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4.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(1): 79-81, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228823

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Our study focused on the impacts on health among adolescents who became members of illegal armed groups in Colombia and their attention within the specialized government programme as seen by the professionals who work directly with them. Previous research indicates that those victims of armed violence are usually highly affected on their emotional and social health, but with appropriate and timely support more serious mental health problems can be prevented. Therefore, the care provided to them should be based on broader and holistic approaches. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used the qualitative method based on semi-structured interviews with 42 professionals, and internal reports on the health condition of 165 adolescents, 57 (34.5%) females and 108 (65.5%) males, as a secondary source of information. All information was anonymous and confidential. RESULTS: The interviews with professionals and their reports demonstrated that about a half of the 165 adolescents, 35 of 57 (61.4%) females and 48 of 108 (44.4%) males, suffered from serious symptoms requiring therapeutic and psychiatric attention. About 20% of the adolescents presented clinically important post-traumatic stress symptoms, 27% admitted sexual abuse and 29% psychoactive substance abuse. The professionals stressed various obstacles to the attention of these multiple impacts related both to the administrative and institutional issues and the particular characteristics of this population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show the complexity of the psychosocial impacts among adolescent victims of the Colombian armed conflict and their attention. Highly trained professionals and alternative strategies including active listening, observation and art therapy activities seem to be vital for an effective care. The lessons learned from the Colombian reintegration programme serve as important inputs to be considered when attending children and adolescents from conflict-stricken areas also in other contexts.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Programas de Gobierno/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Adolescente , Colombia , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa
5.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119227

RESUMEN

The article considers the features of the impact of epidemics on the course of hostilities and the fate of the states of Antiquity. Three cases are presented as examples. The first one is related to the invasion of the Assyrian King Sennacherib in Judea and the attempt of his troops to take Jerusalem. The second case is related to the epidemic in Athens in the early years of the Peloponnesian war. The third one - with the epidemic in the Roman Empire in the 2nd half of the 2nd century AD. The analysis, based on information from extant sources, permitted to conclude that the intensity and destructive effect of epidemics in the Ancient World increased gradually. To this fact is attributed the effect of "closing" the Oikumena into a single whole. However, the degree of influence of epidemics on the fate of ancient states is greatly exaggerated by the historical tradition, which developed under the influence of emotional descriptions of the tragedies and mass deaths of people.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Epidemias , Conflictos Armados/historia , Epidemias/historia , Historia Antigua
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(4): 1935-1940, 2020 01 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932433

RESUMEN

A growing empirical literature associates climate anomalies with increased risk of violent conflict. This association has been portrayed as a bellwether of future societal instability as the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events are predicted to increase. This paper investigates the theoretical foundation of this claim. A seminal microeconomic model of opportunity costs-a mechanism often thought to drive climate-conflict relationships-is extended by considering realistic changes in the distribution of climate-dependent agricultural income. Results advise caution in using empirical associations between short-run climate anomalies and conflicts to predict the effect of sustained shifts in climate regimes: Although war occurs in bad years, conflict may decrease if agents expect more frequent bad years. Theory suggests a nonmonotonic relation between climate variability and conflict that emerges as agents adapt and adjust their behavior to the new income distribution. We identify 3 measurable statistics of the income distribution that are each unambiguously associated with conflict likelihood. Jointly, these statistics offer a unique signature to distinguish opportunity costs from competing mechanisms that may relate climate anomalies to conflict.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/economía , Cambio Climático , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Desarrollo Económico/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Violencia/economía , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 38, 2020 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31924196

