Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 10.282
Filtrar
1.
Dan Med J ; 68(5)2021 03 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33870886

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION Prompted by reports of thromboembolic events - some with fatal outcomes - among people who had received the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AZD1222) vaccine from Oxford-AstraZeneca against COVID-19, a number of European countries paused vaccination with this vaccine in early and mid-March 2021. Prior studies have suggested that vaccine willingness is highly dependent on public trust in the safety of vaccines. We therefore investigated whether vaccine willingness dropped in the wake of the reported cases of thromboembolic events in relation to the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. METHODS Using longitudinal survey data from Denmark, we compared vaccine willingness shortly before and after the reported cases of thromboembolic events, as well as the perceived safety of the two most widely used COVID-19 vaccines in Denmark - those from Pfizer-BioNTech and Oxford-AstraZeneca - in the wake of these events. RESULTS We found sustained vaccine willingness after the reported cases of thromboembolic events (89% both before and after). However, the safety of the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine was perceived to be significantly and substantially lower than the safety of the vaccine from Pfizer-BioNTech, and this difference was particularly pronounced among those who were vaccine-hesitant. CONCLUSIONS The vaccine willingness of Danes does not seem to have been affected by the reports of thromboembolic events in relation to the Oxford-AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine. FUNDING The study was funded by a grant from the Novo Nordisk Foundation (grant number: NNF20SA0062874). TRIAL REGISTRATION not relevant.


Asunto(s)
/efectos adversos , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Tromboembolia/inducido químicamente , Tromboembolia/epidemiología , Anciano , Dinamarca/epidemiología , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza
3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 623468, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791266

RESUMEN

The present commentary explored the intersecting nature of the COVID-19 and HIV pandemics to identify a shared research agenda using a syndemic approach. The research agenda posits the following questions. Questions around HIV infection, transmission, and diagnosis include: (i) molecular, genetic, clinical, and environmental assessments of COVID-19 in people living with HIV, (ii) alternative options for facility-based HIV testing services such as self- and home-based HIV testing, and (iii) COVID-19 related sexual violence and mental health on HIV transmission and early diagnosis. These and related questions could be assessed using Biopsychosocial and socio-ecological models. Questions around HIV treatment include: (i) the effect of COVID-19 on HIV treatment services, (ii) alternative options for facility-based treatment provision such as community-based antiretroviral therapy groups, and (iii) equitable distribution of treatment and vaccines for COVID-19, if successful. Bickman's logic model and the social determinants of health framework could guide these issues. The impact of stigma, the role of leveraging lessons on sustained intra-behavioral change, the role of medical mistrust and conspiracy beliefs, and the role of digital health on integrated management of HIV care and spectrum of care of COVID-19 need assessment using several frameworks including Goffman's stigma framework, Luhmann's Trust theory, and Gidden's theory of structuration. In conclusion, the potential research agenda of this commentary encompasses a variety of research fields and disciplinary areas-clinicians, laboratory scientists, public health practitioners, health economists, and psychologists-, and suggests several theoretical frameworks to guide examination of complex issues comprehensively.


Asunto(s)
Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH , /complicaciones , Coinfección/virología , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Humanos , Sindémico , Confianza
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 684, 2021 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832446

