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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(2): e18753, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914097

RESUMEN

The aims of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and explore the association between sleep duration and MetS. This study enrolled 8 272 adults aged 18 years and older from 6 urban and 8 rural areas during 2013 to 2014in Henan China. Participants were interviewed about demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and medical history, and physical measurements were performed. The relationships between sleep duration and MetS were evaluated and plotted by Restricted Cubic Spline Regression. The mean age was 51.5 years (SD 14.2) and 4 916 (59.4%) were female. The crude prevalence of MetS was 30.3% and the age-standardized rate was 23.6%. Men were more likely to have MetS than women (P = .01). MetS was positively associated with age, education, smoking, drinking, BMI and sleep duration, and seemed irrelevant to occupation and sedentary behavior. In terms of individual component of MetS, high blood pressure was the most prevalent component for both men and women, while the lowest prevalent was high triglycerides in men and for women was low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). There was a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and MetS and its components. Sleep duration <6 hours or >9 hours were associated with higher risk of MetS (OR from 1.10 to 2.15). The MetS was prevalent, and more than half of total adult population was suffering from high blood pressure. Sleep duration may be a determinant of metabolic health. Both short (<6 hours) and long sleep duration (>9 hours) was linked to an increased risk of MetS.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Sueño/fisiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Glucemia , Índice de Masa Corporal , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Estilo de Vida , Lípidos/sangre , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Factores de Tiempo
2.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e94, 2020 Jan 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973775

RESUMEN

AIMS: Previous studies analysing blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at the time of suicide have primarily focused on sociodemographic factors. Limited research has focused on psychosocial factors and co-ingestion of other substances to understand the mechanisms of how alcohol contributes to death by suicide. The aim was to examine time trends, psychosocial factors related to acute alcohol use and co-ingestion of alcohol and other substances before suicide. METHODS: The Queensland Suicide Register in 2004-2015 was utilised and analysed in 2019. The cut-off point for positive BAC was set at ⩾0.05 g/dl. Substances were categorised as medicines, illegal drugs and other. Medicines were coded by the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. Joinpoint regression, univariate odds ratios, age and sex-adjusted odds ratios and Forward Stepwise logistic regression were performed. RESULTS: BAC information was available for 6744 suicides, 92% of all cases in 2004-2015. The final model showed that independent factors distinguishing BAC+ from BAC- were: age group 25-44 years, Australian Indigenous background, being separated or divorced, hanging, diagnosis of substance use, lifetime suicidal ideation, relationship and interpersonal conflict, not having psychotic and other psychiatric disorder, and no nervous system drugs or any other substances in blood at the time of suicide. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that people who die by suicide while under the influence of alcohol are more likely to be under acute stress (e.g. separation) and not have earlier psychiatric conditions, except substance use. This highlights the importance of more strict alcohol policies, but also the need to improve substance use treatment.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/sangre , Nivel de Alcohol en Sangre , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Suicidio/psicología
3.
J Forensic Sci ; 65(1): 189-192, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31310667

RESUMEN

Through the measurement of ethyl glucuronide in hair (hETG), it is possible to assess chronic alcohol abuse over time. In this paper, we present a study on hETG in Italian prison inmates. Analyses were performed by LC-MS according to a previously published method. Results were evaluated using the cut-offs established by the Society of Hair Testing. Positives samples (ETG > 30 pg/mg) accounted for 6% of all subjects, with concentrations ranging from 42 pg/mg up to 270 pg/mg, abstinent subjects (ETG < 7 pg/mg) accounted for 88%, and moderate alcohol consumption (7 < ETG < 30 pg/mg) for 6% of the subjects. No females displayed ETG values above 30 pg/mg. Among positive samples, only two subjects did not declare heavy alcohol consumption and were found strongly positive at 210 and 270 pg/mg. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first study on ETG hair concentration on prison inmates.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Glucuronatos/análisis , Cabello/química , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análisis , Cromatografía Liquida , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Espectrometría de Masas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Adulto Joven
4.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 759-768, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968961

