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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 240, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33791866

RESUMEN

Against the backdrop of the almost total failure of conventional physical fences to prevent deaths due to human-elephant conflict and elephant-train collision, management of the problem requires novel approaches. The elephant is a giant and intelligent animal, who, as has been observed through experience, cannot be effectively confined to an area by physical barriers, most of which are built without even considering long-established elephant passes. Instead, human habitats and facilities, including highways, should be pre-planned following an overall strategy to suitably assign natural resources to each party such that natural habitats are disturbed as little as possible. Hence, we envisage the need for a virtual elephant fence as part of the aforesaid strategy to warn elephants that a certain area is not appropriate for them to be present in or best for the safety of the herd. The present study involved in-depth experimentation to investigate the effects of multiple stimuli on real elephants based on the known elephant responses to such stimuli. The proposed system is an autonomous system that detects the presence of elephants, generates alarms for concerned parties, and coordinatively and tactically repels the animals back to safer areas. Experiment results indicated that the sound of a drone and the sound of tiger growls can both exert a strong deterrent effect on elephants. The sound of bees and the low-frequency burst yielded similar results in terms of encounter and withdrawal reactions. The resulting insights may lay a foundation for a novel approach toward the management of human-elephant conflict and elephant-train collisions.


Asunto(s)
Elefantes , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Recursos Naturales
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(6)2021 Mar 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805794

RESUMEN

This paper examines the current state of the art of commercially available outdoor footfall sensor technologies and defines individually tailored solutions for the walking trails involved in an ongoing research project. Effective implementation of footfall sensors can facilitate quantitative analysis of user patterns, inform maintenance schedules and assist in achieving management objectives, such as identifying future user trends like cyclo-tourism. This paper is informed by primary research conducted for the EU funded project TrailGazersBid (hereafter referred to as TrailGazers), led by Donegal County Council, and has Sligo County Council and Causeway Coast and Glens Council (NI) among the 10 project partners. The project involves three trails in Ireland and five other trails from Europe for comparison. It incorporates the footfall capture and management experiences of trail management within the EU Atlantic area and desk-based research on current footfall technologies and data capture strategies. We have examined 6 individual types of sensor and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. We provide key learnings and insights that can help to inform trail managers on sensor options, along with a decision-making tool based on the key factors of the power source and mounting method. The research findings can also be applied to other outdoor footfall monitoring scenarios.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Turismo , Caminata , Europa (Continente) , Irlanda
3.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112191, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667822

RESUMEN

The sustainable land management program (SLMP) of Ethiopia aims to improve livelihoods and create resilient communities and landscape to climate change. Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is one of the key co-benefits of the SLMP. The objective of this study was to estimate the spatial dynamics of SOC in 2010 and 2018 (before and after SLMP) and identify the SOC sequestration hotspots at landscape scale in four selected SLMP watersheds in the Ethiopian highlands. The specific objectives were to: 1) comparatively evaluate SOC sequestration estimation model building strategies using either a single watershed, a combined dataset from all watersheds, and leave-one-watershed-out using Random Forest (RF) model; 2) map SOC stock of 2010 and 2018 to estimate amount of SOC sequestration and potential; 3) evaluate the impacts of SLM practices on SOC in four SLMP watersheds. A total of 397 auger composite samples from the topsoil (0-20 cm depth) were collected in 2010, and the same number of samples were collected from the same locations in 2018. We used simple statistics to assess the SOC change between the two periods, and machine learning models to predict SOC stock spatially. The study showed that statistically significant variation (P < 0.05) of SOC was observed between the two years in two watersheds (Gafera and Adi Tsegora) whereas the differences were not significant in the other two watersheds (Yesir and Azugashuba). Comparative analysis of model-setups shows that a combined dataset from all the four watersheds to train and test RF outperform the other two strategies (a single watershed alone and a leave-one-watershed-out to train and test RF) during the testing dataset. Thus, this approach was used to predict SOC stock before (2010) and after (2018) land management interventions and to derive the SOC sequestration maps. We estimated the sequestrated, achievable and target level of SOC stock spatially in the four watersheds. We assessed the impact of SLM practices, specifically bunds, terraces, biological and various forms of tillage practices on SOC using partial dependency algorithms of prediction models. No tillage (NT) increased SOC in all watersheds. The combination of physical and biological interventions ("bunds + vegetations" or "terraces + vegetations") resulted in the highest SOC stock, followed by the biological intervention. The achievable SOC stock analysis showed that further SOC stock sequestration of up to 13.7 Mg C ha--1 may be possible in the Adi Tsegora, 15.8 Mg C ha-1 in Gafera, 33.2 Mg C ha-1 in Azuga suba and 34.7 Mg C ha-1 in Yesir watersheds.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Suelo , Agricultura , Secuestro de Carbono , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Etiopía
4.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112251, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677339

