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1.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180441, Jan.-Dec. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059132

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the limitations, strategies, importance and obstacles in mental health education in undergraduate nursing, focused on the role of nurses in Primary Health Care. Method: An exploratory descriptive study conducted with 103 professors in the mental health area of Bachelor/Postgraduate nursing courses from 89 public Higher Education Institutions in the five regions of Brazil. Results: Only 23.3% (24) of the professors teach mental health classes only in primary health care. Of the sample, the limitations to teaching in primary care education are few class hours (46.6%), faculty to expand teaching beyond specialty settings (38.8%), and prioritization of other scenarios (48.5%). When teaching, the strategies used are home visits (43.7%), educational actions (34.0%) and active search for mental health cases (29.1%). The professors consider them important to support mental health actions (58.3%); and the barriers are the lack of articulation between the Collective Health and Health disciplines to conduct teaching (87.5%). Conclusion: It is suggested that the institutions, courses and professors make the commitment and focus efforts to overcome the gaps, which hinder the nurse's education process regarding primary knowledge in mental health, so that they can offer care to patients in psychological distress in the context of the community, as well as strengthen national mental health policy.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar limitaciones, estrategias, importancia y obstáculos en el ejercicio de la enseñanza de salud mental en la carrera de grado de Enfermería, para el desempeño de los enfermeros en la Atención Primaria de la Salud. Método: estudio descriptivo y exploratorio realizado con 103 docentes del área de salud mental de las carreras de Licenciatura/Post-grado en Enfermería de 89 Instituciones de Enseñanza Superior públicas de las cinco regiones de Brasil. Resultados: solamente el 23,3% (24) de los docentes se desempeñan en la enseñanza de salud mental apenas en la atención primaria de la salud. A partir de la muestra, las limitaciones para dictar clases en la atención primaria son la escasa carga horaria (46,6%), la poca cantidad de docentes para expandir la enseñanza fuera de los ámbitos de la especialidad (38,8%) y la priorización de otros ámbitos (48,5%). Cuando se realiza, las estrategias utilizadas son la visita domiciliaria (43,7%), acciones educativas (34,0%) y búsqueda activa de casos de salud mental (58,3%) y, como obstáculo, se erige la falta de articulación entre las asignaturas de Salud Colectiva y Salud para ejercer la docencia (87,5%). Conclusión: se sugiere que las instituciones, las carreras universitarias y los docentes asuman el compromiso y centren sus esfuerzos en superar las deficiencias que dificultan el proceso de formación de los enfermeros sobre los conocimientos primarios en salud mental, para que dichos profesionales puedan ofrecer atención a personas que padecen enfermedades psíquicas en el contexto de la comunidad, además de fortalecer la política nacional de salud mental.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar limitações, estratégias, importância e entraves na condução do ensino de saúde mental na graduação em Enfermagem para a atuação do enfermeiro na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo exploratório, realizado com 103 docentes da área de saúde mental de cursos de bacharelado/licenciatura em enfermagem de 89 Instituições de Ensino Superior públicas das cinco regiões do Brasil. Resultados: somente (24) 23,3% dos docentes conduzem o ensino de saúde mental apenas na atenção primária à saúde. Da amostra, as limitações para conduzir o ensino na atenção primária são pouca carga horária (46,6%), docentes para expandir o ensino além dos cenários de especialidade (38,8%), e priorização de outros cenários (48,5%). Quando conduzido, as estratégias utilizadas são visita domiciliar (43,7%), ações educativas (34,0%), busca ativa de casos de saúde mental (29,1%). Os docentes consideram importante para subsidiar ações em saúde mental (58,3%), e como entrave, a falta de articulação entre as disciplinas de Saúde Coletiva e Saúde para conduzir o ensino (87,5%). Conclusão: sugere-se que as instituições, cursos e docentes assumam o compromisso e centrem esforços para superar as lacunas, que dificultam o processo formativo do enfermeiro sobre conhecimentos primários em saúde mental, para que estes consigam ofertar cuidado para a sujeito em sofrimento psíquico no contexto da comunidade bem como fortalecer a política nacional de saúde mental.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Instituciones Académicas , Salud Mental , Enfermería , Curriculum , Atención Primaria de Salud , Conocimiento , Educación en Enfermería , Bachillerato en Enfermería , Docentes
2.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180407, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059137

