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1.
J Environ Manage ; 301: 113920, 2022 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731945

RESUMEN

Adaptive management is a systematic approach for linking learning with implementation to facilitate ongoing improvement in natural resource management. The idea of learning from experience and adapting subsequent policies, strategies and actions, is intuitively appealing. However, application of adaptive management has been hindered by several obstacles, including a paucity of documented lessons from existing adaptive management practices and inadequate attention to the complex social aspects of learning. Here we address these two impediments through (i) a case study of an established version of adaptive management and its application in the context of protected area management plans, and (ii) its critical comparison and conceptual integration with the seminal theory of organizational knowledge creation (TOKC), which emphasizes the social aspects of learning. As case study, we focus on Strategic Adaptive Management (SAM), which has been iteratively developed and implemented by South African National Parks for more than 20 years. We used TOKC as a conceptual sounding board to reflect on and appraise the learning that takes place through SAM. A comparison of the main steps of the SAM cycle with corresponding stages outlined by TOKC revealed remarkable complementarity between these two approaches, but also important differences. The conceptual comparison deepened our understanding of SAM's learning performance as well as potential, revealing strengths, weaknesses and opportunities for improvement. Key insights include that valuable and different forms of learning takes place during each step of the SAM cycle. This learning can be enhanced through careful attention to approaches for creating, sharing and making explicit the tacit knowledge of individuals. Furthermore, dialogue and co-learning with stakeholders should be maintained beyond the visioning and objectives setting step of SAM. Based on insights gained, we developed a new and complementary conceptualization of SAM, as a spiraling process of organizational learning enabled by the interplay between tacit and explicit forms of knowledge, which in turn is mediated by different types of social interactions, media and engagement with practice. We believe that this conceptualization can help to better acknowledge and enable learning as one of the most fundamental purposes and outcomes of SAM, and adaptive management more generally.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Organizaciones , Humanos
2.
Am J Clin Hypn ; 64(1): 20-35, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748464

RESUMEN

The history of hypnosis has been marked by its effectiveness paralleled by prejudicial refusal, due to its ostensible incompatibility with the ruling Weltbild (picture of the world). Its interpretation has been mainly based on concepts like suggestibility, dissociation, hallucination, impairment of sense of agency, and free will. Nevertheless, little evidence and agreement has been reached so far on the nature of hypnosis and hypnotic ability, an uncertainty enhanced by the wide range of meanings and ambiguities of the used terms. This article analyzes the main epistemological implications involved in the topic.


Asunto(s)
Hipnosis , Hipnóticos y Sedantes , Humanos , Conocimiento , Sugestión
3.
Ann Anat ; 239: 151826, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the importance, anatomy training is worldwide recognizable in virtually all undergraduate curricula and many postgraduate surgical curricula (Estai and Bunt, 2016; Older, 2004). The postgraduate curriculum of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) is such a surgical curriculum. It is a diverse branch of medicine and the role of anatomy in O&G is versatile. In the Netherlands nor in Europe the expectations of knowledge on anatomy are specified in the current training program, making trainees insecure about their performance in anatomy knowledge ("Better Education for Obsetrics and Gynaecology,"). Therefore, we recently performed a Delphi study to determine which anatomical structures should be taught to ensure safe and competent practice among general gynaecologists (Koppes et al., 2020). The aim of this study is the determination of the anatomical knowledge level in postgraduate training for O&G. Our hypothesis is that the trainees possess a good knowledge of anatomy and on average at least 80% of correct answers on core knowledge is shown. METHODS: A longitudinal knowledge analysis was performed under Dutch Trainees Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The anatomy questions of the annual progress tests from 2010 to 2019 were analysed. Anatomy questions were selected and assessed on relevance based on the previous performed Delphi study which identified 86 structures which are essential to perform safe and competent practice as a general gynaecologist. Scores on relevant anatomy questions were calculated. RESULTS: In 10-year 3136 trainees performed the annual progress test. 54 Anatomy related questions were asked on a total of 1637 questions (3.3%). Of these 54 questions, 38 (70%) were concerned as relevant questions. Overall 10-year score was 64.5%. CONCLUSIONS: The anatomy knowledge of trainees' Obstetrics and Gynaecology is insufficient. Our results are a step in the awareness of testing and improving anatomy knowledge of postgraduate O&G training.


