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1.
Hipertens. riesgo vasc ; 41(2): 78-86, abr.-jun2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-ADZ-176

RESUMEN

Introducción: La hipertensión arterial (HTA) representa el principal factor de riesgo individual, con mayor carga a nivel mundial de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV). En nuestro país, algunos trabajos epidemiológicos han mostrado marcadas diferencias en las prevalencias de estos factores de riesgo de acuerdo con la población evaluada. Sin embargo, no hay estudios epidemiológicos de evaluación de factores de riesgo cardiovascular exclusivos referentes a barrios vulnerables con muy bajos recursos económicos, socioculturales y poca accesibilidad a los sistemas de salud. Materiales y métodos: Estudio observacional de corte transversal multicéntrico en habitantes de comunas vulnerables de muy bajos recursos, como asentamientos populares y barrios carenciados con muestreo aleatorizado simple de casas. Se realizaron tomas de presión arterial (PA), medidas antropométricas, así como cuestionarios epidemiológicos, económicos y socioculturales. Se describen los hallazgos: prevalencia, conocimiento y control de la PA en las distintas regiones. Se efectuó una regresión logística para determinar las variables independientes a los resultados principales. Resultados: Se analizaron 989 participantes. La prevalencia de HTA global fue de 48,2%. Un total de 82% tenía un índice de masa corporal (IMC) >25 kg/m2. De estos pacientes, 45,3% tenían menos de seis años de educación. Este último aspecto se asoció a mayor prevalencia de HTA de forma independiente. De los hipertensos, 44% desconocían su padecimiento y solo en 17,2% estaba controlado, asociándose esto a tener obra social (OS) y mayor nivel educativo. Únicamente 24% estaban bajo tratamiento combinado. Conclusión: La prevalencia de HTA en barrios vulnerables es elevada, superando a la de otros estratos sociales con niveles de conocimiento, tratamiento y control de la HTA bajos, similar a otras poblaciones. Se detectó un uso insuficiente de la terapia combinada.


Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) represents the primary individual risk factor, contributing significantly to the global burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In our country, epidemiological research has highlighted substantial variations in the prevalence of these risk factors across different populations. However, there is a lack of epidemiological studies assessing exclusive cardiovascular risk factors within vulnerable neighborhoods characterized by extremely limited economic resources, sociocultural challenges, and inadequate healthcare access. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted among individuals residing in economically deprived and marginalized communities, including informal settlements and underprivileged neighborhoods. Simple random sampling of households was employed. Blood pressure measurements, anthropometric assessments, and epidemiological, economic, and sociocultural questionnaires were administered. Results encompass prevalence rates, awareness levels, and blood pressure control across diverse regions. Logistic regression was utilized to identify independent variables influencing primary outcomes. Results: A total of 989 participants were analyzed. The overall prevalence of hypertension was 48.2%. About 82% had a body mass index (BMI) >25. Approximately 45.3% had less than 6 years of formal education. Independent association was established between education levels below 6 years and higher hypertension prevalence Among hypertensive individuals, 44% were unaware of their condition, with only 17.2% achieving control, correlated with having health insurance and a higher educational background. Merely 24% were receiving combined therapy. Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension within vulnerable neighborhoods is alarmingly high, surpassing rates in other social strata. Knowledge, treatment, and control levels of hypertension are suboptimal, comparable to other populations... (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Ciencias de la Salud , Epidemiología , Hipertensión , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Prevalencia , Conocimiento , Argentina
2.
Adv Tech Stand Neurosurg ; 50: 277-293, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38592534

RESUMEN

This paper reviews current knowledge on minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). Although it has significant advantages, such as less postoperative pain, short hospital stay, quick return to work, better cosmetics, and less infection rate, there are also disadvantages. The long learning curve, the need for special instruments and types of equipment, high costs, lack of tactile sensation and biplanar imaging, some complications that are hard to treat, and more radiation to the surgeon and surgical team are the disadvantages.Most studies remark that the outcomes of MISS are similar to traditional surgery. Although patients demand it more than surgeons, we predict the broad applications of MISS will replace most of our classical surgical approaches.