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Families resettling to the U.S. from conflict-affected countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) face countless challenges. These families must cope with experiences of armed conflict and forced migration while also assimilating to a new society. According to the 'immigrant paradox,' time spent in a new country can compound the effects of migration and assimilation challenges and lead to deteriorated mental health. This study aims to assess the psychosocial wellbeing of MENA-born or first-generation adolescents attending school in the Detroit metropolitan area (DMA) to understand how schools, families, and communities play a role in supporting these adolescents' wellbeing. METHODS: The quantitative component of this mixed methods study will involve a self-administered survey with a sample of students whose responses will be linked to academic records and behavioral assessments. The survey will utilize validated instruments to measure depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37A), hope (Children's Hope Scale), resilience (Child and Youth Resilience Measure-12), externalizing and prosocial behavior (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37A, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), school belonging (Psychological Sense of School Membership), and peer relationships (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support). Differences in outcomes will be analyzed across two strata: students born in the MENA region and first-generation students whose parents immigrated to the US from the MENA region. The qualitative component will involve semi-structured key informant interviews with parents, school administrators, educators, and mental health providers, and focus group discussions (FGDs) with a purposive sample of adolescents born - or whose parents were born - in the MENA region. The FGDs will include a participatory ranking activity where participants will be asked to free-list and rank ideas about how schools can better support students like them. Thematic content analysis will be conducted to identify common themes. DISCUSSION: This study will contribute evidence about the wellbeing of adolescents who come from - or whose parents come from - conflict-affected countries currently living in the U.S. Findings can be used to inform program and policy development to enable schools and their community partners to serve this population more effectively.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/psicología , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Refugiados/psicología , Apoyo Social , Aculturación , Adaptación Psicológica , Adolescente , África del Norte/etnología , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Familia/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Michigan/epidemiología , Medio Oriente/etnología , Investigación Cualitativa , Refugiados/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones Académicas , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Forensic Sci Int ; 306: 110062, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786514

RESUMEN

The renowned work of Clyde Snow and the development of the Equipo Argentino de Anthropología Forense (EAAF) team has inspired the use of forensic anthropological and archaeological skills in human rights interventions around the world. Whether for medico-legal intervention and acquisition of evidence or humanitarian repatriation and identification of human remains, forensic expertise has garnered attention in the global arena. Arguably fulfilling evidentiary and psychosocial needs, there has been growing interest in this post-conflict redress. However, as part of the critique of these interventions, scholars and practitioners have pointed out - primarily in medico-legal investigations - a lack of sensitization of local communities regarding forensic work, increasing the potential for re-traumatization, unrealistic expectations, or an unintentional increase in political tensions. Research regarding forensic intervention and human remains have permeated social sciences, peace and conflict studies, and science and technology studies, revealing both intentional and unintentional impacts of forensic sciences after mass violence. In an effort to mitigate negative impacts of medico-legal or humanitarian interventions, the research described here sought to sensitize communities in Uganda about forensic methods. Findings from this study suggest that sensitization is necessary and desired, and that a multi-step approach can assist in managing expectations.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Antropología Forense/organización & administración , Sobrevivientes/psicología , Altruismo , Arqueología , Recursos Audiovisuales , Entierro , Relaciones Comunidad-Institución , Grupos Focales , Antropología Forense/educación , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , Población Rural , Uganda
13.
Disasters ; 44(1): 63-84, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538674

RESUMEN

The 2017 Gulf crisis is one of the most challenging episodes faced by Qatar since its independence in 1971, with major economic, social, and political impacts on the Arab Gulf nation. Its economic prognosis has been brought into doubt, the map of regional alliances has been redrawn, and any prospects of deeper regional integration have been dashed. This paper analyses the little-documented impact of the crisis on Qatar's humanitarian sector, which has unfolded as the small, gas-rich emirate has striven to become a major humanitarian donor. It concludes that while there have been disruptions to humanitarian operations and regional coordination, the Gulf crisis has triggered and in some cases accelerated already intended reforms across the Qatari humanitarian sector. In the long term, the reorganisation and adaptation implemented to weather the storm of the crisis may help Qatar to emerge from the crisis with a more sustainable and resilient humanitarian sector.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Sistemas de Socorro/organización & administración , Humanos , Qatar
14.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007827, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830034

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has historically been reported from Syria. Since 2011, the country has been affected by a war, which has impacted health and health services. Over the same period, an increase in the number of cases of CL has been reported from several areas across the country and by a number of authors. This study aims to provide the first quantitative evidence of the epidemiological evolution of CL in Syria during the war. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on number of CL cases for the period 2011-2018 were extracted from three different surveillance systems: the Ministry of Health (MoH) routine surveillance system, the MoH/WHO sentinel-syndromic Early Warning Alert and Response System (EWARS), and surveillance data collected by the international nongovernmental organization (NGO) the MENTOR Initiative. Data were cleaned and merged to generate the best possible estimates on number of CL cases; incidence of CL was also calculated based on data on resident population. Data reported from the years preceding the conflict (2007-2010) were also added to the analysis for comparative purposes. RESULTS: The analysis of data from the three available sources over the period considered indicates that number of reported cases progressively grew from prewar levels to reach a peak in 2015, decreased in 2016, remained stable in 2017, and increased again in 2018. Such a trend was mirrored by changes in incidence of infection. Some governorates, which used to report low numbers of CL cases, started recording higher number of cases after the onset of the war. CONCLUSION: The war coincided with a major rise in reported number of CL cases and incidence of infection, although an increasing trend was already appreciable before its onset.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Leishmaniasis Cutánea/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Prevalencia , Siria/epidemiología
16.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 31(spe): 228-235, set.-dez. 2019.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1056223