RESUMEN

Alcohol consumption is associated with higher risk of breast cancer (BC); however, the biological mechanisms underlying this association are not fully elucidated, particularly the extent to which this relationship is mediated by sex hormone levels. Circulating concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, their free fractions and sex-hormone binding globulin (SHBG), were examined in 430 incident BC cases and 645 matched controls among alcohol-consuming postmenopausal women nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Mediation analysis was applied to assess whether individual hormone levels mediated the relationship between alcohol intake and BC risk. An alcohol-related hormonal signature, obtained by partial least square (PLS) regression, was evaluated as a potential mediator. Total (TE), natural direct and natural indirect effects (NIE) were estimated. Alcohol intake was positively associated with overall BC risk and specifically with estrogen receptor-positive tumors with respectively TE = 1.17(95%CI: 1.01,1.35) and 1.36(1.08,1.70) for a 1-standard deviation (1-SD) increase of intake. There was no evidence of mediation by sex steroids or SHBG separately except for a weak indirect effect through free estradiol where NIE = 1.03(1.00,1.06). However, an alcohol-related hormonal signature negatively associated with SHBG and positively with estradiol and testosterone was associated with BC risk (odds ratio [OR] = 1.25 [1.07,1.47]) for a 1-SD higher PLS score, and had a statistically significant NIE accounting for a mediated proportion of 24%. There was limited evidence of mediation of the alcohol-BC association by individual sex hormones. However, a hormonal signature, reflecting lower levels of SHBG and higher levels of sex steroids, mediated a substantial proportion of the association.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/sangre , Neoplasias de la Mama/epidemiología , Posmenopausia/sangre , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Mama/etiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estradiol/sangre , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Globulina de Unión a Hormona Sexual/análisis , Testosterona/sangre
5.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 874-883, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107541

RESUMEN

Substantial changes in the prevalence of the principal kidney and bladder cancer risk factors, smoking (both cancers) and body fatness (kidney cancer), have occurred but the contemporary cancer burden attributable to these factors has not been evaluated. We quantified the kidney and bladder cancer burden attributable to individual and joint exposures and assessed whether these burdens differ between population subgroups. We linked pooled data from seven Australian cohorts (N = 367,058) to national cancer and death registries and estimated the strength of the associations between exposures and cancer using adjusted proportional hazards models. We estimated exposure prevalence from representative contemporaneous health surveys. We combined these estimates to calculate population attributable fractions (PAFs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), accounting for competing risk of death, and compared PAFs for population subgroups. During the first 10-year follow-up, 550 kidney and 530 bladder cancers were diagnosed and over 21,000 people died from any cause. Current levels of overweight and obesity explain 28.8% (CI = 17.3-38.7%), current or past smoking 15.5% (CI = 6.0-24.1%) and these exposures jointly 39.6% (CI = 27.5-49.7%) of the kidney cancer burden. Current or past smoking explains 44.4% (CI = 35.4-52.1%) of the bladder cancer burden, with 24.4% attributable to current smoking. Ever smoking explains more than half (53.4%) of the bladder cancer burden in men, and the burden potentially preventable by quitting smoking is highest in men (30.4%), those aged <65 years (28.0%) and those consuming >2 standard alcoholic drinks/day (41.2%). In conclusion, large fractions of kidney and bladder cancers in Australia are preventable by behavior change.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Conductista , Costo de Enfermedad , Neoplasias Renales/epidemiología , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Predicción , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renales/prevención & control , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/terapia , Cese del Hábito de Fumar , Neoplasias de la Vejiga Urinaria/prevención & control , Adulto Joven
6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 635-645, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873589