RESUMEN

Forest and Landscape Restoration (FLR) has been defined as a planned process that aims to regain ecological functionality and enhance human well-being in degraded landscapes. Several governments and organizations worldwide rose to the challenge of halting degradation and restoring landscapes. Commitments are ambitious, thus a synthesis of current experiences with and strategies for implementation is important to inform future actions. To guide successful implementation, the Global Partnership on FLR put forward six principles, namely, the conservation and enhancement of ecosystems at landscape scales, the restoration of multiple functions, the engagement of multiple stakeholders, with allowances for context dependency and adaptive management. Non-governmental organizations, acting globally, regionally and (or) at national and local scales, play a fundamental role in supporting governments fulfill their commitments. Therefore, we gathered the perceptions of actors within non-governmental organizations engaged in FLR across countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America about what FLR is and their perceived challenges and strategies for implementation. We employed the six principles of FLR to organize and evaluate the responses. Results show that the principles of landscape scale, ecosystem conservation and enhancement, and multi stakeholder engagement are all considered by interviewees as core components of an FLR program. Yet several restoration projects shared by interviewees still required further evidence of a landscape vision, and the integration of actors beyond local communities and the environmental government sectors. Context dependency was evident in the clear incorporation of local natural resource governance norms, such as tribal and community management in project structure, yet few projects appeared to be designed by local actors. The principle of "adaptive management" was mostly missing from the responses, perhaps because most projects had not had sufficient time to learn from intervention outcomes. Key financial challenges for FLR implementation were the short duration and availability of funding, high-up front costs and few short-term returns. To overcome these challenges, promising strategies relate to the development of tangible economic returns for local actors engaged in productive restorative actions that are planned alongside conservation and ecological restoration actions in the landscape. The challenges of negotiating actions with a multitude of actors and the lack of supportive policies highlighted in the interviews require organizations to focus efforts on leveraging the enactment and enforcement of legislations that look beyond jurisdictional boundaries and support landscape management with clear, long term incentive mechanisms and cross-sectoral collaboration. In addition, implementation can be further supported with the scientifically robust sharing of results on how different FLR projects move forward in meeting the social and environmental objectives of a successful, integrative restoration of degraded landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , África , Asia , Bosques , Gobierno , Humanos , América Latina , Percepción
5.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112228, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677341

RESUMEN

Biomass production generates land use impacts in the form of emissions from Forestry and Other Land Use (FOLU), i.e. due to changes in ecosystem carbon stocks. Recently, consumption-based accounting (CBA) approaches have emerged as alternatives to conventional production-based accounts, quantifying FOLU emissions associated with biomass consumption, for example, of particular territories. However, the quantification and allocation of FOLU emissions to individual biomass products, a fundamental part of CBA approaches, is a complex endeavour. Existing studies make diverging methodological choices, which are rarely critically discussed. In this study, we provide a structured overview of existing CBA approaches to estimating FOLU emissions. We cluster the literature in a two-by-two grid, distinguishing the primary element under investigation (impacts of changing consumption patterns in a region vs. impacts of consumption on production landscapes) and the analytical lens (prospective vs retrospective). Further, we identify three distinct dimensions which characterise the way in which different studies allocate FOLU emissions to biomass products: the choice of reference system and the spatial and temporal scales. Finally, we identify three frontiers that require future attention: (1) overcoming structural biases which underestimate FOLU emissions from territories that experienced deforestation in the distant past, (2) explicitly tackling the interdependence of proximate causes and ultimate drivers of land use change, and (3) assessing uncertainties and understanding the effects of land management. In this way, we enable a critical assessment of appropriate methods, support a nuanced interpretation of results from particular approaches as well as enhance the informative value of CBA approaches related to FOLU emissions. Our analysis contributes to discussions on sustainable land use practices with respect to biomass consumption and has implications for informing international climate policy in scenarios where consumption-based approaches are adopted in practice.