Asunto(s)
Ginecología , Obstetricia , Competencia Clínica , Curriculum , Femenino , Ginecología/educación , Humanos , Conocimiento , Obstetricia/educación , Embarazo
4.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210967, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253959

RESUMEN

There is no much published data on the mothers' false beliefs about signs and symptoms associated with teething in Sudan. Aim: This cross-sectional hospital-based study was conducted to assess mothers` knowledge about infant teething process and to evaluate mothers' practices used to alleviate teething disturbances in Gadarif city, eastern Sudan. Methods: Questionnaires were used to collect data. Multivariate logistics regression models were performed and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results/Conclusion: Of a total of 384 participating mothers, 126 (32.8%) had good knowledge about infant teething. The mothers' knowledge was associated with a higher number of children in the family (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.14) and with having a job (AOR = 2.22). Mothers residing in rural areas (AOR = 0.40) and mothers with lower than secondary education (AOR = 0.43) were less likely to have good knowledge about teething. Diarrhea (88.5%), fever (86.5%), an urge to bite (76.6%), and poor appetite (71.9%) were the signs and symptoms most attributed to teething by mothers. Only the mother's knowledge about teething was associated with reporting fever as a sign. A considerable number (317; 82.6%) of mothers reported performing "Dokhan" (acacia wood smoke), 313 (81.5%) preferred to administer paracetamol or other systemic analgesics, 262 (68.2%) agreed that a child with tooth eruption should be taken to a hospital or health center, and 216 (56.3%) believed that antibiotics relieved symptoms related to teething


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Signos y Síntomas , Erupción Dental , Niño , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Conocimiento , Madres
5.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 63, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736491

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Documenting local ecological knowledge (LEK) has recently become a topic of considerable interest. LEK can contribute to various areas of ecology, including habitat management and conservation biology. It has been recently revealed that recreational fishers' ecological knowledge (FEK) can also provide valuable information about different organisms and habitats, while recreational fishers' ecological knowledge is understudied in many aspects and regions of the world. METHODS: We aimed to record Hungarian recreational FEK on plant species related to freshwater habitats. Our research was conducted in three regularly fished water bodies in Hungary, namely Lake Velence, Keleti Main Canal, and Lake Látóképi, where a total of 72 interviews were conducted with recreational anglers. During interviews, 24 plant species occurring at freshwater habitats with common or sporadic distribution were shown to anglers as single species or in congeneric pairs. Miscellaneous plant-related knowledge of anglers was also collected. RESULTS: Anglers identified a total of 16 plant species. They used 45 botanical or folk names. An angler knew the name of 4.6 plants on average and recognized 7.4 other species without naming it. According to our detailed analysis, anglers were able to name or at least recognize those plant species which are somehow related to fishing activities, are salient, and/or common. Moreover, anglers at Lake Velence recognized less plant species; however, they also had less years of fishing experience compared to anglers of the other two locations. CONCLUSION: We found that recreational FEK exists even in the case of freshwater plants which are not the main focus of anglers. It is highly presumable that recreational fishers would be able to provide reliable ecologically related data for scientific research establishing future citizen science projects of nature conservation.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Etnobotánica , Plantas , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Agua Dulce , Hungría , Conocimiento
6.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 3): 5251-5260, 2021.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787216

RESUMEN

Self-medication is a social practice that corresponds to the autonomous use of therapeutic elements to address diseases. It involves a sociocultural context of the disease, and a rationality focused on therapeutic efficacy and the availability of curative supplies. Identify and analyze the process of oral health self-medication in indigenous Muiscas, Pijaos, and Yanakunas of Colombia. This is a qualitative, ethnographic study employing techniques such as documentary analysis, participant observation, field diary, and ethnographic interviews. Self-medication is frequent among these indigenous people. It prioritizes the use of pharmaceutical drugs in the Muiscas and medicinal plants in the Yanakunas. The therapeutic supplementation is evident in the Pijaos. The pharmaceutical elements focus on a matter of social progress and the herbal elements on a matter of cultural identity. In these communities, oral health self-medication is a structured and daily practice in families to address their ailments. This practice is supported by the knowledge, management, and availability of different therapeutic resources.