RESUMEN

Radiation effects on colorectal cancer rates, adjusted for smoking, alcohol intake and frequency of meat consumption and body mass index (BMI) by anatomical subsite (proximal colon, distal colon and rectum) were examined in a cohort of 105,444 atomic bomb survivors. Poisson regression methods were used to describe radiation-associated excess relative risks (ERR) and excess absolute rates (EAR) for the 1958-2009 period. There were 2,960 first primary colorectal cancers including 894 proximal, 871 distal and 1,046 rectal cancers. Smoking, alcohol intake and BMI were associated with subsite-specific cancer background rates. Significant linear dose-responses were found for total colon (sex-averaged ERR/Gy for 70 years old exposed at age 30 = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.34; 0.98), proximal [ERR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.32; 1.44] and distal colon cancers [ERR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.04; 0.97], but not for rectal cancer [ERR = 0.023, 95% CI: -0.081; 0.13]. The ERRs for proximal and distal colon cancers were not significantly different (p = 0.41). The ERR decreased with attained age for total colon, but not for proximal colon cancer, and with calendar year for distal colon cancer. The ERRs and EARs did not vary by age at exposure, except for decreasing trend in EAR for proximal colon cancer. In conclusion, ionizing radiation is associated with increased risk of proximal and distal colon cancers. The ERR for proximal cancer persists over time, but that for distal colon cancer decreases. There continues to be no indication of radiation effects on rectal cancer incidence in this population.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Neoplasias del Colon/epidemiología , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/epidemiología , Neoplasias del Recto/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , Colon/efectos de la radiación , Neoplasias del Colon/etiología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta en la Radiación , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Mucosa Intestinal/efectos de la radiación , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Carne/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias Inducidas por Radiación/etiología , Neoplasias del Recto/etiología , Recto/efectos de la radiación , Sistema de Registros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
7.
Int J Cancer ; 146(3): 646-656, 2020 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882889

RESUMEN

Cancer is a major contributing cause of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The aim of the current study was to estimate the cancer burden attributable to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors. We used age-, sex- and site-specific incidence estimates for 2012 from IARC's GLOBOCAN, and assessed the following risk factors: smoking, alcohol, high body mass index, insufficient physical activity, diet, suboptimal breastfeeding, infections and air pollution. The prevalence of exposure to these risk factors came from different sources including peer-reviewed international literature, the World Health Organization, noncommunicable disease Risk Factor Collaboration, and the Food and Agriculture Organization. Sex-specific population-attributable fraction was estimated in the 22 countries of the Eastern Mediterranean region based on the prevalence of the selected risk factors and the relative risks obtained from meta-analyses. We estimated that approximately 33% (or 165,000 cases) of all new cancer cases in adults aged 30 years and older in 2012 were attributable to all selected risk factors combined. Infections and smoking accounted for more than half of the total attributable cases among men, while insufficient physical activity and exposure to infections accounted for more than two-thirds of the total attributable cases among women. A reduction in exposure to major lifestyle and environmental risk factors could prevent a substantial number of cancer cases in the Eastern Mediterranean. Population-based programs preventing infections and smoking (particularly among men) and promoting physical activity (particularly among women) in the population are needed to effectively decrease the regional cancer burden.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Índice de Masa Corporal , Ejercicio/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Región Mediterránea/epidemiología , Neoplasias/etiología , Neoplasias/prevención & control , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Fumar Tabaco/efectos adversos
8.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105330, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678785