Asunto(s)
Carbono , Ecosistema , Biomasa , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Estudios Prospectivos , Estudios Retrospectivos
6.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112189, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677342

RESUMEN

Fire is one of the most powerful modifiers of the Amazonian landscape and knowledge about its drivers is needed for planning control and suppression. A plethora of factors may play a role in the annual dynamics of fire frequency, spanning the biophysical, climatic, socioeconomic and institutional dimensions. To uncover the main forces currently at play, we investigated the area burned in both forested and deforested areas in the outstanding case of Brazil's state of Acre, in southwestern Amazonia. We mapped burn scars in already-deforested areas and intact forest based on satellite images from the Landsat series analyzed between 2016 and 2019. The mapped burnings in already-deforested areas totalled 550,251 ha. In addition, we mapped three forest fires totaling 34,084 ha. Fire and deforestation were highly correlated, and the latter occurred mainly in federal government lands, with protected areas showing unprecedented forest fire levels in 2019. These results indicate that Acre state is under increased fire risk even during average rainfall years. The record fires of 2019 may continue if Brazil's ongoing softening of environmental regulations and enforcement is maintained. Acre and other Amazonian states must act quickly to avoid an upsurge of social and economic losses in the coming years.


Asunto(s)
Fuego , Incendios Forestales , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Árboles
7.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112276, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677344

RESUMEN

Human-wildlife conflicts are a challenge in parks and protected areas around the world. Facilitating quality wildlife viewing experiences that minimize negative impacts to people and animals is often complicated by distance-related human behaviors. The purpose of this study was to examine how people's distance-related norms varied as a function of proximity from wildlife, wildlife species, and physical landscape features. By using virtual reality technology and simulations, this study assessed how physical landscape features (i.e., an open field, deadfall, and a paved road) impact wildlife viewing norms and also compared norms among three different wildlife species (i.e., bison, bear, and elk). Data were analyzed with repeated measures ANOVA to explore how these factors influenced acceptability ratings of distances between people and wildlife. Results revealed a significant interaction between distance to wildlife and landscape features. Recommendations for improving the management of humanwildlife conflicts and future research directions are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Animales
8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 181, 2021 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694006

RESUMEN

Coastal wetlands along migratory flyways are crucial in supporting staging or wintering waterbirds, yet they are often targeted for wind energy development. Potential conflicts are likely to be strong in densely populated East and Southeast Asia, where many bird species along the flyway are endangered, and wind energy projects are just flourishing. We investigated waterbird abundance and flight behavior at a coastal wind farm at the mid of the East Asian-Australasian Flyway. For shorebirds roosting in the aquacultural ponds, the abundance showed no significant change in the study area compared with the control area across all development stages of the wind farm. For egrets breeding in the mangroves, fewer Cattle Egrets Bubulcus ibis were observed in the year of wind farm construction and the first year of wind farm operation, then the number recovered afterwards. Since the operation of the wind farm, birds avoided crossing closely spaced (200 m) turbines while travelling through widely spaced (500 m) ones more frequently. Shorebirds, egrets, and landbirds flew lower when turbines were present, reducing the overlap of their flight height with the swept zone. Our study suggests that coastal wind farms are not necessarily a great threat to waterbirds. Yet environmentally sound planning and rigorous monitoring are crucial in minimizing potential impacts.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Fuentes Generadoras de Energía , Animales , Aves , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Viento
9.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1601, 2021 03 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33707454