RESUMEN

El conflicto armado colombiano se extiende por todos rincones del país; en esa guerra la violencia de género encontró un lugar fértil. Este artículo analiza el enfoque de género a partir de los lineamientos de la Ley 1448 de 2011, y entrevistas con funcionarios estatales, es un análisis de las narrativas propias de estos y de texto de la norma, así como otras normas concomitantes que no solo reconocen el conflicto armado sino que le otorgan importancia necesaria a las afectaciones particulares a la mujer, sumado a esto se explora la aparición de la presencia estatal y el avance que fue necesario en la política pública en Colombia para el reconocimiento de más de 8.000.000 de víctimas del conflicto armado. Se describe la situación vulnerable de las mujeres en el conflicto armado, que ve la luz en el reconocimiento normativo de las afectaciones particulares a este grupo poblacional. Para concluir se explora la importancia para la construcción de nación del reconocimiento del conflicto armado colombiano en el gobierno de Juan Manuel Santos, así como para la construcción de un camino hacia la paz mediante las políticas de reparación, perdón, verdad y reconciliación.(AU)


The Colombian armed conflict extends to all corners of the country; in that war, gender violence found a fertile place. This article analyzes the gender perspective based on the guidelines of Law 1448 of 2011, and interviews with state officials, it is an analysis of the narratives of these and the text of the norm, as well as other concomitant norms that not only they recognize the armed conflict but give necessary importance to the particular affectations on woman, added to this the novelty State presence and the advance that was necessary in the public policy in Colombia for the recognition of more than 8,000,000 victims of the armed conflict. It describes the vulnerable situation of women in the armed conflict, which sees the light in the normative recognition of their particular affectations. To conclude, the importance of recognizing the Colombian armed conflictin the construction of a nation is explored, as well as for the construction of a path towards peace through policies of reparation, forgiveness, truth and reconciliation, a context that was built on Juan Manuel Santos government.(AU)


O conflito armado colombiano se estende a todos os cantos do país; nessa guerra, a violência de gênero encontrou um lugar fértil. O texto analisa a abordagem de gênero, que faz parte da Lei de Vítimas e Restituição de Terras, no país que é traçado pela geografia da violência, enquadrado nas diferenças entre urbano-rural, masculino-feminino, centro - periferia… Depois, analisa a chegada da presença do Estado e o significativo avanço das políticas públicas na Colômbia para dar lugar ao reconhecimento de mais de 8.000.000 de vítimas do conflito armado. A situação particular das mulheres no conflito armado é descrita pelo reconhecimento normativo das afetações particulares nesse grupo populacional, incluindo sua saúde mental. As conclusões expressam a importância que tem para a construção de uma nação e que o governo de Juan Manuel Santos reconheceu a existência de um conflito armado, para a construção de um caminho em direção à paz por meio de políticas de perdão, verdade e reconciliação.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Política Pública , Conflictos Armados , Violencia de Género , Colombia
17.
Global Health ; 15(1): 81, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31779660