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Driving/riding under the influence (DUI) of alcohol is a major public concern worldwide. Only a few studies have distinguished DUI-related variables between motorcyclists and car drivers. This study examined the differences in demographic characteristics and drinking behaviors among first-time DUI offenders operating different transportation vehicles, and risk factors for frequent DUI (fDUI) among them. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous survey for 561 first-time DUI offenders who attended a mandatory educational program. Participants self-administered questionnaires concerning alcohol drinking behaviors and DUI. We defined fDUI as at least two DUI behaviors per month based on self-reported information. Demographic and drinking characteristics were compared between DUI offenders, car drivers and motorcyclists. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for fDUI. RESULTS: Two-thirds of first-time DUI offenders were motorcyclists. Compared with car drivers, motorcyclists were younger and less educated, with a higher percentage of them being women and unmarried. Car drivers reported a higher rate of fDUI than motorcyclists (16.5% vs. 9.7%). Regression analysis revealed that binge drinkers had a higher fDUI risk in both groups. Regarding the drinking place prior to DUI behavior, workplace was significantly associated with fDUI in car drivers. CONCLUSIONS: Distinct strategies may be required for motorcyclists and car drivers for DUI recidivism prevention, and drinking place interventions should also be considered.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Conducir bajo la Influencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Automóviles/estadística & datos numéricos , Conducir bajo la Influencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motocicletas/estadística & datos numéricos , Autoinforme , Taiwán/epidemiología
9.
Ideggyogy Sz ; 72(11-12): 389-396, 2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834682

RESUMEN

Background and purpose: The aim of this study was to compare ischemic stroke subtypes with the effects of risk factors, the relationship between grades of kidney disease and the severity of stroke subtypes. Methods: The current study was designed retrospectively and performed with data of patients who were hospitalised due to ischemic stroke. We included 198 subjects who were diagnosed with ischemic stroke of Grade 3 and above with chronic kidney disease. Results: In our study were reported advanced age, coronary artery disease, moderate kidney disease as the most frequent risk factors for cardioembolic etiology. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, smoking and alcohol consumption were the most frequent risk factors for large-artery disease. Female sex and anaemia were the most frequent risk factors for small-vessel disease. Dialysis and severe kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors in unknown etiologies, while male sex, diabetes mellitus, prior stroke and mild kidney disease were the most frequent risk factors for other etiologies. National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores were lower for small-vessel disease compared with other etiologies. This relation was statistically significant (p=0.002). Conclusion: In order to improve the prognosis in ischemic stroke with chronic kidney disease, the risk factors have to be recognised and the treatment options must be modified according to those risk factors.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/complicaciones , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/complicaciones , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Masculino , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Fumar/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
10.
Presse Med ; 48(12): 1468-1483, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767252

RESUMEN

Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is a complex chronic disease resulting from an interaction between genetic and environmental factors. The phenotype and pathophysiology of NAFLD is heterogeneous. NAFLD is a continuum of histological lesions of the liver from steatosis, Non-Alcoholic SteatoHepatitis (NASH), NASH with fibrosis, cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The pathophysiology encompasses a dysfunction in fatty tissue (sub-cutaneous and visceral) associated with insulin-resistance and metabolic inflammation. NAFLD is a "multi-systemic" disease. Reciprocal and aggravating interactions exist between NAFLD, cardiovascular anomalies and diabetes. The understanding of the mechanisms responsible for NAFLD allows the identification of potential novel therapeutic targets.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/etiología , Tejido Adiposo/patología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Epigénesis Genética/fisiología , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Humanos , Inflamación/complicaciones , Inflamación/diagnóstico , Inflamación/epidemiología , Hígado/patología , Microbiota/fisiología , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/diagnóstico , Enfermedad del Hígado Graso no Alcohólico/epidemiología
11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1424, 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666052