Asunto(s)
Hospitales , Conocimiento , Humanos , Curva de Aprendizaje , Tiempo de Internación , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Mínimamente Invasivos
3.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 22(1): 85-92, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573148

RESUMEN

Impairment of cognitive functions is the primary reason for admission to long-term care units, with executive functions playing a pivotal role in dependency and behavioral issues. These functions pose significant challenges to nursing staff in providing care. However, the assessment of executive functions in elderly individuals residing in nursing homes often relies on tests that are both time-consuming and difficult for this demographic. In many instances, executive functions are either not assessed or only examined in broad terms. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze the feasibility of assessing executive functions in elderly nursing home residents, specifically aiming to distinguish sub-components such as mental flexibility, working memory, planning, and inhibition. The residents included in the study underwent executive function assessments over three visits, using various tests for each sub-component. METHODS: Out of 530 residents, 46 gave their consent and 38 completed the three visits, with an average age of 90±5 years (76.2% women) and a median MMSE score of 20/30. Feasibility was evaluated based on the test being executed and the frequency of interruptions due to difficulty or fatigue on the part of the resident. RESULTS: Only four tests proved suitable for elderly individuals in nursing homes, and we propose grouping them into a battery named SETE (Screening Executive Tests for Elderly): the conflicting instructions from the FAB, the alpha test, the clock test, and the verbal span test. CONCLUSION: The use of these four tests would enable the construction of a map delineating executive function impairment by sub-component. Enhanced knowledge of executive functions in long-term care residents will facilitate better adapted dependency management and the implementation of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioral disorders.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Función Ejecutiva , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Hospitalización , Conocimiento , Cuidados a Largo Plazo
4.
Sci Eng Ethics ; 30(2): 12, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568341

RESUMEN

Research Integrity (RI) is high on the agenda of both institutions and science policy. The European Union as well as national ministries of science have launched ambitious initiatives to combat misconduct and breaches of research integrity. Often, such initiatives entail attempts to regulate scientific behavior through guidelines that institutions and academic communities can use to more easily identify and deal with cases of misconduct. Rather than framing misconduct as a result of an information deficit, we instead conceptualize Questionable Research Practices (QRPs) as attempts by researchers to reconcile epistemic and social forms of uncertainty in knowledge production. Drawing on previous literature, we define epistemic uncertainty as the inherent intellectual unpredictability of scientific inquiry, while social uncertainty arises from the human-made conditions for scientific work. Our core argument-developed on the basis of 30 focus group interviews with researchers across different fields and European countries-is that breaches of research integrity can be understood as attempts to loosen overly tight coupling between the two forms of uncertainty. Our analytical approach is not meant to relativize or excuse misconduct, but rather to offer a more fine-grained perspective on what exactly it is that researchers want to accomplish by engaging in it. Based on the analysis, we conclude by proposing some concrete ways in which institutions and academic communities could try to reconcile epistemic and social uncertainties on a more collective level, thereby reducing incentives for researchers to engage in misconduct.


Asunto(s)
Disentimientos y Disputas , Conocimiento , Humanos , Europa (Continente) , Unión Europea , Grupos Focales
5.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0301091, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573936

RESUMEN

This study investigates the factors influencing specialization in artificial intelligence (AI) technology, a critical element of national competitiveness. We utilized a revealed comparative advantage matrix to evaluate technological specialization across countries and employed a three-way fixed-effect panel logit model to examine the relationship between AI specialization and its determinants. The results indicate that the development of AI technology is strongly contingent on a nation's pre-existing technological capabilities, which significantly affect AI specialization in emerging domains. Additionally, this study reveals that scientific knowledge has a positive impact on technological specialization, highlighting the necessity of integrating scientific advancements with technological sectors. Although complex technologies positively influence AI specialization, their effect is less pronounced than that of scientific knowledge. This suggests that in rapidly advancing fields, such as AI, incorporating new scientific knowledge into related industries may be more advantageous than simply advancing existing technologies to outpace competitors. This insight points nations toward enhancing AI competitiveness in new areas, emphasizing the vital importance of both scientific and technological capabilities, and the integration of novel AI knowledge with established sectors. This research offers critical guidance for policymakers in less technologically and economically developed countries, as these nations may not have the technological infrastructure required to foster AI specialization through increased technical complexity.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Industrias , Conocimiento , Modelos Logísticos , Tecnología
6.
Psychoanal Q ; 93(1): 13-31, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578260

