate material collected, injected, dissected, and radiographed in the early 1970s was analyzed, focusing on the aqueduct and components of the midbrain tectum. METHODS: Photographs of brain dissections and radiographs of the cerebral ventricles and arteries of adult shark, frog, iguana, rabbit, cat, dog, and primate specimens, containing a barium-gelatin radiopaque compound, were analyzed focusing on the aqueduct, the optic ventricles, the quadrigeminal plate, and collicular ventricles. The anatomic information provided by the dissections and radiographs is not reproducible by any other radiopaque contrast currently available. RESULTS: Dissected and radiographed cerebral ventricular and arterial systems of the vertebrates demonstrated midbrain tectum changes, including relative size modifications of the mammalian components of the tectum, simultaneously with the enlargement of the occipital lobe. There is a transformation of pre-mammalian optic ventricles to what appear to be collicular ventricles in mammals, as the aqueduct and collicular ventricle form a continuous cavity. CONCLUSIONS: The mammalian tectum undergoes an evolutionary cephalization process consisting of relative size changes of the midbrain tectum structures. This is associated with enlargement of the occipital lobe, as part of overall neocortical expansion. Potentially, aqueductal anomalies could be explained by evolutionary modifications.


Asunto(s)
Acueducto del Mesencéfalo , Hidrocefalia , Anatomía Comparada , Animales , Acueducto del Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Ventrículos Cerebrales , Perros , Humanos , Hidrocefalia/etiología , Mamíferos , Conejos , Techo del Mesencéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen
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