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoking, alcohol and obesity are important risk factors for a number of non-communicable diseases. The prevalence of these risk factors differ by socioeconomic group in most populations, but this socially stratified distribution may depend on the social and cultural context. Little information on this topic is currently available in the Caribbean. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and obesity by several socioeconomic determinants in the French West Indies (FWI). METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional health survey conducted in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2014 in a representative sample of the population aged 15-75 years (n = 4054). All analyses were stratified by gender, and encompassed sample weights, calculated to account for the sampling design and correct for non-response. For each risk factor, we calculated weighted prevalence by income, educational level, occupational class and having hot water at home. Poisson regression models were used to estimate age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Current smoking and harmful chronic alcohol use were more common in men than in women (PR = 1.80, 95% CI = 1.55-2.09; PR = 4.53, 95% CI = 3.38-6.09 respectively). On the other hand, the prevalence of obesity was higher in women than in men (PR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.57-0.79). Higher education, higher occupational class and higher income were associated with lower prevalence of harmful alcohol drinking in men (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.25-0.72; PR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.53-1.01; PR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.51-1.03 respectively), but not in women. For tobacco smoking, no variation by socioeconomic status was observed in men whereas the prevalence of current smoking was higher among women with higher occupational class (PR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.13-1.91) and higher income (PR = 1.50, 95% CI = 1.11-2.03). In women, a lower prevalence of obesity was associated with a higher income (PR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.33-0.56), a higher occupational class (PR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.50-0.80), a higher educational level (PR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.26-0.50) and having hot water at home (PR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.54-0.80). CONCLUSION: Women of high socio-economic status were significantly more likely to be smokers, whereas alcohol drinking in men and obesity in women were inversely associated with socioeconomic status.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Escolaridad , Renta , Obesidad/epidemiología , Ocupaciones , Clase Social , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Región del Caribe , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Guadalupe/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Martinica/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Abastecimiento de Agua , Adulto Joven
12.
Georgian Med News ; (294): 182-187, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687973

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence, relative risks, and predictive factors of the development of arterial hypertension (AH) in workers of a uranium processing enterprise (UPE). An open cross-sectional comparative study of 809 UPE workers was conducted. The compared them to the 696 workers of the bearing plant, located at a distance of 10 km from UPE. Stratification was performed and odds ratios (OR), gross (RR) and standardized relative (SRR) risks of hypertension were calculated. Our results revealed a high prevalence of hypertension among UPE workers (24.8%), as well as greater risk of development of hypertension among workers of UPE in comparison to the personnel of the non-uranium enterprise: RR=2.4 and SRR=2.9. The most significant predictors of hypertension were burdened heredity (OR = 13.6), total radiation dose (OR=1.5), overweight (OR=1.1), high anxiety (OR=0.5) and systematic use of alcohol (OR=0.5). Thus, among workers chronically exposed to radiation toxicity, high prevalence of hypertension, excessive RR and SRR of developing hypertension and the presence of risk factors for hypertension were established.


Asunto(s)
Industria Procesadora y de Extracción/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Enfermedades Profesionales/epidemiología , Exposición Profesional/efectos adversos , Uranio/toxicidad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Ansiedad/complicaciones , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Hipertensión/etiología , Kazajstán/epidemiología , Obesidad/complicaciones , Exposición Profesional/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Dosis de Radiación , Factores de Riesgo
13.
Pan Afr Med J ; 33: 210, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31692887

RESUMEN

Introduction: Hypertension ranks third in the world, after underweight and unsafe sex, in the list of six major risk factors contributing to the global disease. In Kenya, the prevalence stands at 24% in the general population, while among the young adults, the incidence of hypertension has been reported to be in the rise; a fact attributed to increased number of risks. We therefore sought to determine awareness and risk factors of hypertension among young adults attending Tenwek hospital. Methods: A case-control study of young adults ages 18-35, involving 80 cases and 80 controls at Tenwek Mission Hospital, Bomet County. Cases included males and females newly diagnosed with hypertension (diagnosed at the time of data collection) and if they reported taking antihypertensive medication and reported as hypertensives in the hospital records at any clinic visit or at interview, while controls included persons with no history of hypertension. Results: Those having a BMI≥25 were 3.05 times more likely to be hypertensive (OR: 3.05, 95% CI 1.26, 7.40; p=0.014). Having a relative suffering from hypertension increased almost thrice the odds of being hypertensive (OR: 2.78, 95% CI 1.20, 6. 46; p=0.018). Not drinking alcohol reduced the chance of suffering from hypertension by 70%, (OR=0.30, 95% CI 0.11, 0.81; p=0.017). Conclusion: The prevalence of hypertension in younger adults is not as low as generally perceived. Preventive measures should be formulated in a manner to address variety of major risk factors in young adults.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Antihipertensivos/uso terapéutico , Salud de la Familia/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Hipertensión/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipertensión/etiología , Kenia/epidemiología , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Adulto Joven
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17918, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725641