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We investigated if people's response to the official recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with conspiracy beliefs related to COVID-19, a distrust in the sources providing information on COVID-19, and an endorsement of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). METHODS: The sample consisted of 1325 Finnish adults who filled out an online survey marketed on Facebook. Structural regression analysis was used to investigate whether: 1) conspiracy beliefs, a distrust in information sources, and endorsement of CAM predict people's response to the non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) implemented by the government during the COVID-19 pandemic, and 2) conspiracy beliefs, a distrust in information sources, and endorsement of CAM are related to people's willingness to take a COVID-19 vaccine. RESULTS: Individuals with more conspiracy beliefs and a lower trust in information sources were less likely to have a positive response to the NPIs. Individuals with less trust in information sources and more endorsement of CAM were more unwilling to take a COVID-19 vaccine. Distrust in information sources was the strongest and most consistent predictor in all models. Our analyses also revealed that some of the people who respond negatively to the NPIs also have a lower likelihood to take the vaccine. This association was partly related to a lower trust in information sources. CONCLUSIONS: Distrusting the establishment to provide accurate information, believing in conspiracy theories, and endorsing treatments and substances that are not part of conventional medicine, are all associated with a more negative response to the official guidelines during COVID-19. How people respond to the guidelines, however, is more strongly and consistently related to the degree of trust they feel in the information sources, than to their tendency to hold conspiracy beliefs or endorse CAM. These findings highlight the need for governments and health authorities to create communication strategies that build public trust.


Asunto(s)
Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , /prevención & control , Terapias Complementarias , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Confianza , Vacunación/psicología , Adulto Joven
6.
Wiad Lek ; 74(3 cz 2): 630-635, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843625

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: Is to investigate relationships between trusted sources of health information and people's behavior, including their attitudes toward vaccination and their willingness to seek medical care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: The responses of 4,354 mothers of children under 5 years of age from all regions of Ukraine, who participated in the Multi-Indicator Cluster Household Survey (MICS-2012) were analyzed. The respondents were divided into separate groups using two-step cluster analysis. RESULTS: Results: 6 clusters of respondents were identified, depending on the trusted source of health information identified by them, including those who trust only physicians (50.0%), friends (15.3%), all information channels (15.2%) or do not trust anyone (6.0%). The most important statistically significant differences in the level of vaccination coverage and willingness to seek medical care were found for a group of people who do not trust any source of information about health or trust only information from the Internet. People who trust information from physicians or pharmacy workers were the most active in vaccinating and seeking medical care. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: Communication with patients who do not trust anyone through social networks seems to be a promising way to raise awareness of this group of people about health and increase the level of trust in physicians or certain medical services.


Asunto(s)
Madres , Confianza , Niño , Preescolar , Comunicación , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Ucrania
9.
Ann Ig ; 33(4): 360-370, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33908601

RESUMEN

Introduction: The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) have changed into a global crisis. Psychologically, this process of alteration can lead to feelings of fear, insecurity, and anxiety. This fear and anxiety can be caused by a variety of factors. However, due to the lack of extensive studies at this time, there are little data on these conditions related to COVID-19. Therefore, in this narrative review, we have tried to identify the most important possible causes of anxiety and fear due to this disease, based on logical shreds of evidence. Then we tried to discuss the consequences and ways to manage and prevent them. Methods: The current focus was on three major axes of corona-phobia, fear and anxiety. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Google Scholar and authoritative news and information sources were considered as the data sources. Results: Findings from the analysis of the results revealed that, in addition to the real and the logical reasons which belong to the intrinsic properties of SARS-CoV-2, some misleadings and misconceptions induced by media, governmental policies, public awareness level, and non-scientific speculations and contradictory data expressed by experts, researchers and scientific societies, could provide the way for the development of corona-phobia, and fear. Conclusions: Each of these causal components, in its place, leads to some degrees of psychological disorders and subsequent consequences and complications. Finally, here we reviewed, summarized the previous research findings on how to prevent and manage this type of psychological disorder, and made comparisons.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Miedo/psicología , Pandemias , Trastornos Fóbicos/etiología , Ansiedad/prevención & control , Ansiedad/psicología , Comunicación , Información de Salud al Consumidor , Cultura , Disentimientos y Disputas , Testimonio de Experto , Política de Salud , Humanos , Difusión de la Información , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Trastornos Fóbicos/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Confianza
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806194