RESUMEN

The author describes and then clinically illustrates what he terms the ontological dimension of psychoanalysis (having to do with coming into being) and the epistemological dimension of psychoanalysis (having to do with coming to know and understand). Neither of these dimensions of psychoanalysis exists in pure form; they are inextricably intertwined. Epistemological psychoanalysis, for which Freud and Klein are the principal architects, involves the work of arriving at understandings of play, dreams, and associations; while ontological psychoanalysis, for which Winnicott and Bion are the principal architects, involves creating conditions in which the patient might become more fully alive and real to him- or herself. The author provides clinical illustrations of the ontological dimension of psychoanalysis in which the process of the patient's coming more fully into being is facilitated by the experiences in which the patient feels recognized for the individual he is and is becoming. This occurs in an analysis in which the analyst and patient invent a form of psychoanalysis that is uniquely their own.


Asunto(s)
Psicoanálisis , Humanos , Masculino , Psicoanálisis/historia , Sueños , Emociones , Procesos Mentales , Conocimiento
7.
J Psycholinguist Res ; 53(3): 35, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587721

RESUMEN

The issues of depth vocabulary knowledge and Willingness to Communicate (henceforth, WTC) are among the most important issues in second language learning. The present study set out to empirically look into the contribution of WTC to depth of vocabulary knowledge in L2 learning. To this end, 88 English L2 learners, divided into two groups in terms of their WTC, were given two depth vocabulary tests. The Word Association Test (WAT) was first administered to make a comparison between the depth vocabulary knowledge of the two WTC groups. Then, to triangulate the results, the Word Part Levels Test (WPLT) was administered to check whether the obtained results confirmed those of WAT. Analyzing data through independent t-test and MANOVA indicated that learners with higher levels of WTC had deeper vocabulary knowledge than those with lower levels of WTC on the WAT. Further, the triangulation results evinced that although the two groups did not differ significantly on the form-section and meaning-section of the WPLT, they significantly differed on the use-section of the test. The relevant pedagogical implications of the study are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Lenguaje , Vocabulario , Humanos , Conocimiento , Pruebas del Lenguaje , Aprendizaje
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0297068, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593127

RESUMEN

Compared with visible light images, thermal infrared images have poor resolution, low contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, blurred visual effects, and less information. Thermal infrared sports target detection methods relying on traditional convolutional networks capture the rich semantics in high-level features but blur the spatial details. The differences in physical information content and spatial distribution of high and low features are ignored, resulting in a mismatch between the region of interest and the target. To address these issues, we propose a local attention-guided Swin-transformer thermal infrared sports object detection method (LAGSwin) to encode sports objects' spatial transformation and orientation information. On the one hand, Swin-transformer guided by local attention is adopted to enrich the semantic knowledge of low-level features by embedding local focus from high-level features and generating high-quality anchors while increasing the embedding of contextual information. On the other hand, an active rotation filter is employed to encode orientation information, resulting in orientation-sensitive and invariant features to reduce the inconsistency between classification and localization regression. A bidirectional criss-cross fusion strategy is adopted in the feature fusion stage to enable better interaction and embedding features of different resolutions. At last, the evaluation and verification of multiple open-source sports target datasets prove that the proposed LAGSwin detection framework has good robustness and generalization ability.


Asunto(s)
Suministros de Energía Eléctrica , Examen Físico , Generalización Psicológica , Conocimiento , Luz
9.
Curr Biol ; 34(7): R273-R275, 2024 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38593769

RESUMEN

Local and indigenous communities often have an intimate connection to nature that is reflected in their ecological knowledge and practices. A new study shows that local ecological knowledge can transform the scientific understanding of an ecological network.


Asunto(s)
Frutas , Conocimiento , Ecología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales
10.
Philos Ethics Humanit Med ; 19(1): 5, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594714

RESUMEN

Medicine is faced with a number of intractable modern challenges that can be understood in terms of hyper-intellectualization; a compassion crisis, burnout, dehumanization, and lost meaning. These challenges have roots in medical philosophy and indeed general Western philosophy by way of the historic exclusion of human emotion from human reason. The resolution of these medical challenges first requires a novel philosophic schema of human knowledge and reason that incorporates the balanced interaction of human intellect and human emotion. This schema of necessity requires a novel extension of dual-process theory into epistemology in terms of both intellect and emotion each generating a distinct natural kind of knowledge independent of the other as well as how these two forms of mental process together construct human reason. Such a novel philosophic schema is here proposed. This scheme is then applied to the practice of medicine with examples of practical applications with the goal of reformulating medical practice in a more knowledgable, balanced, and healthy way. This schema's expanded epistemology becomes the philosophic foundation for more fully incorporating the humanities in medicine.