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze university teaching in nursing from an institutional dialectic approach. Method: a qualitative research based on Institutional Socioclinics. Eighteen nursing professors from four regions of Brazil and from six public institutions of higher education participated. For data production, interviews, observations, documentary analyses, individual and collective restitution and use of the research diary were performed. Data was organized for analysis by transcription/translation, recomposition/rearrangement, and final reconstruction/narration. Data analysis was produced from analyzers, based on Socioclinics, Institutional Analysis current of thought, and on the qualitative mode of analysis by questioning and writing. Results: two main analyzers made the institution 'teaching in higher education and the nursing professor' emerge: time-money relation and resistance. Teaching time, increasingly associated with money, in managerialist logic, has formatted the nursing professors as passive subjects in the production of knowledge, induced by the evaluation model of the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel and its link to the progression in the university career. In this model, the nursing professor is driven to devote more to research than to teaching. This interferes with teaching conceptions and practices, which are more influenced by managerialism and less grounded in pedagogical theories. Resistance against this model has not yet encountered coping mechanisms. Conclusion: from the analysis produced with the participants, the choices of the nursing professor are so much more grounded in managerialism and so much less based on pedagogical references, especially those arising from dialectical theories. In this sense, resistance is transformed into a movement of adaptation.


RESUMEN Objetivo: analizar la docencia universitaria en enfermería a partir de la dialéctica institucional. Método: investigación cualitativa fundamentada en la Socioclínica Institucional. Participaron 18 profesores-enfermeros de cuatro regiones de Brasil y seis establecimientos públicos de educación superior. Para producir los datos se realizaron entrevistas, observaciones, análisis documentales, restituciones individuales y colectivas, además de utilizarse un diario de investigación. La organización de los datos para su análisis se dio mediante la transcripción/traducción de los mismos, su recomposición/reordenamiento, y por su reconstitución/narración final. El análisis de los datos se produjo a partir de analizadores, y se fundamentó en la Socioclínica, una vertiente del Análisis Institucional, y en la modalidad cualitativa de análisis por cuestionamiento y en forma escrita. Resultados: dos analizadores principales hicieron surgir la institución de 'docencia en la educación superior y el profesor-enfermero', a saber: relación tiempo/dinero y resistencia. El tiempo docente, cada vez más asociado al dinero en la lógica gerencialista, ha conformado al profesor-enfermero como un sujeto pasivo en la producción de conocimientos, inducido por el modelo evaluativo de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento para Personal de Nivel Superior y su vínculo con el avance en la carrera universitaria. En ese modelo, el profesor-enfermero está motivado a dedicarse más a la investigación que a la enseñanza. Eso interfiere con las concepciones y prácticas docentes, que quedan más influenciadas por el gerencialismo y menos fundamentadas en teorías pedagógicas. La resistencia contra ese modelo todavía no encontró mecanismos de confrontación. Conclusión: de acuerdo con el análisis elaborado con los participantes, las elecciones de los profesores-enfermeros están tanto más fundamentadas en el gerencialismo como menos basadas en referenciales pedagógicos, especialmente en aquellos devenidos de teorías dialécticas. En este sentido, la resistencia se transforma en un movimiento de adaptación.


