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3.
S Afr Med J ; 110(7): 617-620, 2020 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880334

RESUMEN

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, South Africa (SA) has established a Tracing Database, collecting both aggregated and individualised mobility and locational data on COVID-19 cases and their contacts. There are compelling public health reasons for this development, since the database has the potential to assist with policy formulation and with contact tracing. While potentially demonstrating the rapid facilitation through technology of an important public service, the Tracing Database does, however, infringe immediately upon constitutional rights to privacy and heightens the implications of ethical choices facing medical professionals. The medical community should be aware of this surveillance innovation and the risks and rewards it raises. To deal with some of these risks, including the potential for temporary rights- infringing measures to become permanent, there are significant safeguards designed into the Tracing Database, including a strict duration requirement and reporting to a designated judge. African states including SA should monitor this form of contact tracing closely, and also encourage knowledge-sharing among cross-sectoral interventions such as the Tracing Database in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Confidencialidad/ética , Trazado de Contacto/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Bases de Datos Factuales/ética , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Rol del Médico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Salud Pública , Medición de Riesgo , Sudáfrica
4.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 461-462, 2020 04 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880552

RESUMEN

Given the increasing numbers of ethical and legal issues arising from the COVID-19 epidemic, particularly in respect of patient-doctor confidentiality, doctors must explain to patients how the measures taken to combat the spread of the virus impact on their confidentiality. Patients must be reassured that doctors are ethically bound to continue to respect such confidentiality, but it should be made clear to them that doctors must also comply with the demands of the law. While the Constitution, statutory law and the common law all recognise a person's right to privacy, during extraordinary times such as the COVID-19 pandemic, confidentiality must be breached to a degree to halt the spread of the virus.


Asunto(s)
Confidencialidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Ética Médica , Relaciones Médico-Paciente/ética , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Confidencialidad/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Pandemias/legislación & jurisprudencia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control
8.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(3): 180-189, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32358768

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Along with the benefits of eHealth HIV interventions are challenges to participant privacy and confidentiality inherent in the use of online strategies. This paper reviews current guidelines and recent publications to identify ethical issues and suggested solutions in recruitment, data management, and informed consent. RECENT FINDINGS: Across eHealth HIV research, recruitment, data collection, and storage efforts to protect informational risk highlight the tension between the investigators' ability to protect participant confidentiality and the evolving informational risk posed by the online platforms on which they are operating. Adequately addressing these challenges requires updating technical competencies and educating participants on their own responsibilities to guard against privacy violations. Additional protections are required when interventions involve peer or community support, especially with minors. The rapid progression of technology presents challenges in solidifying best practices for future interventions. This article draws on published works describing investigator experiences to contribute to the ongoing development of guidance in this area.


Asunto(s)
Confidencialidad/ética , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Privacidad , Humanos , Selección de Paciente , Telemedicina/ética
9.
Am Psychol ; 75(5): 644-654, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437180

RESUMEN

Psychologists are in a position to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic through research, practice, education, and advocacy. However, concerns exist about the ethical implications associated with transitioning from face-to-face to online or virtual formats as necessitated by stay-at-home orders designed to enforce the social distancing required to flatten the curve of new COVID-19 cases. The purpose of this article is to review potential ethical issues and to provide guidance to psychologists for ethical conduct in the midst of the current crisis and its aftermath. In addition to contextualizing relevant ethical considerations according to the principles and standards of the current American Psychological Association's ethics code, vignettes are presented to exemplify the ethical dilemmas psychologists in various roles may face when responding to COVID-19 and to offer suggestions and resources for resolving potential conflicts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Códigos de Ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Psicología/ética , Telemedicina/ética , Betacoronavirus , Competencia Clínica , Confidencialidad/ética , Documentación/ética , Ética en Investigación , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Edición/ética , Investigación , Sociedades Científicas
13.
Emerg Med Clin North Am ; 38(2): 283-296, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336325

RESUMEN

This article focuses on confidentiality and capacity issues affecting patients receiving care in the emergency department. The patient-physician relationship begins with presumed confidentiality. The article also clarifies instances where a physician may be required to break confidentiality for the safety of patients or others. This article then discusses risk management issues relevant to determining a patient's capacity to accept or decline medical care in the emergency department setting. Situations pertaining to refusal of care and discharges against medical advice are examined in detail, and best practices for mitigating risk in informed consent and barriers to consent are reviewed.


Asunto(s)
Confidencialidad , Competencia Mental , Confidencialidad/ética , Confidencialidad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Confidencialidad/psicología , Medicina de Emergencia/ética , Medicina de Emergencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act , Humanos , Competencia Mental/psicología , Estados Unidos
15.
Ethics Hum Res ; 42(2): 13-27, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233117

RESUMEN

We found no studies in the United States that explored research participants' perspectives about sharing their qualitative data. We present findings from interviews with 30 individuals who participated in sensitive qualitative studies to explore their understanding and concerns regarding qualitative data sharing. The vast majority supported sharing qualitative data so long as their data were deidentified and shared only among researchers. However, they raised concerns about confidentiality if the data were not adequately deidentified and about misuse by secondary users if data were shared beyond the research community. These concerns, though, did not deter them from participating in research. Notably, participants hoped their data would be shared and may have expected or assumed this was already happening. While many could not recollect details about data-sharing plans for studies in which they participated, they trusted researchers and institutions to appropriately handle data sharing. If individuals view data sharing as an extension or integral part of their participation in qualitative research, then researchers may have a stronger obligation to share qualitative data than previously thought. Guidelines and tools to assist researchers and institutional review board members in ethical and responsible qualitative data sharing are urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Confidencialidad/ética , Anonimización de la Información/normas , Difusión de la Información/ética , Sujetos de Investigación/psicología , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Investigadores/normas , Confianza , Estados Unidos
18.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(2): S64-S68, abr. 2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1100506

RESUMEN

Desde los inicios de la medicina, la reproducción de imágenes de pacientes, ya sea con fines didácticos o de compartir experiencias, fue considerada una práctica habitual en el quehacer médico. La aparición de la fotografía facilitó y generalizó enormemente esta práctica dentro de los equipos de salud. Las imágenes de los pacientes requieren el mismo consentimiento y garantías de confidencialidad que otras partes del registro médico. Se remarca la importancia del consentimiento informado. Se considera la responsabilidad legal de estos actos.


From the beginning of medicine, the reproduction of patients' images, initially as drawings, either for didactic purposes or to share experiences, were common in medical practice. Photography greatly facilitated and generalized this practice within health teams. The images of the affected patients need the same consents and guarantees of confidentiality as any other parts of the medical record, so the importance of obtaining informed consent is highlighted. Beyond ethical aspects, professionals have to take into account the legal responsibility involved in carrying out this act.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Fotografía , Consentimiento Informado/ética , Bioética , Confidencialidad/ética , Jurisprudencia
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