Asunto(s)
Medicina , Filosofía , Humanos , Filosofía Médica , Emociones , Conocimiento
11.
BMC Res Notes ; 17(1): 102, 2024 Apr 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38594730

RESUMEN

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy holds promise for bringing long-lasting clinical gains for the treatment of cancer. However, studies show that only a fraction of patients respond to the treatment. In this regard, it is valuable to develop gene expression signatures based on RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data and machine learning methods to predict a patient's response to the ICB therapy, which contributes to more personalized treatment strategy and better management of cancer patients. However, due to the limited sample size of ICB trials with RNAseq data available and the vast number of candidate gene expression features, it is challenging to develop well-performed gene expression signatures. In this study, we used several published melanoma datasets and investigated approaches that can improve the construction of gene expression-based prediction models. We found that merging datasets from multiple studies and incorporating prior biological knowledge yielded prediction models with higher predictive accuracies. Our finding suggests that these two strategies are of high value to identify ICB response biomarkers in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico , Melanoma , Humanos , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico/farmacología , Inhibidores de Puntos de Control Inmunológico/uso terapéutico , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Melanoma/genética , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje Automático , ARN
12.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 7806, 2024 04 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565880

RESUMEN

The rapid proliferation and integration of AI chatbots in office environments, specifically the advanced AI model ChatGPT, prompts an examination of how its features and updates impact knowledge processes, satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM) among office workers. This study investigates the determinants of WOM among office workers who are users of ChatGPT. We adopted a quantitative approach, utilizing a stratified random sampling technique to collect data from a diverse group of office workers experienced in using ChatGPT. The hypotheses were rigorously tested through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) using the SmartPLS 4. The results revealed that system updates, memorability, and non-language barrier attributes of ChatGPT significantly enhanced knowledge acquisition and application. Additionally, the human-like personality traits of ChatGPT significantly increased both utilitarian value and satisfaction. Furthermore, the study showed that knowledge acquisition and application led to a significant increase in utilitarian value and satisfaction, which subsequently increased WOM. Age had a positive influence on WOM, while gender had no significant impact. The findings provide theoretical contributions by expanding our understanding of AI chatbots' role in knowledge processes, satisfaction, and WOM, particularly among office workers.


Asunto(s)
Boca , Condiciones de Trabajo , Humanos , Cara , Teoría Ética , Conocimiento
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0294537, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446831