Asunto(s)
Plantas Medicinales , Grupos de Población , Colombia , Humanos , Conocimiento , Salud Bucal
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20201084, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787275

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to analyze knowledge production adherence from a master's course in nursing in the Amazon to care and health demands in the region, with an emphasis on neglected tropical diseases and traditional populations in the Amazon. METHODS: a descriptive study, with a quantitative approach and documentary basis, analyzing dissertations defended in a Graduate Program in Nursing at the Universidade do Estado do Pará in association with the Universidade Federal do Amazonas, from 2012-2019. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: of the 105 dissertations analyzed, 30 (28.6%) were related to neglected tropical diseases. Of these, 11 (10.5%) dealt with Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, tuberculosis, malaria, and leprosy. Traditional populations in the Amazon participated in only 11 (10.5%) studies. CONCLUSIONS: knowledge production in a master's course has adherence to care and health demands in the region; however, it needs to enhance its production to strengthen its identity.


Asunto(s)
Educación de Postgrado en Enfermería , Atención de Enfermería , Brasil , Humanos , Conocimiento , Recursos Humanos
8.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 75Suppl 2(Suppl 2): e20210027, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787279

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: to create and validate the content of a guide for monitoring the communication of the HIV diagnosis in childhood. METHODS: methodological study, with a design guided by the Knowledge-to-Action (KTA) Framework, supported by a participatory approach. The guide's content was structured according to the communication elements proposed by Lasswel from review studies. RESULTS: the content was validated by 26 experts from nursing, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, using a Likert-type scale for relevance, clarity and precision. Data collection took place online and achieved a Content Validity Index of 0.94. CONCLUSIONS: the guide can contribute to the practice of professionals who care for children living with HIV, to support the family in communication and to the child's right to know their diagnosis. For further research, it is recommended to create and validate the face of the technology in order to implement it.


Asunto(s)
Revelación , Infecciones por VIH , Niño , Comunicación , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Humanos , Conocimiento
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34769721

RESUMEN

Clinical reasoning entails the application of knowledge and skills to collect and integrate information, typically with the goal of arriving at a diagnosis and management plan based on the patient's unique circumstances and preferences. Evidence-informed, structured, and explicit teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning in educational programs of medical and other health professions remain unmet needs. We herein summarize recommendations for clinical reasoning learning objectives (LOs), as derived from a consensus approach among European and US researchers and health professions educators. A four-step consensus approach was followed: (1) identification of a convenience sample of the most relevant and applied national LO catalogues for health professions educational programs (N = 9) from European and US countries, (2) extraction of LOs related to clinical reasoning and translation into English, (3) mapping of LOs into predefined categories developed within the Erasmus+ Developing, implementing, and disseminating an adaptive clinical reasoning curriculum for healthcare students and educators (DID-ACT) consortium, and (4) synthesis of analysis findings into recommendations for how LOs related to clinical reasoning could be presented and incorporated in LO catalogues, upon consensus. Three distinct recommendations were formulated: (1) make clinical reasoning explicit, (2) emphasize interprofessional and collaboration aspects of clinical reasoning, and (3) include aspects of teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning. In addition, the consortium understood that implementation of bilingual catalogues with English as a common language might contribute to lower heterogeneity regarding amount, structure, and level of granularity of clinical reasoning LOs across countries. These recommendations will hopefully motivate and guide initiatives towards the implementation of LOs related to clinical reasoning in existing and future LO catalogues.