RESUMEN

The Coronavirus pandemic has affected the lives of people all over the world. The perception of risk and people's consequent behaviour during a pandemic are very complex and are affected by multiple cultural and psychological factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the change in risk perception, perceived self-efficacy and the perceived trust in the behaviour of others, the decisions of health authorities and government provisions, as well as the variation of self-restraint behaviours during the spread of the Covid-19 epidemic in Italy. We used a convenience sample of 707 university students (Mage = 22.99; SD = 4.01) from a central area of Italy. Participants freely joined the research by answering an online questionnaire between February and March 2020. Three time intervals defined by the progressive containment measures implemented by the Italian Government were considered. Main outcome measures were the Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale, the Risk Perception Index, the Index of Self-restraint Behaviours, and Institutional and Interpersonal Trust Measures. Results confirmed that significant changes in the time progression have occurred in the perception of risk, in the perception of individual self-efficacy, in the value attributed to social responsibility, in interpersonal trust and in trust in health authorities. The study also identified the participants' personality traits and locus of control as predictors (positive and negative) of perceived self-efficacy and tested a mediation model of trust on the effect of risk perception on self-restraint intentions.


Asunto(s)
Adulto , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Percepción , Autoeficacia , Confianza , Adulto Joven
11.
Nutrients ; 13(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809826

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with upper gastrointestinal cancer are at high risk for malnutrition without universal access to early nutrition interventions. Very little data exist on the attitudes and views of health professionals on providing nutrition care to this patient cohort delivered by electronic health methods. COVID-19 has fast-tracked the adoption of digital health care provision, so it is more important than ever to understand the needs of health professionals in providing health care via these modes. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of health professionals on providing nutrition care to upper gastrointestinal cancer patients by electronic methods to allow the future scaling-up of acceptable delivery methods. METHODS: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted face-to-face or by telephone and recorded, de-identified and transcribed. Thematic analysis was facilitated by NVivo Pro 12. RESULTS: Interviews were conducted on 13 health professionals from a range of disciplines across several public and private health institutions. Thematic analysis revealed three main themes: (1) the ideal model, (2) barriers to the ideal model and (3) how to implement and translate the ideal model. Health professionals viewed the provision of nutrition interventions as an essential part of an upper gastrointestinal cancer patient's treatment with synchronous, telephone-based internal health service models of nutrition care overwhelmingly seen as the most acceptable model of delivery. Mobile application-based delivery methods were deemed too challenging for the current population serviced by these clinicians. CONCLUSION: The use of novel technology for delivering nutrition care to people receiving treatment for upper gastrointestinal cancers was not widely accepted as the preferred method of delivery by health professionals. There is an opportunity, given the rapid uptake of digital health care delivery, to ensure that the views and attitudes of health professionals are understood and applied to develop acceptable, efficacious and sustainable technologies in our health care systems.


Asunto(s)
Actitud del Personal de Salud , Neoplasias Gastrointestinales/terapia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Adulto , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Aplicaciones Móviles , Terapia Nutricional/psicología , Telemedicina/métodos , Confianza
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807977

RESUMEN

This study examined the role of trust in lay people's health behaviors related to the current pandemic. A total of 376 Israelis completed an online questionnaire during the second lockdown. A latent profile analysis was conducted to identify profiles of individuals based on their levels of trust in the various institutions and stakeholders examined in this study. A three-profile solution was deemed most appropriate. The largest profile (N = 178) was characterized by low levels of trust in the government, but high levels of trust in science and one's primary care provider. Next, was the generally low trust profile (N = 108), characterized by low levels of trust directed towards all stakeholders and institutes. The third profile (N = 79) was characterized by high levels of trust. Results are discussed in relation to the important role of trust in determining people's response to the current pandemic and the unique features of Israeli society.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Confianza
13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801510