RESUMEN

Credit card fraud is a significant problem that costs billions of dollars annually. Detecting fraudulent transactions is challenging due to the imbalance in class distribution, where the majority of transactions are legitimate. While pre-processing techniques such as oversampling of minority classes are commonly used to address this issue, they often generate unrealistic or overgeneralized samples. This paper proposes a method called autoencoder with probabilistic xgboost based on SMOTE and CGAN(AE-XGB-SMOTE-CGAN) for detecting credit card frauds.AE-XGB-SMOTE-CGAN is a novel method proposed for credit card fraud detection problems. The credit card fraud dataset comes from a real dataset anonymized by a bank and is highly imbalanced, with normal data far greater than fraud data. Autoencoder (AE) is used to extract relevant features from the dataset, enhancing the ability of feature representation learning, and are then fed into xgboost for classification according to the threshold. Additionally, in this study, we propose a novel approach that hybridizes Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) and Synthetic Minority Over-Sampling Technique (SMOTE) to tackle class imbalance problems. Our two-phase oversampling approach involves knowledge transfer and leverages the synergies of SMOTE and GAN. Specifically, GAN transforms the unrealistic or overgeneralized samples generated by SMOTE into realistic data distributions where there is not enough minority class data available for GAN to process effectively on its own. SMOTE is used to address class imbalance issues and CGAN is used to generate new, realistic data to supplement the original dataset. The AE-XGB-SMOTE-CGAN algorithm is also compared to other commonly used machine learning algorithms, such as KNN and Light GBM, and shows an overall improvement of 2% in terms of the ACC index compared to these algorithms. The AE-XGB-SMOTE-CGAN algorithm also outperforms KNN in terms of the MCC index by 30% when the threshold is set to 0.35. This indicates that the AE-XGB-SMOTE-CGAN algorithm has higher accuracy, true positive rate, true negative rate, and Matthew's correlation coefficient, making it a promising method for detecting credit card fraud.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Fraude/prevención & control , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje Automático
15.
Implement Sci ; 19(1): 23, 2024 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38439076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic overuse at hospital discharge is common, costly, and harmful. While discharge-specific antibiotic stewardship interventions are effective, they are resource-intensive and often infeasible for hospitals with resource constraints. This weakness impacts generalizability of stewardship interventions and has health equity implications as not all patients have access to the benefits of stewardship based on where they receive care. There may be different pathways to improve discharge antibiotic prescribing that vary widely in feasibility. Supporting hospitals in selecting interventions tailored to their context may be an effective approach to feasibly reduce antibiotic overuse at discharge across diverse hospitals. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Reducing Overuse of Antibiotics at Discharge Home multicomponent implementation strategy ("ROAD Home") on antibiotic overuse at discharge for community-acquired pneumonia and urinary tract infection. METHODS: This 4-year two-arm parallel cluster-randomized trial will include three phases: baseline (23 months), intervention (12 months), and postintervention (12 months). Forty hospitals recruited from the Michigan Hospital Medicine Safety Consortium will undergo covariate-constrained randomization with half randomized to the ROAD Home implementation strategy and half to a "stewardship as usual" control. ROAD Home is informed by the integrated-Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services Framework and includes (1) a baseline needs assessment to create a tailored suite of potential stewardship interventions, (2) supported decision-making in selecting interventions to implement, and (3) external facilitation following an implementation blueprint. The primary outcome is baseline-adjusted days of antibiotic overuse at discharge. Secondary outcomes include 30-day patient outcomes and antibiotic-associated adverse events. A mixed-methods concurrent process evaluation will identify contextual factors influencing the implementation of tailored interventions, and assess implementation outcomes including acceptability, feasibility, fidelity, and sustainment. DISCUSSION: Reducing antibiotic overuse at discharge across hospitals with varied resources requires tailoring of interventions. This trial will assess whether a multicomponent implementation strategy that supports hospitals in selecting evidence-based stewardship interventions tailored to local context leads to reduced overuse of antibiotics at discharge. Knowledge gained during this study could inform future efforts to implement stewardship in diverse hospitals and promote equity in access to the benefits of quality improvement initiatives. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT06106204 on 10/30/23.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Alta del Paciente , Humanos , Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Hospitales , Conocimiento , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
16.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 17, 2024 Mar 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38448916

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding initiation and continuation rates are shaped by complex and interrelated determinants across individual, interpersonal, community, organisational, and policy spheres. Young mothers, however, face a double burden of stigma, being perceived as immature and incompetent in their mothering and breastfeeding abilities. In this study, we aimed to understand the experiences of young mothers who exclusively breastfed for six months and beyond and explore their experiences of stigma and active resistance through social media. METHODS: In 2020, in-depth telephone interviews about breastfeeding experiences were conducted with 44 young mothers under age 25 in Aotearoa New Zealand who breastfed for six months or longer. Participants were recruited via social media. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. RESULTS: Analysis yielded four themes on young mothers' negotiation of breastfeeding and support. The first three themes revealed young mothers' encounters with socio-cultural contexts. They faced negative judgments about maturity and competence, adverse guidance to supplement or cease breastfeeding, and an undermining of their breastfeeding efforts. The fourth theme showed how young mothers sought alternative support in online environments to avoid negative interactions. Online spaces provided anonymity, convenience, experiential knowledge and social connections with shared values. This facilitated identity strengthening, empowerment and stigma resistance. CONCLUSION: Our research highlights the importance of online communities as a tool for young mothers to navigate and resist the societal stigmas surrounding breastfeeding. Online spaces can provide a unique structure that can help counteract the adverse effects of social and historical determinants on breastfeeding rates by fostering a sense of inclusion and support. These findings have implications for the development of breastfeeding promotion strategies for young mothers and highlight the potential of peer support in counteracting the negative impacts of stigma. The research also sheds light on the experiences of young mothers within the health professional relationship and the effects of stigma and cultural health capital on their engagement and withdrawal from services. Further research should examine how sociocultural barriers to breastfeeding stigmatise and marginalise young mothers and continue to reflect on their socio-political and economic positioning and how it can exacerbate inequities.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Cognición , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Personal de Salud , Conocimiento , Madres
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 24(5)2024 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38475094