RESUMO Objetivo: analisar a docência universitária em enfermagem a partir da dialética institucional. Método: pesquisa qualitativa fundamentada na Socioclínica Institucional. Participaram 18 professores-enfermeiros de quatro Regiões do Brasil e seis estabelecimentos públicos de educação superior. Para a produção de dados, foram realizadas entrevistas, observações, análises documentais, restituições individuais e coletivas e uso do diário de pesquisa. A organização dos dados para análise se deu pela transcrição/tradução dos mesmos, pela recomposição/rearranjo, e pela reconstituição/narração final. A análise dos dados foi produzida a partir de analisadores, fundamentada na Socioclínica, vertente da Análise Institucional e na modalidade qualitativa de análise por questionamento e pela escrita. Resultados: dois principais analisadores fizeram a instituição 'docência no ensino superior e o professor-enfermeiro' emergir: relação tempo-dinheiro e resistência. O tempo docente, cada vez mais associado ao dinheiro, na lógica gerencialista, tem formatado o professor-enfermeiro como sujeito passivo na produção de conhecimentos, induzido pelo modelo avaliativo da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e seu atrelamento à progressão na carreira universitária. Nesse modelo, o professor-enfermeiro é impulsionado a se dedicar mais à pesquisa do que ao ensino. Isso interfere nas concepções e práticas docentes, que ficam mais influenciadas pelo gerencialismo e menos fundamentadas em teorias pedagógicas. A resistência contra esse modelo não encontrou ainda mecanismos de enfrentamento. Conclusão: pela análise produzida com os participantes, as escolhas dos professores-enfermeiros estão tão mais fundamentadas no gerencialismo e tão menos baseadas em referenciais pedagógicos, notadamente naqueles advindos de teorias dialéticas. Nesse sentido, resistir se transfigura em movimento de adaptar-se.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto , Enseñanza , Universidades , Indicadores de Producción Científica , Docentes de Enfermería , Tiempo , Conocimiento , Educación Superior , Docentes
3.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 185, 2020 11 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168097

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prehospital professionals such as emergency physicians or paramedics must be able to choose and adequately don and doff personal protective equipment (PPE) in order to avoid COVID-19 infection. Our aim was to evaluate the impact of a gamified e-learning module on adequacy of PPE in student paramedics. METHODS: This was a web-based, randomized 1:1, parallel-group, triple-blind controlled trial. Student paramedics from three Swiss schools were invited to participate. They were informed they would be presented with both an e-learning module and an abridged version of the current regional prehospital COVID-19 guidelines, albeit not in which order. After a set of 22 questions designed to assess baseline knowledge, the control group was shown the guidelines before answering a set of 14 post-intervention questions. The e-learning group was shown the gamified e-learning module right after the guidelines, and before answering post-intervention questions. The primary outcome was the difference in the percentage of adequate choices of PPE before and after the intervention. RESULTS: The participation rate was of 71% (98/138). A total of 90 answer sets was analyzed. Adequate choice of PPE increased significantly both in the control (50% [33;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .013) and in the e-learning group (67% [50;83] vs 25% [25;50], P = .001) following the intervention. Though the median of the difference was higher in the e-learning group, there was no statistically significant superiority over the control (33% [0;58] vs 17% [- 17;42], P = .087). The e-learning module was of greatest benefit in the subgroup of student paramedics who were actively working in an ambulance company (42% [8;58] vs 25% [- 17;42], P = 0.021). There was no significant effect in student paramedics who were not actively working in an ambulance service (0% [- 25;33] vs 17% [- 8;50], P = .584). CONCLUSIONS: The use of a gamified e-learning module increases the rate of adequate choice of PPE only among student paramedics actively working in an ambulance service. In this subgroup, combining this teaching modality with other interventions might help spare PPE and efficiently protect against COVID-19 infection.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/educación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Adulto , Técnicos Medios en Salud/educación , Técnicos Medios en Salud/normas , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Educación a Distancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Europa (Continente) , Femenino , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional , Internet , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje , Masculino , Equipo de Protección Personal/normas , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adulto Joven
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 28, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062129