RESUMEN

The accelerating loss of tropical forests in the 21st century has eliminated cooling services provided by trees in low latitude countries. Cooling services can protect rural communities and outdoor workers with little adaptive capacity from adverse heat exposure, which is expected to increase with climate change. Yet little is still known about whether cooling services can mitigate negative impacts of heat on labor productivity among rural outdoor workers. Through a field experiment in Indonesia, we show that worker productivity was 8.22% lower in deforested relative to forested settings, where wet bulb globe temperatures were, on average, 2.84 °C higher in deforested settings. We demonstrate that productivity losses are driven by behavioral adaptations in the form of increased number of work breaks, and provide evidence that suggests breaks are in part driven by awareness of heat effects on work. Our results indicate that the cooling services from forests have the potential for increasing resilience and adaptive capacity to local warming.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Eficiencia , Empleo , Calor/efectos adversos , Clima Tropical/efectos adversos , Bosques , Calentamiento Global , Humanos , Indonesia , Árboles
10.
Nat Ecol Evol ; 5(3): 263, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664455
12.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 771-787, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754542

RESUMEN

Ecosystem management at large scales is one of the core solutions to solve current global challenges of environmental and resources problem, mitigate climate change, govern ecosystems and environments regionally and achieve sustainable development. It is also a hotspot in the research and practice of conservation of global natural resources and ecosystems. Based on recalling and synthesizing of several large international actions on ecosystem management in the past two decades, this article rethought the concept of ecosystem management and its application from the perspective of discipline development of ecosystem management, theoretical fundaments and practices. The content included three parts: firstly, we reviewed the development of the scientific concept and practice of ecosystem management, discussed the connotations of the concept and redefined it, and summarized the practice of ecosystem management and its contribution to the development of the discipline. Secondly, we clarified the scientific and technological mission and basic tasks of ecosystem management, organized the discipline system of ecosystem management and its main research fields, summarized fundamental theories and the knowledge system of the science of ecosystem management, and clarified critical steps of ecosystem management actions, basic elements of management plans and management approaches. Finally, we proposed new trends of scientific research and the discipline development of ecosystem management, discussed the important spatial scales and its objects system of the scientific research on ecosystem management, proposed the cutting-edge scientific questions of global ecosystem management, integrative ecology thought and macro ecosystem approach. This review aimed at providing references for the scientific research and discipline deve-lopment of ecosystem management in China.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , China , Cambio Climático , Ecología
13.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 993-1004, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754566

RESUMEN

We built a comprehensive evaluation index system of urbanization in Chengdu-Chongqing (Cheng-Yu) urban agglomeration from four subsystems, including the economic, social, ecological, and urban and rural coordination. The comprehensive evaluation index system of eco-environment was constructed by combining ecological environment carrying capacity and ecological flexibi-lity. The coupling coordination degree model was applied to quantify the coupling coordination degree between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglo-meration from 2005 to 2018. With GIS spatial analysis, phenomenon analysis and Tapio model, we analyzed the interaction type, evolution path and path of decoupling between urbanization and eco-environment in the prefecture-level cities of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration. The results showed that the urbanization quality of Cheng-Yu urban agglomeration showed a trend of fluctuation and rise during the study period. Both Chengdu and Chongqing as high value areas showed "double-core" radia-ting to the surrounding areas. The eco-environment quality showed a slowly rising trend. The spatial pattern was a " U " shape with a north opening, high perimeter and low center. The degree of coupling coordination between the urbanization system and the eco-environment system was rising, with a spatial pattern of low in the middle and high in the east and west. The overall level of coupling coordination was relatively high. The type of coupling coordination degree was gradually evolving from near-disorder and reluctant coordination to moderate coordination. The evolution paths of urbanization and eco-environmental interaction were divided into two categories: stable and changing. The stable type included 20 cities in 5 subcategories, with Chengdu, Deyang, Mianyang, etc. being always well-coordination. The change type included 16 cities in 9 subcategories. The coordination degree of Chongqing main urban area, Tongliang and most other cities was improved, showing "rising" development. Hechuan, Zigong and a few other cities showed "sinking" development. The growth rates of both ecological environment and urbanization were positive. The decoupling state of urbanization and ecological environment was mainly characterized by weak decoupling and expansion connection.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Urbanización , China , Ciudades , Análisis Espacial
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1033-1044, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754570