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Metformin can cause serum vitamin B12 deficiency, but studies on the influence of its duration and dose are lacking. We investigated vitamin B12 deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes using metformin, in conjunction with other related factors. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 1111 patients with type 2 diabetes who took metformin for at least 6 months. Serum vitamin B12 levels were quantified using a competitive-binding immunoenzymatic assay, and vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum B12 <300 pg/mL. Information on metformin use and confounding variables were collected from records or questionnaires and interviews. RESULT: Serum vitamin B12 deficiency occurred in 22.2% of patients (n = 247). After adjusting for confounders, a 1 mg increase in daily metformin dose was associated with a 0.142 pg/mL decrease in vitamin B12 (P < .001). Compared with a daily dose of <1000 mg, the adjusted odds ratios for 1000 to 1500, 1500 to 2000, and ≥2000 mg metformin were 1.72 (P = .080), 3.34 (P < .001), and 8.67 (P < .001), respectively. Vitamin B12 deficiency occurred less often in patients taking multivitamins (odds ratio 0.23; P < .001). After adjusting for confounding factors, there was no correlation between B12 deficiency and duration of metformin use. Serum homocysteine levels showed significant negative correlation with vitamin B12. CONCLUSION: Metformin at ≥1500 mg/d could be a major factor related to vitamin B12 deficiency, whereas concurrent supplementation of multivitamins may potentially protect against the deficiency. Serum homocysteine levels were negatively correlated with vitamin B12 levels, suggesting that B12 deficiency due to metformin use may occur at the tissue level. However, this hypothesis will require further study.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamiento farmacológico , Hipoglucemiantes/uso terapéutico , Metformina/uso terapéutico , Deficiencia de Vitamina B 12/inducido químicamente , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Anemia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Femenino , Ácido Fólico/sangre , Homocisteína/sangre , Humanos , Hipoglucemiantes/administración & dosificación , Hipoglucemiantes/efectos adversos , Masculino , Metformina/administración & dosificación , Metformina/efectos adversos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Oportunidad Relativa , República de Corea , Factores de Tiempo , Vitamina B 12/sangre , Vitaminas
15.
Bull Cancer ; 106(12): 1132-1143, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732122

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The use of electronic cigarettes has become relatively popular in France since 2010, including among adolescents. However, its use in relation to smoking and other factors is not well understood today. METHODS: The data come from the ESCAPAD 2017 survey, a nationally representative cross-sectional survey taking place at a 1-day session of civic and military information compulsory for all French nationals around 17 (39,115 respondents). Descriptive analyses and multivariate regressions were undertaken to describe the recent use of e-cigarette at 17 and its associated factors. RESULTS: e-cigarettes were experimented by 52.4 % of 17 year-olds, and used by 16.8 % in the preceding month, 1.9 % daily. Most recent users were also daily smokers (62.5 %), and only 7.6 % had never experimented cigarettes before. Among those who experimented with both products, only 13.3 % tried e-cigarettes before cigarettes. The associated uses of other products were the most striking factors: daily smoking (relative risk [RR]=2.73), ever use of hookah (RR=2.31), cannabis use in the last year (RR=1.60), regular alcohol drinking (RR=1.20) and ever use of another illicit drug (RR=1.11). Recent vapers that were also daily smokers had a more pronounced sociodemographic profile and a higher level of other drugs consumptions than recent vapers only. DISCUSSION: Although a majority of French adolescents experiment with vaping, they are fewer to use it regularly and its current use is frequently associated with daily smoking. Future trends and the relationship between smoking and vaping among adolescents will have to be further investigated, including the motivations of its use.