RESUMEN

COVID-19 is a rapidly growing pandemic that has grown from a few cases in Wuhan, China to millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide within a few months. Sub-Saharan Africa is not spared. Radiology has a key role to play in the diagnosis and management of COVID-19 as literature from Wuhan and Italy demonstrates. We therefore share some critical knowledge and practice areas for radiological suspicion and diagnosis. In addition, emphasis on how guarding against healthcare acquired infections (HAIs) by applying "red" and "green" principle is addressed. Given that pandemics such as COVID-19 can worsen the strain on the scantily available radiological resources in this region, we share some practical points that can be applied to manage these precious resources also needed for other essential services. We have noted that radiology does not feature in many main COVID-19 guidelines, regionally and internationally. This paper therefore suggests areas of collaboration for radiology with other clinical and management teams. We note from our local experience that radiology can play a role in COVID-19 surveillance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Ubicación de la Práctica Profesional/tendencias , Radiología/organización & administración , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Infección Hospitalaria/transmisión , Brotes de Enfermedades/ética , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Recursos en Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/virología
5.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1275-1284, 2020.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999206

RESUMEN

In April 2018, as part of their fifth-year pre-clinical education curriculum, pharmacy students at Setsunan University attended a lecture presented by hepatitis B patients and their lawyer entitled "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients". This lecture was intended to help the students to understand the circumstances and difficulties encountered by hepatitis B patients on a daily basis. For this study, we conducted questionnaire surveys of the pharmacy students before and after the lecture. The survey items pertained to students' knowledge about hepatitis B (e.g., its spread and infection possibility in daily life). Students' responses before and after the lecture varied depending on the survey topic. Hepatitis B knowledge acquired by the students in their junior year increased after the lecture; moreover, attitudes to hepatitis B patients and understanding of the difficulties and prejudice that they experienced showed a significant change. For example, responses to the items, "Feel sympathy for patients suffering from discrimination and prejudice" and "Hard to work…" were much more sympathetic after the lecture; additionally, students were less likely to "Fear infection when near patients" and more likely "… to associate with patients". Thus, the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients" had a significant impact on the pharmacy students' perceptions of these patients, allowing them to cultivate greater empathy. From an educational standpoint, it is of the utmost importance for pharmacy/medical students to develop their humanity as members of healthcare teams. Educational real-world experiences, such as the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients", provide opportunities for this development.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Empatía , Hepatitis B/psicología , Participación del Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicología , Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas/métodos , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente , Estudiantes de Farmacia/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Curriculum , Humanos , Conocimiento , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6859157, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029401

RESUMEN

Despite several efforts globally, the problem of perinatal mortality remained an unsolved agenda. As a result, it continued to be an essential part of the third sustainable development goals to end preventable child deaths by 2030. With a rate of 33 per 1000 births, Ethiopia has the highest level of perinatal mortality in the world. Thus, determining the magnitude and identifying the determinants are very crucial for evidence-based interventions. A community-based longitudinal study was conducted in Southwest Ethiopia among 3474 pregnant women to estimate the magnitude of perinatal mortality. Then, a case-control study among 120 cases and 360 controls was conducted to identify the determinants of perinatal mortality. Data were collected by using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify variables having a significant association with perinatal mortality at p < 0.05. The perinatal mortality rate was 34.5 (95% CI: 28.9, 41.1) deaths per 1000 births. Attending ≥4 ANC visits (AOR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.91), having good knowledge on key danger signs (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.75), and having a skilled attendant at birth (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.61) were significantly associated with a reduction of perinatal mortality. Being a primipara (AOR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.90, 6.00), twin births (AOR = 5.29; 95% CI: 1.46, 19.21), previous history of perinatal mortality (AOR = 3.33; 95% CI: 1.27, 8.72), and obstetric complication during labor (AOR = 4.27; 95% CI: 2.40, 7.59) significantly increased perinatal mortality. In conclusion, the magnitude of perinatal mortality in the study area was high as compared to the national target for 2020. Care during pregnancy and childbirth and conditions of pregnancy and labor were identified as determinants of perinatal mortality. Hence, interventions need to focus on increasing knowledge of danger signs and utilization of skilled maternity care. Special emphasis needs to be given to mothers with a previous history of perinatal mortality, twin pregnancies, and having obstetric complications.