RESUMEN

The demonstration area of ecologically friendly development in the Yangtze River Delta is a major national strategy area, and thus eco-environmental protection should be a priority for the sustainable development. Exploring the spatial-temporal variations of franctional vegetation coverage (FVC) is conducive to accurate assessing the ecological quality of environment, which is of great significance to regional sustainable development. In this study, the characteristics and trends of spatial-temporal variation of vegetation cover during 1984-2019 in the demonstration area were analyzed based on Google Earth Engine (GEE). The effects of different ecological factors on FVC were quantified by the boosted regression tree (BRT). Results showed that,the changing trend of FVC in the study area shifted from decreasing to increasing trend from 1984 to 2019. The spatial distribution of FVC in the study area varied with both stages and regions. FVC was mainly degraded. Compared with the year 1984, the area of vegetation degradation and improvement in 2019 accounted for 49.8% and 12.8%, respectively. The vegetation degradation mainly occurred in the north of Wujiang, south of Jiashan, and northeast of Qingpu. Human activities severely weakened the influence of natural factors on FVC. Our findings suggested that the GEE is an effective tool for monitoring the dynamics of vegetation coverage.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Ríos , China , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos
15.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1045-1053, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754571

RESUMEN

Based on InVEST model, recreational opportunity spectrum, factor analysis, cold and hot spot analysis, SOFM neural network, relief degree of land surface (RDLS) methods, we evalua-ted six kinds of ecosystem service in Fuzhou City and analyzed the trade-offs and synergies among them, with the aim to clarify the dominant services and the spatial pattern of service bundles in different topographical regions. The results showed substantial spatial heterogeneity in different ecosystem services of Fuzhou City. Water yield, carbon sequestration, habitat quality, and recreational opportunities were totally high, whereas the supply of agricultural products and soil and water conservation were low and substantial differences. The interaction between water yield and cultural servi-ces were synergies, but trade-offs occurred among regulating service, supporting service and agricultural products service. There were spatial aggregations for both trade-offs and synergies. Ecosystem service bundles could be divided into suburban recreation bundle, water conservation bundle, agricultural products bundle, urban life bundle, and forest ecological conservation bundle. The composition of service bundles clusters was different under different RDLS, with obvious spatial heterogeneity.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Secuestro de Carbono , Ciudades , Suelo
16.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1054-1060, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754572

RESUMEN

Both biodiversity conservation and the construction of biological habitat networks are key components of territorial spatial planning in China. Improving the landscape functional connectivity of biological habitat networks plays a vital role in biodiversity conservation. Although biological habitat network planning is a hot topic in literature, there is still lack of operable technological and methodological support in practical planning. According to the graph theory, the following three different aspects of biodiversity conservation and ecological network construction should be addressed in territorial spatial planning. First, the importance of biological habitat patches should be evaluated to determine the priority of patch protection. Second, the best locations for adding new elements should be identified to increase landscape functional connectivity of biological habitat network. Third, the impacts of construction projects should be judged and the potential impact of new construction projects according to the reduction of landscape function connectivity should be evaluated. We applied such framework to the network planning of amphibian (Pelophylax nigromaculata) habitat in Xiong'an New Area. The results showed that graph theory approach effectively met the requirements of those three aspects. The identification of the five optimal locations of new habitats of P. nigromaculata improved the overall landscape functional connectivity of habitat network by 19%. Four optimal locations of cross passage were identified to reduce the impacts of G45 expressway by assessing its impacts on functional connectivity of the amphibian habitat network.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Animales , Biodiversidad , China , Ranidae
17.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(3): 1119-1128, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33754580