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pervasiveness of smartphones has raised concerns about an increase in the prevalence of problematic smartphone use (PSU), which depends on a set of psychological and behavioral risk factors. Previous research has yielded mixed results on factors predicting PSU, including social anxiety and trust. In particular, the role of trust remained largely unexplored. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between social anxiety and PSU, via the mediating role of time spent on the phone, and to explore the moderating role of dispositional trust toward others, by using a moderated mediation model with PSU as the outcome. METHODS: A total of 240 young adults (Mage = 23.33, SD = 3.90, 50% male) answered an online questionnaire, which included the 12-item Social Anxiety Scale, a question on the daily duration of smartphone use, a single-item measure of dispositional trust, and the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Scale Short Version. Gender and occupational status were included as covariates. RESULTS: Social anxiety was significantly and positively related to PSU; however, smartphone use did not mediate this relationship. Although the relationship between smartphone use and PSU was significant and positive, the link between social anxiety and smartphone use was not. Dispositional trust moderated and strengthened the direct relationships between social anxiety and PSU as well as smartphone use and PSU. CONCLUSIONS: Heavy smartphone users as well as socially anxious individuals, with the tendency of trusting others, are more at risk of PSU, which can be explained by their preference and search for online connections.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Adictiva , Teléfono Inteligente , Adulto , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Confianza , Adulto Joven
14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807112

RESUMEN

With increasing cancer survivorship has come an increased necessity to support people living with cancer (PLWC) to have a good quality of life including being physically active. Using mixed methods, the current study aimed to use the RE-AIM evaluation framework (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance) to determine how the football community trust delivered CARE (Cancer and Rehabilitation Exercise) intervention was able to increase participants' physical activity in order to improve their quality of life and regain physiological and psychological function. Quantitative outcome data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months using the Cancer Physical Activity Standard Evaluation Framework questionnaire. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 5) captured participants' (n = 40) lived experience of the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of CARE. Questionnaire data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVAs and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Following diagnosis, CARE was successful in providing participants with a unique and accessible opportunity to become or restart physically activity, by providing a local, socially supportive, and inclusive environment. This resulted in significant increases in physical activity (F(1.58, 23) = 5.98, p = 0.009), quality of life (QoL) (F(2,36) = 13.12, p = 0.000) and significant reductions in fatigue (F(1.57,31) = 11.19, p = 0.000) over 6 months. Participants also reported becoming more active, recovering physical function, regaining independence, and enhanced psychological well-being as a result of attending CARE. Key design features of CARE were also identified across RE-AIM. CARE, a football community trust delivered physical activity intervention was successful in significantly improving participants' QoL and in regaining the physical and psychological functioning of people living with cancer. Results suggest that maintaining engagement in CARE for 6 months and beyond can support people to maintain these changes. Engaging in robust evaluations such as this can help organizations to successfully secure future funding for their programs.


Asunto(s)
Fútbol Americano , Neoplasias , Ejercicio Físico , Terapia por Ejercicio , Humanos , Calidad de Vida , Confianza
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809944

RESUMEN

The 2014-15 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks in Western Africa became widespread in primarily three countries, Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. Unlike all previous outbreaks in Central and East Africa, which were confined to rural areas, the virus spread rapidly through West Africa as a result of transmission through high-density urban centres coupled with the effects of public distrust in outbreak response teams and local government officials. Objective: In this study, we examine the EVD epidemic in Liberia, the first country to implement a community-based response that led to changes in the trajectory of the epidemic. The focus on the role of community-based initiatives in outbreak response is often neglected in conventional epidemiological accounts. In this light, we consider the manner in which community-based strategies enabled a more effective response based on the establishment of better trust relations and an enhanced understanding of the risks that EVD posed for the community. Methodology: We conducted qualitative research in five distinct communities in Liberia three years after the outbreaks subsided. Data collection procedures consisted of semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with residents. Results: We found that the implementation of a community-based response, which included the participation of Ebola survivors and local leaders, helped curb and ultimately end the EVD epidemic in Liberia. As community members became more directly involved in the EVD response, the level of trust between citizens, local officials, and non-governmental organization response teams increased. In turn, this led to greater acceptance in abiding to safety protocols, greater receptiveness to risk information, and changes in mobility patterns-all of which played a significant role in turning the tide of the epidemic.