Asunto(s)
Razonamiento Clínico , Curriculum , Competencia Clínica , Empleos en Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Aprendizaje
10.
J Aging Stud ; 59: 100972, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34794718

RESUMEN

This article offers a fresh examination of Mitch Albom's bestseller Tuesdays with Morrie (1997) from a perspective of literary age studies, with a special focus on the concept of later-life mentorship. The classic mentor figure, commonly seen as the archetype of a wise old teacher, is revived through the healing power of an end-of-life narrative. The mentorial relationship between a young man and an old man shows that the personal growth is as an ongoing and ageless process of becoming that can lead to wisdom and a better understanding of aging and living-with-dying. It also reveals that later-life narratives of mentorship are an integral part of the transmission of knowledge and humanistic values to establish solid relationships between generations. Life lessons with Morrie, collected in the form of a memoir, provide readers with important tools to learn to accept life in all its dimensions, and show how literary narratives of growing older can help deconstruct negative western notions of old age and lead to more meaningful lives in all life stages.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento , Mentores , Humanos , Conocimiento , Masculino , Narración
11.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(4): 113, 2021 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34735634

RESUMEN

The history of the research on peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is characterized by a premature abandonment of the bacterial hypothesis, which subsequently had its comeback, leading to the discovery of Helicobacter pylori-the major cause of the disease. In this paper we examine the received view on this case, according to which the primary reason for the abandonment of the bacterial hypothesis in the mid-twentieth century was a large-scale study by a prominent gastroenterologist Palmer, which suggested no bacteria could be found in the human stomach. To this end, we employ the method of digital textual analysis and study the literature on the etiology of PUD published in the decade prior to Palmer's article. Our findings suggest that the bacterial hypothesis had already been abandoned before the publication of Palmer's paper, which challenges the widely held view that his study played a crucial role in the development of this episode. In view of this result, we argue that the PUD case does not illustrate harmful effects of a high degree of information flow, as it has frequently been claimed in the literature on network epistemology. Moreover, we argue that alternative examples of harmful effects of a high degree of information flow may be hard to find in the history of science.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Úlcera Péptica , Humanos , Conocimiento , Úlcera Péptica/etiología
12.
J Ethnobiol Ethnomed ; 17(1): 66, 2021 Nov 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34789281

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Fieldwork plays an important role in research projects across a variety of fields, especially in the multidisciplinary setting of natural and social science research. As is the nature of fieldwork, things do not always work out as planned, and yet this is not often written about. In response to the need for honest and transparent accounts of fieldwork, the purpose of this article is to review the methods used during fieldwork for the first author's dissertation research on ethnoveterinary knowledge. METHODS: To critically review and reflect on the fieldwork methods used for an ethnoveterinary study in Mongolia, we compare the theory underpinning each method with the practical reality of implementing the method in the field. From this comparison, we draw out and discuss a number of key themes. RESULTS: Eighteen methods and approaches used for the research project are reviewed and compared. From this, we distil and further discuss the following five overarching themes: reflections on specific data collection methods (free listing, semi-structured interviews with interpreters, voucher specimen collection); assumptions around involving local people; power dynamics; gender relations; and researcher well-being. CONCLUSION: By juxtaposing the theory and practical reality of the methods used, we highlight many potential fieldwork challenges and, within this context, offer general pointers, especially for novice female researchers doing fieldwork in foreign countries. A critical review of this type, where the experience and use of various methods, techniques, and approaches are openly shared and evaluated, is a contribution to selecting, adapting, and fine-tuning the methods best suited to a particular research context.