RESUMEN

Sound is an important way of communication among organisms. The monitoring and analy-sis of biological sound is an emerging method to describe and evaluate biodiversity. This method does not invade or damage the natural environment. By recording ecological information through sound, it can effectively reflect the relevant characteristics of biodiversity. The sound-based exploration of biodiversity change has broadened the interdisciplinary approach and has been increasingly applied to ecological research. Here, we expounded on the main theoretical foundations and research methods of using acoustic monitoring to assess biodiversity. We introduced related research fields from two aspects, namely the biodiversity of vocal animals and the temporal and spatial diversity of soundscape. We presented examples of the application of acoustic monitoring to assess the impact of land-use change, climate change and urbanization on biodiversity. Finally, we proposed the future direction of development, and hope that the potential of sound surveys could be further explored to provide an effective reference for biodiversity monitoring and assessment.


Asunto(s)
Acústica , Biodiversidad , Animales , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Urbanización
19.
Water Res ; 195: 116986, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721677

RESUMEN

Sustainable water management is one of the sustainable development goals (SDGs) and is characterized by a high level of interdependencies with other SDGs from regional to global scales. Many water assessment studies are restricted to silo thinking, mostly focusing on water-related consequences, while lacking a quantification of trade-offs and synergies of economic, social, and environmental dimensions. To fill this knowledge gap, we propose a "nexus" approach that integrates a water supply constrained multi-regional input-output (mixed MRIO) model, scenario analysis, and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to quantify the trade-offs and synergies at the sectoral level for the capital region of China, i.e. the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration. A total of 120 industrial transition scenarios including nine major industries with high water-intensities and water consumption under current development pathways were developed to facilitate the trade-off and synergy analysis between economic loss, social goals (here, the number of jobs) and environmental protection (with grey water footprint representing water pollution) triggered by water conservation measures. Our simulation results show that an imposition of a tolerable water constraint (a necessary water consumption reduction for regional water stress level to move from severe to moderate) in the region would result in an average economic loss of 68.4 (± 16.0) billion Yuan (1 yuan ≈ 0.158 USD$ in 2012), or 1.3 % of regional GDP, a loss of 1.94 (± 0.18) million jobs (i.e. 3.5 % of the work force) and a reduction of 1.27 (± 0.40) billion m3 or about 2.2% of the regional grey water footprint. A tolerable water rationing in water-intensive sectors such as Agriculture, Food and tobacco processing, Electricity and heating power production and Chemicals would result in the lowest economic and job losses and the largest environmental benefits. Based on MCDA, we selected the 10 best scenarios with regard to their economic, social and environmental performances as references for guiding future water management and suggested industrial transition policies. This integrated approach could be a powerful policy support tool for 1) assessing trade-offs and synergies among multiple criteria and across multiple region-sectors under resource constraints; 2) quantifying the short-term supply-chain effects of different containment measures, and 3) facilitating more insightful evaluation of SDGs at the regional level so as to determine priorities for local governments and practitioners to achieve SDGs.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Abastecimiento de Agua , Beijing , China , Agua
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20181226, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33759954

RESUMEN

Over the last four decades, and particularly after Rio-92, discussions on environmental sustainability have expanded and been incorporated in many legal texts, in public policies and in the practices of daily life for a portion of the world's population. Despite this progress, achieving a more sustainable development is a goal that has yet to be realized, mainly due to economies that favor a predatory development, masquerading as sustainable, which turn a blind eye to the social, environmental and cultural limits of the planet's many different regions, and ultimately threatening the continued existence of human life on Earth. The guiding question of this paper is the incapacity of the sustainability model adopted in discourse, in business and in contemporary society. This paper is a test study and questions political ownership and the transmutation of the concept of sustainable development in discourse and daily life over the last few decades. Ultimately, we hope to draw attention to some of the hits and misses of this divergent sustainable development which claims to be modern. Overall, this paper is more about asking questions than finding answers.


Asunto(s)
Comercio , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos
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