Asunto(s)
Sistemas Electrónicos de Liberación de Nicotina/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Francia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Marihuana/epidemiología , Análisis de Regresión , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiología , Pipas de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vapeo/epidemiología
16.
Pan Afr Med J ; 34: 1, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762870

RESUMEN

Introduction: Early sexual debut is common among young people and it has several sexual and reproductive health consequences. But, its burden and the associated factors leading to this behavior haven't received due attention. The main purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of sexual debut in the preparatory and high school students of Aksum town. Methods: A school-based quantitative cross-sectional study design was used for this research work. A total of 519 preparatory and high school regular students participated in the survey. The sample population was obtained by using a simple random sampling technique from each schooling proportion with their number of students. Data, that were collected using self administered questionnaires, were entered into EpiData 3.02 and analyzed in SPSS 22.0. Results were presented using frequencies, tables and graphs. Statistical significance was declared at a P-value <0.05. Results: Of the total participants, 266 (51.3%) were males. The age of the participants ranged from 13 to 23 years with a mean age of 16.3 ± 1.47 years. Of the total participants, 137(26.2%) had sexual experience, among which 119 (87.5%) had an early sexual debut at an average age of 13.7 + 1.4 years. Factors that were found to be significantly associated with an early sexual debut were gender (AOR=3.41; 95% CI: 1.54, 6.99), residence (AOR=0.44; 95% CI: 0.27, 0.81), alcohol drinking (AOR=5.5; 95% CI: 2.2, 14.8), cigarette smoking (AOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.3, 7.5), exposure to pornography, such as reading/seeing pornographic materials (AOR=7.4; 95% CI: 4.4, 11.78), living arrangement for educational purpose (AOR= 0.43; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.89), grade (AOR=0.38; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.68) and monthly living allowance (AOR=0.419; 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9). Conclusion: A significant number of students reported early sexual debut. Gender, place of residence, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, exposure to pornography, grade and living arrangement for educational purpose and monthly living allowance were significant predictors of an early sexual debut.


Asunto(s)
Literatura Erótica , Conducta Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(8): 445-450, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683335

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Substance use patterns and sociodemographic variables of Berlin's party scene were investigated to derive preventive measures and harm reduction services, which meet the needs of the consumers. METHODS: A questionnaire was used online and in the field among Berlin partygoers (N = 877) and structured interviews (N = 20) were conducted with professionals working in this area, including social workers, emergency medical service, police and club owners and users. RESULTS: A risky consumption pattern was found in 67 % of participants, who also stated need for counseling and a wish for reduction of their substance use. Of all preventive measures, drug checking was requested most often. Substances with the highest prevalence were alcohol, cannabis, amphetamine, MDMA, cocaine and ketamine, whereas methamphetamine and new psychoactive substances were barely stated. CONCLUSION: There is an urgent need to expand current preventive measures. There is a willingness of the scene to use according services, especially by those who need it the most.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Reducción del Daño , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Berlin , Alemania , Humanos , Prevalencia , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1291, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615542