Asunto(s)
Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , África Oriental , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , Humanos , Liberia/epidemiología , Percepción , Sierra Leona , Confianza
16.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 47, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789671

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: At the height of the COVID-19 pandemic, Thailand had almost depleted its critical care resources, particularly intensive care unit (ICU) beds and ventilators. This prompted the necessity to develop a national guideline for resource allocation. This paper describes the development process of a national guideline for critical resource allocation in Thailand during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The guideline development process consisted of three steps: (1) rapid review of existing rationing guidelines and literature; (2) interviews of Thai clinicians experienced in caring for COVID-19 cases; and (3) multi-stakeholder consultations. At steps 1 and 2, data was synthesized and categorized using a thematic and content analysis approach, and this guided the formulation of the draft guideline. Within step 3, the draft Thai critical care allocation guideline was debated and finalized before entering the policy-decision stage. RESULTS: Three-order prioritization criteria consisting of (1) clinical prognosis using four tools (Charlson Comorbidity Index, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, frailty assessment and cognitive impairment assessment), (2) number of life-years saved and (3) social usefulness were proposed by the research team based on literature reviews and interviews. At consultations, stakeholders rejected using life-years as a criterion due to potential age and gender discrimination, as well as social utility due to a concern it would foster public distrust, as this judgement can be arbitrary. It was agreed that the attending physician is required to be the decision-maker in the Thai medico-legal context, while a patient review committee would play an advisory role. Allocation decisions are to be documented for transparency, and no appealing mechanism is to be applied. This guideline will be triggered only when demand exceeds supply after the utmost efforts to mobilize surge capacity. Once implemented, it is applicable to all patients, COVID-19 and non-COVID-19, requiring critical care resources prior to ICU admission and during ICU stay. CONCLUSIONS: The guideline development process for the allocation of critical care resources in the context of the COVID-19 outbreak in Thailand was informed by scientific evidence, medico-legal context, existing norms and societal values to reduce risk of public distrust given the sensitive nature of the issue and ethical dilemmas of the guiding principle, though it was conducted at record speed. Our lessons can provide an insight for the development of similar prioritization guidelines, especially in other low- and middle-income countries.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Críticos , Enfermedad Crítica , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Pandemias , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Toma de Decisiones , Revelación , Ética Médica , Recursos en Salud , Hospitalización , Humanos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Pronóstico , Discriminación Social , Valores Sociales , Participación de los Interesados , Tailandia , Confianza
17.
Food Res Int ; 141: 110152, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33642018

RESUMEN

This study aimed to verify how consumers' intention to visit restaurants during the pandemic is affected by consumers' risk perception and different types of trust. The sample was composed of 546 consumers from 89 different cities in Brazil. An adapted 43 items questionnaire with 5-point scales was administered, and analyzed usingstructural equation modeling. The results indicate that consumers' trust in a restaurant and brand, fair price, solidarity with the restaurant sector, disease denial, and health surveillance trust predict intention to visit a restaurant during the COVID-19 pandemic. Age has significant moderated effects, reducing disease denial effects. The trust in restaurants and brands was the factor with the largest effect size. In a multigroup analysis, it was found that solidarity with the sector does not affect the intention to visit restaurants for consumers without formal work. It is discussed the implications of an increased consumers' risk perception, directly affecting their intentions. Special attention to consumers' trust and fair price perception is fundamental, given consumers' solidary inclination toward helping the restaurant sector. These aspects must be recognized by restaurant owners and managers to be improved and be used to attract consumers.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Comportamiento del Consumidor/estadística & datos numéricos , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Intención , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Confianza , Incertidumbre
18.
Front Public Health ; 9: 587439, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33659231