RESUMEN

The identification and classification of traditional Chinese herbal medicines demand significant time and expertise. We propose the dual-teacher supervised decay (DTSD) approach, an enhancement for Chinese herbal medicine recognition utilizing a refined knowledge distillation model. The DTSD method refines output soft labels, adapts attenuation parameters, and employs a dynamic combination loss in the teacher model. Implemented on the lightweight MobileNet_v3 network, the methodology is deployed successfully in a mobile application. Experimental results reveal that incorporating the exponential warmup learning rate reduction strategy during training optimizes the knowledge distillation model, achieving an average classification accuracy of 98.60% for 10 types of Chinese herbal medicine images. The model boasts an average detection time of 0.0172 s per image, with a compressed size of 10 MB. Comparative experiments demonstrate the superior performance of our refined model over DenseNet121, ResNet50_vd, Xception65, and EfficientNetB1. This refined model not only introduces an approach to Chinese herbal medicine image recognition but also provides a practical solution for lightweight models in mobile applications.


Asunto(s)
Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Reconocimiento en Psicología
18.
Elife ; 122024 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477669

RESUMEN

Oscillations arise in many real-world systems and are associated with both functional and dysfunctional states. Whether a network can oscillate can be estimated if we know the strength of interaction between nodes. But in real-world networks (in particular in biological networks) it is usually not possible to know the exact connection weights. Therefore, it is important to determine the structural properties of a network necessary to generate oscillations. Here, we provide a proof that uses dynamical system theory to prove that an odd number of inhibitory nodes and strong enough connections are necessary to generate oscillations in a single cycle threshold-linear network. We illustrate these analytical results in a biologically plausible network with either firing-rate based or spiking neurons. Our work provides structural properties necessary to generate oscillations in a network. We use this knowledge to reconcile recent experimental findings about oscillations in basal ganglia with classical findings.


Asunto(s)
Ganglios Basales , Conocimiento , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Neuronas , Teoría de Sistemas
19.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 60: 285-288, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38479923

RESUMEN

In today's world, where nutrition forms the cornerstone of human health, the potential harms of misinformation are concerning. Nutritional myths, whether originating from age-old superstitions, misinterpreted scientific findings, or commercial interests, can lead astray. In the digital age, the proliferation of such misleading information is alarmingly accelerated, thanks to the dominance of social media and search engines. Modern artificial intelligence tools, exemplified by ChatGPT, promise a potential revolution in dispelling these nutrition-related misconceptions. ChatGPT, by offering users immediate and scientifically-backed information, aids in illuminating nutritional myths and misconceptions. However, such AI models come with inherent limitations and potential ethical concerns. Therefore, while tools like ChatGPT are undoubtedly powerful, they are not a panacea. In conclusion, AI stands as a pivotal tool in the dissemination of nutritional knowledge and debunking myths, but a careful and critical approach must be adopted in its usage.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Artificial , Dieta , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Conocimiento
20.
Med Anthropol ; 43(2): 130-145, 2024 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447082

RESUMEN

Do different medico-scientific understandings of autoimmune inflammation, whose carriers disobediently promote the therapeutic use of immunostimulants, have the potential to destabilize the hegemony of the standard palliative treatment based on immunosuppression? Here I explore whether and how medical paradigms in Brazil develop and expand around immunopathologies through practices of exclusion and inclusion in the context of global circulation of knowledges, therapies, and regulatory frameworks. While focusing on concurrent immunotherapeutic models within biomedicine, I discuss aspects of legal-epistemological frictions that animate controversies in which distinct ways of co-producing medical evidence affect and are affected by the biomedical establishment.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Humanos , Brasil , Antropología Médica
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