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is a known risk factor for liver disease in HIV-infected populations. Therefore, knowledge of alcohol consumption behaviour and risk of disease progression associated with hazardous drinking are important in the overall management of HIV disease. We aimed at assessing the usefulness of routine data collected on alcohol consumption in predicting risk of severe liver disease (SLD) among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with or without hepatitis C infection seen for routine clinical care in Italy. METHODS: We included PLWHIV from two observational cohorts in Italy (ICONA and HepaICONA). Alcohol consumption was assessed by physician interview and categorized according to the National Institute for Food and Nutrition Italian guidelines into four categories: abstainer; moderate; hazardous and unknown. SLD was defined as presence of FIB4 > 3.25 or a clinical diagnosis of liver disease or liver-related death. Cox regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between level of alcohol consumption at baseline and risk of SLD. RESULTS: Among 9542 included PLWHIV the distribution of alcohol consumption categories was: abstainers 3422 (36%), moderate drinkers 2279 (23%), hazardous drinkers 637 (7%) and unknown 3204 (34%). Compared to moderate drinkers, hazardous drinking was associated with higher risk of SLD (adjusted hazard ratio, aHR = 1.45; 95% CI: 1.03-2.03). After additionally controlling for mode of HIV transmission, HCV infection and smoking, the association was attenuated (aHR = 1.32; 95% CI: 0.94-1.85). There was no evidence that the association was stronger when restricting to the HIV/HCV co-infected population. CONCLUSIONS: Using a brief physician interview, we found evidence for an association between hazardous alcohol consumption and subsequent risk of SLD among PLWHIV, but this was not independent of HIV mode of transmission, HCV-infection and smoking. More efforts should be made to improve quality and validity of data on alcohol consumption in cohorts of HIV/HCV-infected individuals.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Coinfección , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Hepatopatías/epidemiología , Adulto , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1323, 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640654

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: According to the prevention paradox, the majority of alcohol-related harms in the population occur among low-to-moderate risk drinkers, simply because they are more numerous in the population, although high-risk drinkers have a higher individual risk of experiencing alcohol-related harms. In this study we explored the prevention paradox in the Irish population by comparing alcohol-dependent drinkers (high-risk) to low-risk drinkers and non-dependent drinkers who engage in heavy episodic drinking (HED). METHODS: Data were generated from the 2013 National Alcohol Diary Survey (NADS), a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of Irish adults aged 18-75. Data were available for 4338 drinkers. Respondents dependent on alcohol (as measured by DSM-IV criteria), respondents who engaged in monthly HED or occasional HED (1-11 times a year) and low-risk drinkers were compared for distribution of eight alcohol-related harms. RESULTS: Respondents who were dependent on alcohol had a greater individual risk of experiencing each harm (p < .0001). The majority of the harms in the population were accounted for by drinkers who were not dependent on alcohol. Together, monthly and occasional HED drinkers accounted for 62% of all drinkers, consumed 70% of alcohol and accounted for 59% of alcohol-related harms. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that the majority of alcohol consumption and related harms in the Irish population are accounted for by low- and moderate-risk drinkers, and specifically by those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. A population-based approach to reducing alcohol-related harm is most appropriate in the Irish context. Immediate implementation of the measures in the Public Health (Alcohol) Act (2018) is necessary to reduce alcohol-related harm in Ireland.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Intoxicación Alcohólica/epidemiología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Bebidas Alcohólicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Irlanda/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Medición de Riesgo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 86, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644769

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the co-occurrence of the major risk factors for chronic diseases in adults (18-59 years old) and older people (≥ 60 years old) living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with population-based data from 35,448 adults and 18,726 older people collected in the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (System of Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey - Vigitel) in 2015. The prevalence of each of the five risk factors (smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol and unhealthy diet) was estimated, as well as their co-occurrence for the different possible combinations, according to socioeconomic and health self-assessment variables. The independent associations were verified via multinomial logistic regression to obtain the estimates of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: At least two risk factors were present in 38.5% of the adults and 37.0% of the older participants. The male adults and older participants who did not have private health insurance and classified their health as average or poor/very poor were more likely to have two or more concurrent risk behaviors. The greater chance of co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol abuse in adults (adjusted OR = 3.52) and older people (adjusted OR = 2.94) stands out. CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups with increased risk of developing multiple unhealthy behaviors and the most prevalent behaviors were identified. These findings are expected to contribute to the better targeting of health promotion and preventive care. It is worth noting that, for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, macro-social and inter-sectoral policies are more effective.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica/epidemiología , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Factores de Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas de Riesgo para la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sobrepeso/complicaciones , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Conducta Sedentaria , Distribución por Sexo , Fumar/efectos adversos , Fumar/epidemiología , Factores Socioeconómicos , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Adulto Joven
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