Asunto(s)
Atención Perinatal , Mortalidad Perinatal , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Competencia Clínica , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Conocimiento , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Complicaciones del Trabajo de Parto , Paridad , Embarazo , Embarazo Gemelar , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
J Pregnancy ; 2020: 6153146, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062334

RESUMEN

Introduction: Obstetric danger signs are those signs that a pregnant woman will see or those symptoms that she will feel which indicate that something is going wrong with her or with the pregnancy. Evidence on the prevalence of obstetric danger signs and contributing factors were crucial in designing programs in the global target of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess the prevalence of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy and associated factors among mothers in a Shashemene rural district, South Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 395 randomly selected women who gave birth in the last six months. A pretested interviewer-administered questionnaire was utilized. Data were cleaned, coded, and entered into Epi data manager version 4.1 and then exported to SPSS version 20. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to assess the association between independent variables with the outcome variable. Statistical significance was declared at p < 0.05. Result: One hundred sixty-three (41.3%) of women had a history of obstetric danger signs during pregnancy. The most prevalent obstetric danger signs were vaginal bleeding (15.4%) followed by swelling of the body 12.7% and severe vomiting 5.3%. Women who have less than four times antenatal care visits were 6.7 times more likely to experience obstetric danger signs (AOR 6.7 (95% CI 3.05, 14.85)) compared to those who had antenatal care visit four times and above. Women who have inadequate knowledge of obstetric danger signs were 2.5 times more likely to experience obstetric danger signs during pregnancy (AOR 2.5 (95% CI 1.34, 4.71)), and primigravida women were 6.3 times more likely to have obstetric danger signs during pregnancy (AOR 6.3 (95% CI 2.61, 15.09)) compared to multiparous women. Conclusion: About half of the pregnant mothers have experienced at least one obstetric danger signs. Public health interventions on maternal health should give priority to the prevalent causes of obstetric danger signs, strengthening completion of four antenatal care visits and health education on obstetric danger signs for pregnant mothers at community level especially for primgravid women.


Asunto(s)
Complicaciones del Embarazo/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Edema/epidemiología , Edema/etiología , Edema/prevención & control , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Número de Embarazos , Educación en Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Mortalidad Materna , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/etiología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Hemorragia Uterina/epidemiología , Hemorragia Uterina/etiología , Hemorragia Uterina/prevención & control , Vómitos/epidemiología , Vómitos/etiología , Vómitos/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
8.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239345, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33031437

RESUMEN

Human subsistence societies have thrived in environmental extremes while maintaining biodiversity through social learning of ecological knowledge, such as techniques to prepare food and medicine from local resources. However, there is limited understanding of which processes shape social learning patterns and configuration in ecological knowledge networks, or how these processes apply to resource management and biological conservation. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the prestige (rarity or exclusivity) of knowledge shapes social learning networks. In addition, we test whether people tend to select who to learn from based on prestige (knowledge or reputation), and homophily (e.g., people of the same age or gender). We used interviews to assess five types of medicinal plant knowledge and how 303 people share this knowledge across four villages in Solomon Islands. We developed exponential random graph models (ERGMs) to test whether hypothesized patterns of knowledge sharing based on prestige and homophily are more common in the observed network than in randomly simulated networks of the same size. We found that prestige predicts five hypothesized network configurations and all three hypothesized learning patterns, while homophily predicts one of three hypothesized network configurations and five of the seven hypothesized learning patterns. These results compare the strength of different prestige and homophily effects on social learning and show how cultural practices such as intermarriage can affect certain aspects of prestige and homophily. By advancing our understanding of how prestige and homophily affect ecological knowledge networks, we identify which social learning patterns have the largest effects on biocultural conservation of ecological knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Plantas Medicinales , Aprendizaje Social , Biodiversidad , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Melanesia , Plantas Medicinales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Red Social
9.
Health Educ Res ; 35(5): 481-489, 2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090218