Asunto(s)
Soledad , Investigadores , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Mongolia , Proyectos de Investigación
13.
Waste Manag ; 136: 337-347, 2021 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752973

RESUMEN

Research on recycling has advanced across different disciplines, although the current knowledge about recycling behaviors at the corporate level remains elusive. While most studies on recycling are focused on households, there is no indication that people who recycle at home engage in similar behavior when at work. To understand how to facilitate recycling at work, this study investigates recycling behavior at work and its antecedents. The study adopts a sequential exploratory mixed method (MM) approach as its methodological framework, using semi-structured interviews and statistical analysis through structural equation modelling (SEM). According to the findings, factors such as types and volumes of waste, responsibility/accountability, personal control, recycling schemes, institutional supports, and group harmony contribute to recycling behavior in organizational settings. The study demonstrates contextual attributes' contribution, particularly organizational support and social context of recycling to employees' recycling behavior. For recycling to be normative at the corporate level, this MM study argues for the need to harmonize schemes within and across contexts. There is a need to install similar recycling schemes and facilities within and across waste generation contexts to reduce the recycling complexity and maintain consistency in recycling behavior. This study's findings could assist waste planners and policymakers in designing effective waste management schemes that would contribute to the circular economy initiatives. We further discussed the implication of the study.


Asunto(s)
Reciclaje , Administración de Residuos , Humanos , Conocimiento , Organizaciones , Responsabilidad Social
14.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 138, 2021 Nov 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819100

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite a growing movement toward a knowledge-user-driven research process, our understanding of the generation, implementation and evaluation of specific approaches in the integrated knowledge translation (iKT) toolbox that aim to engage health and healthcare knowledge users is limited. Health hackathons offer an innovative approach with potential to generate direct and indirect health-related outcomes benefitting participants, knowledge users and the broader population. In May 2019, our research team hosted Waterlupus, a health hackathon to improve the economic lives of individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Canada. Waterlupus was held with a multi-stakeholder group of 50 participants that included advocacy organization representatives, policy-makers, researchers, physicians, individuals with lived experience and students. While the hackathon generated viable solutions with the potential to positively impact the lives of individuals with SLE, understanding how participants perceived the hackathon as an iKT tool is critical in the planning and implementation of future iKT research. METHODS: Semi-structured in-depth telephone interviews were conducted with Waterlupus participants (n = 13) between August and November 2019 to (1) explore participant experiences of the hackathon; (2) investigate participant-identified hackathon outcomes; and (3) elicit recommendations for future iKT research using health hackathons. RESULTS: Participants provided feedback on the format and organization of Waterlupus, and identified direct and indirect outcomes to knowledge users, students and researchers beyond the innovations generated at the event. While the majority (n = 11) had never participated in a hackathon prior to Waterlupus, all 13 stated they would participate in future hackathons. Positive outcomes identified include connecting with students and other SLE stakeholders, the formation of professional and support networks, increased awareness of SLE, as well as the innovations generated. Participant recommendations for future health hackathons include the addition of stakeholders from industry or technology, and the need for clear and designated roles for stakeholders to ensure efficient use of resources. CONCLUSIONS: This work contributes to a limited literature regarding the use of health hackathons for social innovation, and offers knowledge-user suggestions relevant to the implementation of future iKT events, and hackathons specifically.


Asunto(s)
Atención a la Salud , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Instituciones de Salud , Humanos , Conocimiento , Investigadores
15.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258660, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758034

RESUMEN

Due to COVID-19 precautions, the Vanderbilt University summer biomedical undergraduate research program, the Vanderbilt Summer Science Academy (VSSA), rapidly transitioned from offering an in-person training program to a virtual seminar format. Our program typically supports undergraduate development through research and/or clinical experience, meeting with individuals pursuing postgraduate training, and providing career development advice. Evidence supports the idea that summer programs transform undergraduates by clarifying their interest in research and encouraging those who haven't previously considered graduate studies. We were interested in exploring whether a virtual, synchronous program would increase participants' scientific identity and clarify postgraduate career planning. Rather than create a virtual research exposure, our 5-week "Virtual VSSA" program aimed to simulate the casual connections that would naturally be made with post-undergraduate trainees during a traditional summer program. In seminars, presenters discussed 1) their academic journey, explaining their motivations, goals, and reasons for pursuing a career in science as well as 2) a professional story that illustrated their training. Seminars included Vanderbilt University and Medical School faculty, M.D., MD/Ph.D., as well as Ph.D. students from diverse scientific and personal backgrounds. In addition, weekly informational sessions provided an overview of the nature of each degree program along with admissions advice. Through pre-and post-program surveys, we found that students who registered for this experience already strongly identified with the STEMM community (Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Medicine). However, participation in the Virtual VSSA increased their sense of belonging. We also uncovered a gap in participants' understanding of postgraduate pathways prior to participation and found that our program significantly increased their self-reported understanding of postgraduate programs. It also increased their understanding of why someone would pursue a Ph.D. or Ph.D./MD versus M.D. These changes did not uniformly impact participants' planned career paths. Overall, by providing personal, tangible stories of M.D., MD/Ph.D., and Ph.D. training, the Virtual VSSA program offered seminars that positively impacted students' sense of belonging with and connection to the STEMM disciplines.