RESUMEN

People have felt afraid during the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), because a virus is an invisible enemy. During the pandemic outbreak, society has become worried about the spread of infections and the shortage of protective equipment. This common fear among the public subsequently deepens each person's fear, increasing their belief in the content reported by the media and thus actively compelling these individuals to engage in the behavior of panic buying. In this study, we explored the effects of the public's risk perception, state anxiety, and trust in social media on the herding effect among individuals. The study was based on an online questionnaire survey and convenience sampling. The results showed that the public's risk perception increased their state anxiety and then deepened their willingness to wait in line for a purchase. In addition, the more people that trust the message delivered by the media, the more actively they will join the queue to buy goods. This study also found that anxiety had a greater impact on the public's willingness to wait for a purchase than trust in social media. Therefore, the top priority for the government should be to reduce the public's state anxiety and then reduce the herding effect.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Miedo , Estrés Psicológico , Estudiantes/psicología , Confianza , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Taiwán/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
19.
J Environ Manage ; 288: 112372, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756387

RESUMEN

Many global management and conservation initiatives fail to prevent overfishing either because they do not plan for local engagement, surveillance, and enforcement, and/or because they fail to include alternatives for short-term losses. Thus, these initiatives do not gain support among fishers. In this study, we interviewed fishers to investigate their stated behavior toward fisheries regulations. We assessed possible (non)compliant behavior under scenarios where fishers would face a moratorium on some of their target species. Additionally, we investigated the consequences of such a moratorium on the food web if it were to lead to fishing alternative species. Using data from two Brazilian coastal sites, we found that younger fishers and those who demonstrated a trustworthy relationship with stakeholders were inclined to comply with the rules. The level of potential compliance also varied between the studied places, probably due to unidentified local idiosyncrasies. Fishers tended to trust community actors (e.g., the leader or head of the fishing community) more than institutional actors (e.g., environmental agencies). When fishers were asked why they would choose specific replacement species in the event of a moratorium, they most often cited expected profitability and ease of capture as reasons. Fishers also tended to say that they would replace endangered species with species in the same and/or lower trophic categories. We suggest working toward stronger stakeholder engagement, given that an overall sense of trust in a community appears to be an important asset toward successful management. Higher levels of trust could promote more transparency in the decision-making process, which could facilitate information dissemination, awareness, and the need for compliance. The mixed methods approach used here could help predict responses to new and existing management policies and support adaptive fisheries management.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Explotaciones Pesqueras , Animales , Brasil , Peces , Objetivos , Confianza
20.
Am J Clin Oncol ; 44(4): 150-157, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33653973

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Levels of medical mistrust have historically been higher among racial/ethnic minority patients compared with whites, largely owing to societal and health system inequities and history of discrimination or experimentation. However, recently trust in physicians has declined in the United States in general. We investigated trust in physicians among a large cohort of cancer patients residing in Texas. METHODS: A sample of recently diagnosed cancer patients in Texas were identified from the Texas Cancer Registry with 1344 patients returning surveys between March 2017 and March 2020. The multiscale inventory was mailed to each individual and included the Trust in the Medical Profession Scale which assesses levels of agreement with 11 trust-related statements. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to assess the adjusted relationship between trust in the medical profession aggregate score and sociodemographic and clinical factors. RESULTS: A total of 1250 surveys were evaluable for trust in the medical profession. The mean aggregate trust score for all patients was 37.3 (95% confidence interval: 36.8-37.7). Unadjusted trust scores were higher for Hispanic (40.5) and black (38.2) respondents compared with white (36.4) (P<0.001). Multivariable analyses showed white, younger, more-educated, or those with lower levels of self-reported health estimated toward lower adjusted scores for trust in the medical profession. CONCLUSIONS: We observed relatively higher levels of medical mistrust among white, younger, more-educated individuals with cancer or those with poorer health. While the relatively higher trust among minority individuals is encouraging, these findings raise the possibility that recent societal trends toward mistrust in science may have implications for cancer care.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Europea/psicología , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Neoplasias/psicología , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Confianza , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cooperación del Paciente , Población Rural , Muestreo , Autoinforme , Texas , Población Urbana , Adulto Joven
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...