RESUMEN

Awareness and knowledge have been identified as essential requirements to successfully combat the global threat which COVID-19 currently poses. Rural communities are particularly at risk because of their low socio-economic status and high illiteracy level. There is currently uncertainty regarding how to effectively raise awareness about the pandemic and educate rural communities about it. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of interpersonal communication in awareness creation and knowledge about COVID-19 among rural communities in a developing country. We tested three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The sample size was made up 470 participants. The questionnaire served as the instrument for data collection. In the analysis of data, both descriptive and inferential statistics were used. The results demonstrate that interpersonal communication is effective in creating awareness about COVID-19 among rural communities. It was also found that interpersonal communication was effective in improving knowledge about the pandemic among rural communications. We explored the implications of these findings on healthcare delivery.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Comunicación , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Relaciones Interpersonales , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adulto , Concienciación , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Población Rural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
10.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 50(4): 533-540, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895340

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate nursing students' understanding of the prevention of COVID-19, as well as their anxiety towards the disease and their perception of their professional identity in the wake of the pandemic, in Zhengzhou, China. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate 474 nursing students by cluster sampling using a stratified questionnaire from February 15 to March 31, 2020. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the factors affecting professional identity. Binary and multiple logistic regression were used to identify the factors affecting anxiety. RESULTS: Responders with a high level of understanding of COVID-19 and frequent use of behavioral strategies for its prevention comprised 93.2% and 30.0% of the cohort, respectively. Professional identity was significantly associated with gender and anxiety (p < .050). The prevalence of anxiety among nursing students was 12.4%. Male (odds ratio [OR] = 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26~4.52), sophomores (OR = 5.30; 95% CI = 1.61~7.45), and infrequent use of prevention measures (OR = 3.49; 95% CI = 1.16~5.19) had a significant effect on anxiety. CONCLUSION: Anxiety during the COVID-19 epidemic gives an adverse effect on the professional identity of nursing in students. Nursing education institutions need to provide psychological counseling services for nursing students, in addition to improving their teaching of COVID-19 prevention strategies.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Conocimiento , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Rol Profesional , Estudiantes de Enfermería/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Oportunidad Relativa , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
11.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es9, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870091

RESUMEN

Transfer of knowledge from one context to another is one of the paramount goals of education. Educators want their students to transfer what they are learning from one topic to the next, between courses, and into the "real world." However, it is also notoriously difficult to get students to successfully transfer concepts. This issue is of particular concern in biology and the life sciences, for which transfer of concepts between disciplines is especially critical to understanding. Students not only struggle to transfer concepts like energy from chemistry to biology but also struggle to transfer concepts like chromosome structures in cell division within biology courses. This paper reviews the current research and understanding of transfer from cognitive psychology. We discuss how learner abilities, taught material, and lesson characteristics affect transfer and provide best practices for biology and life sciences education.


Asunto(s)
Disciplinas de las Ciencias Biológicas/educación , Biología/educación , Cognición , Curriculum , Humanos , Conocimiento , Estudiantes
12.
Waste Manag ; 118: 323-330, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920495

RESUMEN

Effective minimisation of construction material waste has demonstrated that environmental pollution arising from construction activities can be reduced. Yet, there is insufficient knowledge on the role of architects in minimising waste, especially at the design phase. The purpose of this article is to identify the causes, barriers, approaches, driving factors to waste minimisation and to investigate strategies employed by architects at the design phase. This study adopted a survey questionnaire with both open and close-ended questions to elicit information from architects in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. Empirical results indicate that the major cause of waste at the design phase is the client's last minutes changes to design. Lack of training and design for flexibility and adaptability were the top barrier and approach to construction waste minimisation respectively. The driving factors were training, waste management policy and legislation while the top three strategies employed by the architects are modular coordination, proper detailing and market survey. Findings recommend that a design checklist be created and implemented, that waste minimisation options be considered and that architects take more responsibility for their actions during the design phase.