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In conflict settings, research capacities have often been de-prioritized as resources are diverted to emergency needs, such as addressing elevated morbidity, mortality and health system challenges directly and/or indirectly associated to war. This has had an adverse long-term impact in such protracted conflicts such as those found in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA), where research knowledge and skills have often been compromised. In this paper, we propose a conceptual framework for health research capacity strengthening that adapts existing models and frameworks in low- and middle-income countries and uses our knowledge of the MENA context to contextualise them for conflict settings. METHODS: The framework was synthesized using "best fit" framework synthesis methodology. Relevant literature, available in English and Arabic, was collected through PubMed, Google Scholar and Google using the keywords: capacity building; capacity strengthening; health research; framework and conflict. Grey literature was also assessed. RESULTS: The framework is composed of eight principal themes: "structural levels", "the influence of the external environment", "funding, community needs and policy environment", "assessing existing capacity and needs", "infrastructure and communication", "training, leadership and partnership", "adaptability and sustainability", and "monitoring and evaluation"; with each theme being supported by examples from the MENA region. Our proposed framework takes into consideration safety, infrastructure, communication and adaptability as key factors that affect research capacity strengthening in conflict. As it is the case more generally, funding, permissible political environments and sustainability are major determinants of success for capacity strengthening for health research programmes, though these are significantly more challenging in conflict settings. Nonetheless, health research capacity strengthening should remain a priority. CONCLUSION: The model presented is the first framework that focuses on strengthening health research capacity in conflict with a focus on the MENA region. It should be viewed as a non-prescriptive reference tool for health researchers and practitioners, from various disciplines, involved in research capacity strengthening to evaluate, use, adapt and improve. It can be further extended to include representative indicators and can be later evaluated by assessing its efficacy for interventions in conflict settings.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados , Investigación Biomédica/organización & administración , Creación de Capacidad/organización & administración , Modelos Organizacionales , África del Norte , Humanos , Medio Oriente
18.
Pediatrics ; 144(6)2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771960

RESUMEN

Millions of children are subjected to abuse, neglect, and displacement, and millions more are at risk for not achieving their developmental potential. Although there is a global movement to change this, driven by children's rights, progress is slow and impeded by political considerations. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, a global comprehensive commitment to children's rights ratified by all countries in the world except the United States (because of concerns about impingement on sovereignty and parental authority), has a special General Comment on "Implementing Child Rights in Early Childhood." More recently, the World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund have launched the Nurturing Care Framework for Early Childhood Development (ECD), which calls for public policies that promote nurturing care interventions and addresses 5 interrelated components that are necessary for optimal ECD. This move is also complemented by the Human Capital Project of the World Bank, providing a focus on the need for investments in child health and nutrition and their long-term benefits. In this article, we outline children's rights under international law, the underlying scientific evidence supporting attention to ECD, and the philosophy of nurturing care that ensures that children's rights are respected, protected, and fulfilled. We also provide pediatricians anywhere with the policy and rights-based frameworks that are essential for them to care for and advocate for children and families to ensure optimal developmental, health, and socioemotional outcomes. These recommendations do not necessarily reflect American Academy of Pediatrics policy.


Asunto(s)
Defensa del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Desarrollo Infantil , Política de Salud , Conflictos Armados , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Trabajo Infantil , Niños con Discapacidad , Disparidades en Atención de Salud , Humanos , Necesidades Nutricionales , Pediatras , Rol del Médico , Pobreza , Naciones Unidas , Estados Unidos
20.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 50(2): 52-66, 2019 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607763

RESUMEN

Objective: To describe the experiences of older adults around forced displacement due to the Colombian armed conflict. Methods: Interpretive-comprehensive study, with a hermeneutical approach; several types of sampling were carried out. The participants were 12 people aged over 60 years, who reported having being displaced and who participated in the SABE Colombia Survey. The data were encoded using the Atlas.ti software. A process of condensation of central analytical, support and emerging categories was made. Results: The displacement generated by the armed conflict has been decisive in the current life conditions of the participants. They know that they are survivors of someone else's violence; there is dislocation, loss of territory, de-anchoring, lack of protection and insecurity. To the stigma of old age, it is added being displaced and being strangers in a place where they don't belong. They live the violent uprooting of their lands and the confusion of their identity; they found themselves in a foreign scene where they were the unusual and the strangers; from receiving threats, they passed to be labeled as 'threatening'. This forced displacement stems from violence, but also from fear, and it marks the trajectory of life for older people who experience a prolonged struggle for survival in often hostile environments, living "permanently" displaced. Conclusion: When there is displacement, older people are not only shed of their land and their home, but also from their cosmos and their vital referents; in addition, it changes their life trajectory and their place in the world. Interventions should be designed based on specific particular and contextual analyses.


Asunto(s)
Conflictos Armados/psicología , Refugiados/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Colombia , Miedo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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