Asunto(s)
Ingeniería/educación , Matemática/educación , Tecnología/educación , Academias e Institutos , Investigación Biomédica/educación , COVID-19/epidemiología , Selección de Profesión , Docentes/educación , Humanos , Conocimiento , Mentores/educación , Grupos Minoritarios/educación , Facultades de Medicina , Estudiantes , Universidades
16.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(21): 6775-6781, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34787882

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This longitudinal descriptive study aimed to evaluate cognitive skills acquisition in basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (bCPR) among a group of Year 5 and Year 6 primary school pupils. The study made use of online tools due to the impossibility of conventional methods during the COVID-19 lockdown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pupils received formal training in bCPR. Training was imparted uniformly by a teacher at the school (qualified in Basic Life Support -BLS- and Advanced Life Support -ALS- training by the CPR National Plan). The skills acquired (those proposed as essential for bCPR training by the European Resuscitation Council) were evaluated fifteen weeks later. Skills acquisition was evaluated by means of an online questionnaire developed specifically for the study. RESULTS: In all the cognitive skills included in bCPR training, the acquisition level achieved was over 65%. Acquisition of knowledge of the anatomical areas at which cardiac massage must be applied and the means of emergency systems activation was high, while 25.5% of pupils knew the order in which maneuvers should be performed. Pupils' self-confidence and self-perception of their capacity to act when faced with a real CPR situation increased significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Primary school pupils learned all the cognitive skills involved in bCPR, showing high levels of skills acquisition and positive self-perception of their capacity to apply them.


Asunto(s)
Reanimación Cardiopulmonar/educación , Estudiantes/psicología , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/virología , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Conocimiento , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto , Cuarentena , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Instituciones Académicas , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
17.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 135, 2021 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There are increasing expectations for researchers and knowledge users in the health system to use a research partnership approach, such as integrated knowledge translation, to increase the relevance and use of research findings in health practice, programmes and policies. However, little is known about how health research trainees engage in research partnership approaches such as IKT. In response, the purpose of this scoping review was to map and characterize the evidence related to using an IKT or other research partnership approach from the perspective of health research trainees in thesis and/or postdoctoral work. METHODS: We conducted this scoping review following the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology and Arksey and O'Malley's framework. We searched the following databases in June 2020: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO. We also searched sources of unpublished studies and grey literature. We reported our findings in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Extension for Scoping Reviews. RESULTS: We included 74 records that described trainees' experiences using an IKT or other research partnership approach to health research. The majority of studies involved collaboration with knowledge users in the research question development, recruitment and data collection stages of the research process. Intersecting barriers to IKT or other research partnerships at the individual, interpersonal and organizational levels were reported, including lack of skills in partnership research, competing priorities and trainees' "outsider" status. We also identified studies that evaluated their IKT approach and reported impacts on partnership formation, such as valuing different perspectives, and enhanced relevance of research. CONCLUSION: Our review provides insights for trainees interested in IKT or other research partnership approaches and offers guidance on how to apply an IKT approach to their research. The review findings can serve as a basis for future reviews and primary research focused on IKT principles, strategies and evaluation. The findings can also inform IKT training efforts such as guideline development and academic programme development.