Asunto(s)
Administración de Residuos , Materiales de Construcción , Contaminación Ambiental , Conocimiento , Nigeria
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238345, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881957

RESUMEN

The theory of evolution is one of the greatest scientific achievements in the intellectual history of humankind, yet it is still contentious within certain social groups. Despite being as robust and evidence-based as any other notable scientific theory, some people show a strong reluctance to accept it. In this study, we used the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) and Knowledge of Evolution Exam (KEE) questionnaires with university students from four academic degree programs (Chemistry, English, History, and Biology) of ten universities from Spain to measure, respectively, acceptance and knowledge of evolutionary theory among third-year undergraduate students (nMATE = 978; nKEE = 981). Results show that acceptance of evolution is relatively high (87.2%), whereas knowledge of the theory is moderate (5.4 out of 10) although there are differences across degrees (Biology>Chemistry>History>English), and even among various universities (ranging from 4.71 to 5.81). Statistical analysis reveals that knowledge of evolutionary theory among Biology students is partially explained by the relative weight of evolutionary themes within the curriculum, suggesting that an increase in the number of hours dedicated to this topic could have a direct influence on students' knowledge of it. We also found that religion may have a significant-although relatively small-negative influence on evolutionary theory acceptance. The moderate knowledge of evolution in our undergraduate students, together with the potential problem of acceptance in certain groups, suggests the need for a revision of the evolutionary concepts in the teaching curricula of our students since primary school.


Asunto(s)
Evolución Biológica , Conocimiento , Estudiantes/psicología , Curriculum , Humanos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades , Adulto Joven
14.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(10): e22068, 2020 10 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32946412

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has markedly affected renal transplant care. During this time of social distancing, limited in-person visits, and uncertainty, patients and donors are relying more than ever on telemedicine and web-based information. Several factors can influence patients' understanding of web-based information, such as delivery modes (instruction, interaction, and assessment) and social-epistemological dimensions (choices in interactive knowledge building). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systemically evaluate the content, delivery modes, and social-epistemological dimensions of web-based information on COVID-19 and renal transplantation at time of the pandemic. METHODS: Multiple keyword combinations were used to retrieve websites on COVID-19 and renal transplantation using the search engines Google.com and Google.nl. From 14 different websites, 30 webpages were examined to determine their organizational sources, topics, delivery modes, and social-epistemological dimensions. RESULTS: The variety of topics and delivery modes was limited. A total of 13 different delivery modes were encountered, of which 8 (62%) were instructional and 5 (38%) were interactional; no assessment delivery modes were observed. No website offered all available delivery modes. The majority of delivery modes (8/13, 62%) focused on individual and passive learning, whereas group learning and active construction of knowledge were rarely encountered. CONCLUSIONS: By taking interactive knowledge transfer into account, the educational quality of eHealth for transplant care could increase, especially in times of crisis when rapid knowledge transfer is needed.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Internet , Trasplante de Riñón , Conocimiento , Donadores Vivos/educación , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Telemedicina , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/normas , Educación del Paciente como Asunto/estadística & datos numéricos , Motor de Búsqueda , Incertidumbre
15.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 140-143, 2020 08 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994606
17.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4783, 2020 09 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32963219

RESUMEN

Relations between task elements often follow hidden underlying structural forms such as periodicities or hierarchies, whose inferences fosters performance. However, transferring structural knowledge to novel environments requires flexible representations that are generalizable over particularities of the current environment, such as its stimuli and size. We suggest that humans represent structural forms as abstract basis sets and that in novel tasks, the structural form is inferred and the relevant basis set is transferred. Using a computational model, we show that such representation allows inference of the underlying structural form, important task states, effective behavioural policies and the existence of unobserved state-trajectories. In two experiments, participants learned three abstract graphs during two successive days. We tested how structural knowledge acquired on Day-1 affected Day-2 performance. In line with our model, participants who had a correct structural prior were able to infer the existence of unobserved state-trajectories and appropriate behavioural policies.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Conocimiento , Análisis y Desempeño de Tareas , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Aprendizaje/fisiología , Modelos Teóricos
18.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 714, 2020 Sep 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993536

