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Am J Public Health ; 111(2): e1-e2, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33439704
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0235058, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33370290


INTRODUCTION: Differences in academic qualifications are cited as the reason behind the documented gender gap in industry sponsorship to academic plastic surgeons. Gendered imbalances in academic metrics narrow among senior academic plastic surgeons. However, it is unknown whether this gender parity translates to industry payments. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of industry payments disbursed to plastic surgeons in 2018. Inclusion criteria encompassed (i) faculty with the rank of professor or a departmental leadership position. Exclusion criteria included faculty (i) who belonged to a speciality besides plastic surgery; (ii) whose gender could not be determined; or (iii) whose name could not be located on the Open Payment Database. Faculty and title were identified using departmental listings of ACGME plastic surgery residency programs. We extracted industry payment data through the Open Payment Database. We also collected details on H-index and time in practice. Statistical analysis included odds ratios (OR) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (R). RESULTS: We identified 316 senior academic plastic surgeons. The cohort was predominately male (88%) and 91% held a leadership role. Among departmental leaders, women were more likely to be an assistant professor (OR 3.9, p = 0.0003) and heads of subdivision (OR 2.1, p = 0.0382) than men. Industry payments were distributed equally to male and female senior plastic surgeons except for speakerships where women received smaller amounts compared to their male counterparts (median payments of $3,675 vs $7,134 for women and men respectively, p<0.0001). Career length and H-index were positively associated with dollar value of total industry payments (R = 0.17, p = 0.0291, and R = 0.14, p = 0.0405, respectively). CONCLUSION: Disparity in industry funding narrows at senior levels in academic plastic surgery. At higher academic levels, industry sponsorship may preferentially fund individuals based on academic productivity and career length. Increased transparency in selection criteria for speakerships is warranted.

Equidad de Género , Industrias/economía , Liderazgo , Cirujanos , Cirugía Plástica/economía , Conflicto de Intereses/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243144, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326431


INTRODUCTION: There is emerging evidence that food industry involvement in nutrition research may bias research findings and/or research agendas. However, the extent of food industry involvement in nutrition research has not been systematically explored. This study aimed to identify the extent of food industry involvement in peer-reviewed articles from a sample of leading nutrition-related journals, and to examine the extent to which findings from research involving the food industry support industry interests. METHODS: All original research articles published in 2018 in the top 10 most-cited nutrition- and dietetics-related journals were analysed. We evaluated the proportion of articles that disclosed involvement from the food industry, including through author affiliations, funding sources, declarations of interest or other acknowledgments. Principal research findings from articles with food industry involvement, and a random sample of articles without food industry involvement, were categorised according to the extent to which they supported relevant food industry interests. RESULTS: 196/1,461 (13.4%) articles reported food industry involvement. The extent of food industry involvement varied by journal, with The Journal of Nutrition (28.3%) having the highest and Paediatric Obesity (3.8%) having the lowest proportion of industry involvement. Processed food manufacturers were involved in the most articles (77/196, 39.3%). Of articles with food industry involvement, 55.6% reported findings favourable to relevant food industry interests, compared to 9.7% of articles without food industry involvement. CONCLUSION: Food industry involvement in peer-reviewed research in leading nutrition-related journals is commonplace. In line with previous literature, this study has shown that a greater proportion of peer-reviewed studies involving the food industry have results that favour relevant food industry interests than peer-reviewed studies without food industry involvement. Given the potential competing interests of the food industry, it is important to explore mechanisms that can safeguard the integrity and public relevance of nutrition research.

Conflicto de Intereses , Industria de Alimentos , Ciencias de la Nutrición , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto , Industria de Alimentos/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Ciencias de la Nutrición/ética , Ciencias de la Nutrición/estadística & datos numéricos , Revisión por Pares , Publicaciones Periódicas como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 275: 47-51, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227738


The belief that following rigorous inclusive methods will eliminate bias from 'quality' measures ignores the preferences necessarily embedded in any formative instrument. These preferences almost always reflect the interests of its developers when one uses the wide definition of 'interest' appropriate in healthcare research and provision. We focus on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards instrument, a popular normative measure of decision aid quality. Drawing on its application to a set of 23 breast cancer screening decision aids, we show the effects of modifications that reflect our own different interest-conflicted preferences. It is emphasised that the only objection is to the implication that any formative instrument should be promoted or treated as the 'the gold standard', without a conflict of interests disclaimer, and to the implication that other instruments cannot provide equally valid, high-quality measures.

Conflicto de Intereses , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Sesgo , Toma de Decisiones , Detección Precoz del Cáncer , Humanos , Participación del Paciente
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 275: 52-56, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33227739


Empirical measures of 'decision aid quality', like normative ones, are of a formative construct and therefore embody interest-conflicted preferences in their criteria selection and weighting. The preferences of the International Patient Decision Aid Standards consortium distinguish the quality of the decision-making process and the quality of the choice that is made '(i.e., decision quality)'. The Decision Conflict Scale features heavily in their profile measure of the former and Decision Quality Instruments (DQIs), have been developed by members of the consortium to measure the latter. We confirm that both of these, and other components, like the higher-level measures, are preference-sensitive and interest-conflicted. Non-financial interest-conflicted preferences are endemic in healthcare research, policy-making, and practice. That they are inevitable means the main problem lies in the denial of this and attitude to and behaviour towards alternatives, equally interest-conflicted.

Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Participación del Paciente , Conflicto de Intereses , Toma de Decisiones , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud , Humanos
Lancet ; 396(10262): 1561-1562, 2020 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189176
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (50): 189-203, nov. 2020.
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-191353


La actual pandemia por la COVID-19 está ocasionado serias amenazas para la salud pública a nivel mundial, especialmente para los grupos de población más vulnerables. Los casos más graves de la enfermedad han sido primeramente atendidos por los profesionales de urgencias y emergencias, los cuales han tenido que tomar decisiones en contextos altamente complejos donde la priorización en la asignación de los recursos sanitarios disponibles les ha generado situaciones éticamente conflictivas. El objetivo del presente artículo es analizar la importancia de implantar la PDA en los servicios de urgencias y emergencias como herramienta de consulta en la resolución de los problemas éticos surgidos durante la pandemia por COVID-19, concretamente, en la atención al paciente crónico complejo o con enfermedad crónica avanzada

The events of the present CoVID-19 pandemic are causing serious threats to Public Health worldwide, specifically at the most vulnerable population groups. Emergency professionals have served as the first responders for the most serious cases of this disease. At the same time, they have made decisions in highly complex contexts where the prioritization of allocated care resources has generated ethically conflictive situations. The aim of this article is to analyze the importance of implementing the ACP as a tool in the emergency services to solve ethical problems that have arisen during the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly in the care of complex chronic patients or those with advanced chronic disease

L'actual pandèmia per la COVID-19 està ocasionat serioses amenaces a la salut pública a nivell mundial, especialment als grups de població més vulnerables. Els casos més greus de la malaltia han estat primerament atesos pels professionals d'urgències I emergències, els quals han hagut de prendre decisions en contextos altament complexos on la priorització en l'assignació dels recursos sanitaris disponibles els ha generat situacions èticament conflictives. L'objectiu d'aquest article va ser analitzar la importància d'implantar la PDA en els serveis d'urgències I emergències com a eina de consulta a la resolució dels problemes ètics sorgits durant la pandèmia per COVID-19, concretament, en l'atenció al pacient crònic complex o amb malaltia crònica avançada

Humanos , Prioridades en Salud/ética , Prioridades en Salud/organización & administración , Planificación de Atención al Paciente , Toma de Decisiones/ética , Conflicto de Intereses , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia/ética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Pandemias , Enfermedad Crónica
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 273: 217-222, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33087615


The questions 'What constitutes a good health care decision?', and, by extension, 'What constitutes good healthcare decision support?' continue to be asked. The most developed answers focus largely, often exclusively, on the quality of the 'deliberation' component as the determinant of the quality of the decision or decision aid. We argue that these answers and resulting aids reflect the preferences of healthcare professionals and aid developers and that these preferences are closely aligned with their interests. Some interests are material, but many professional, institutional, intellectual, methodological, and ethical. Successful promotion of a particular preference-sensitive, interest-conflicted decision aid does not change its ontological nature. Conflicts of interest are therefore universal and of concern only when this ontology is denied and if aids based on alternative interest-based preferences, such as technologies involving numerical analytic calculation, are subjected to discrimination.

Conflicto de Intereses , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Prestación de Atención de Salud
J Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 78(10): 1657-1658, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008548
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239610, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048952


Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs) play significant roles in most medical fields. However, little is known about the extent of financial Conflicts of Interest (FCOIs) related to pharmaceutical companies (Pharma) selling dermatology prescription products and dermatology CPG authors in Japan. The aims of this study were to elucidate the characteristics and distribution of payments from Pharma to dermatology CPG authors in Japan, and to evaluate the extent of transparency and accuracy in their FCOI disclosures. We analyzed the records of 296 authors from 32 dermatology CPGs published by the Japanese Dermatological Association from the beginning of 2015 to the end of 2018. Using the payment data reported by 79 Pharma between 2016-2017 in Japan, we investigated the characteristics of the CPG authors and the payments from the Pharma to them. Furthermore, we evaluated the transparency and accuracy of the FCOI disclosures of the individual CPG authors. Of the 296 CPGs authors, 269 authors (90.6%) received at least one payment from the Pharma. The total monetary value of payments for the 2-year period was $7,128,762. The median and mean monetary value of payments from the Pharma reporting were $10,281 (interquartile range $2,796 -$34,962) and $26,600 (standard deviation $40,950) for the two years combined. Of the 26 CPG authors who disclosed FCOIs due to the monies received from Pharma, only the atopic dermatitis CPG authors and the acne vulgaris CPG authors published their potential FCOIs. In Japan, most dermatology CPG authors received financial payments from Pharma. The transparency of the CPGs, as reported by the CPG authors, was inadequate, and a more rigorous framework of reporting and monitoring FCOI disclosure is required to improve the accuracy and transparency with relation to possible Conflicts of Interest.

Conflicto de Intereses/economía , Dermatología/economía , Revelación , Industria Farmacéutica/economía , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Autoria , Dermatología/ética , Revelación/ética , Industria Farmacéutica/ética , Femenino , Apoyo Financiero/ética , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/economía , Sociedades Médicas/economía , Sociedades Médicas/ética