Asunto(s)
Investigadores , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Humanos , Conocimiento
18.
J Hist Ideas ; 82(4): 615-636, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34840191

RESUMEN

During the Second World War, fighting the growing influence of left-leaning British scientists became the focal point of the publications of Friedrich Hayek, Karl Popper, and Michael Polanyi. Doing so, they elaborated key epistemological principles of neoliberalism: the indeterminate nature of knowledge, the shortcomings of holistic and determinist theories of society, and the spontaneous aspects of human organizations. Although at odds on the ideological spectrum, they shared with their adversaries the idea that the production of knowledge depended on economic and social conditions. Their view of what science and scientists should do informed the birth of the Mont-Pèlerin Society.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento , Sociedades , Humanos , Organizaciones
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 1041, 2021 Oct 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34600542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Medicines management in care homes requires significant improvement. CHIPPS was a cluster randomised controlled trial to determine the effectiveness of integrating pharmacist independent prescribers into care homes to assume central responsibility for medicines management. This paper reports the parallel mixed-methods process evaluation. METHOD: Intervention arm consisted of 25 triads: Care homes (staff and up to 24 residents), General Practitioner (GP) and Pharmacist Independent Prescriber (PIP). Data sources were pharmaceutical care plans (PCPs), pharmacist activity logs, online questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Quantitative data were analysed descriptively. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results were mapped to the process evaluation objectives following the Medical Research Council framework. RESULTS: PCPs and activity logs were available from 22 PIPs. Questionnaires were returned by 16 PIPs, eight GPs, and two care home managers. Interviews were completed with 14 PIPs, eight GPs, nine care home managers, six care home staff, and one resident. All stakeholders reported some benefits from PIPs having responsibility for medicine management and identified no safety concerns. PIPs reported an increase in their knowledge and identified the value of having time to engage with care home staff and residents during reviews. The research paperwork was identified as least useful by many PIPs. PIPs conducted medication reviews on residents, recording 566 clinical interventions, many involving deprescribing; 93.8% of changes were sustained at 6 months. For 284 (50.2%) residents a medicine was stopped, and for a quarter of residents, changes involved a medicine linked to increased falls risk. Qualitative data indicated participants noted increased medication safety and improved resident quality of life. Contextual barriers to implementation were apparent in the few triads where PIP was not known previously to the GP and care home before the trial. In three triads, PIPs did not deliver the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The intervention was generally implemented as intended, and well-received by most stakeholders. Whilst there was widespread deprescribing, contextual factors effected opportunity for PIP engagement in care homes. Implementation was most effective when communication pathways between PIP and GP had been previously well-established. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The definitive RCT was registered with the ISRCTN registry (registration number  ISRCTN 17847169 ).


Asunto(s)
Gestores de Casos , Médicos Generales , Humanos , Conocimiento , Farmacéuticos , Calidad de Vida
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 22(1): 482, 2021 Oct 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34607568

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Blood cancers (BCs) are responsible for over 720 K yearly deaths worldwide. Their prevalence and mortality-rate uphold the relevance of research related to BCs. Despite the availability of different resources establishing Disease-Disease Associations (DDAs), the knowledge is scattered and not accessible in a straightforward way to the scientific community. Here, we propose SicknessMiner, a biomedical Text-Mining (TM) approach towards the centralization of DDAs. Our methodology encompasses Named Entity Recognition (NER) and Named Entity Normalization (NEN) steps, and the DDAs retrieved were compared to the DisGeNET resource for qualitative and quantitative comparison. RESULTS: We obtained the DDAs via co-mention using our SicknessMiner or gene- or variant-disease similarity on DisGeNET. SicknessMiner was able to retrieve around 92% of the DisGeNET results and nearly 15% of the SicknessMiner results were specific to our pipeline. CONCLUSIONS: SicknessMiner is a valuable tool to extract disease-disease relationship from RAW input corpus.


Asunto(s)
Aprendizaje Profundo , Minería de Datos , Conocimiento
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