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency virus continues to be a major global health problem infecting 75 million and killing 32 million people since the beginning of the epidemic. It badly hit Sub Saharan Africa than any country in the world and youths are sharing the greatest burden. The study aims to assess the level of HIV-knowledge and its determinants among Ethiopian youths using the 2016 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey data. METHODS: A nationally representative 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey data were used. A total of 10,903 youths comprising 6401 females and 4502 males were included in the study. Descriptive statistics and multilevel order logistic regression were used and confidence interval was used to declare statistical significance in the final model. RESULTS: The mean age and SD of youths included in this study was 19.10 (±2.82). Among Ethiopian youths, 20.92% (95% CI: 18.91, 23.09%) had low knowledge of HIV whereas, 48.76% (95% CI: 47.12, 50.41%) and 30.31% (95% CI: 28.51, 32.18%) of them had moderate and comprehensive HIV knowledge respectively. Being male, access to TV and radio, ever tested for HIV/AIDS, owning a mobile telephone, and attending primary school and above compared to non-attendants were associated with having higher HIV knowledge. But, dwelling in rural Ethiopia, being in the Protestant and Muslim religious groups as compared to those of Orthodox followers and being in married groups were associated with having lower HIV knowledge. Approximately, 12% of the variation in knowledge of HIV was due to regions. CONCLUSION: Only one-third of Ethiopian youths have deep insight into the disease, whereas, nearly one-fifth of them have lower HIV-knowledge. There is a significant disparity in HIV-related knowledge among Ethiopian youths living in different regions. Rural residents, less educated, female, and married youths have less knowledge of HIV as compared to their counterparts. Youths who do not have a mobile phone, who lack health insurance coverage, and who have limited access to media have less knowledge about HIV. Therefore, the due focus should be given to the aforementioned factors to minimize the disparities between regions and to enhance Ethiopian youths' HIV-knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/psicología , Concienciación , Conocimiento , Acceso a la Información , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Población Rural , Instituciones Académicas , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238460, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886702

RESUMEN

This study was designed to explore the role of local knowledge (LK) in enhancing the resilience of Dinki watershed in the central highlands of Ethiopia. The data were collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, and household surveys. The qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Whereas descriptive statistics and logistic regression were used for quantitative data analyses. The result showed that the majority of the respondents have local knowledge and used in their daily activities. Furthermore, the LK is reported to have the adaptive capacity in managing land resource degradation, treating disease, mitigating food insecurity, and enhancing social capital, among others. Likewise, the logistic regression analysis showed that age, gender, and education status of the household head were significantly correlated (p<0.05) to knowledge level, indicating their predictive power for the acquisition of LK. Accordingly, old-aged (60+ years) male respondents who attended primary education were higher to acquire LK than their counterparts. The result realized that the adaptive roles (land resource management, medication, climate change adaptation, etc.) of local knowledge systems could contribute to enhancing resilience. More importantly, the presence of social mechanisms is insurance to maintain LK. Thus, both intergenerational and intragenerational information gaps are filled with education and promotion on the roles of local knowledge systems. Besides, local-decision options should participate in custodians to share their experiences, that could contribute to sustaining ecosystem resilience.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Ecosistema , Conocimiento , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Etiopía , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Abastecimiento de Alimentos , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
20.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239204, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997703

RESUMEN

Informal learning environments provide the opportunity to study guests' experiences as they engage with exhibits specifically designed to invoke the emotional experience of awe. The current paper presents insight gained by using both traditional survey measures and innovative mobile eye-tracking technology to examine guests' experiences of awe in a science museum. We present results for guests' visual attention in two exhibit spaces, one chosen for its potential to evoke positive awe and one for negative awe, and examine associations between visual attention and survey responses with regard to different facets of awe. In this exploratory study, we find relationships between how guests attend to features within an exhibit space (e.g., signage) and their feelings of awe. We discuss implications of using both methods concurrently to shed new light on exhibit design, and more generally for working in transdisciplinary multimethod teams to move scientific knowledge and application forward.


Asunto(s)
Atención , Emociones/fisiología , Movimientos Oculares , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Museos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
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