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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(6): e24746, 2021 Feb 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578626

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: There is still debate regarding the pathogenic relationship between alcohol intake and osteoarthritis (OA). This study investigated the association between alcohol consumption and knee OA in a Korean population.Among 8058 subjects who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2012, a total of 2917 subjects over the age of 50 and taken plain radiography was included in this analysis. Knee OA was classified based on the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grading scale. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of variables for knee OA (K-L grade ≥ 2).There were 1022 subjects with knee OA (29.2%). Subjects with knee OA tended to have lower daily alcohol intake (g/day) than did those without knee OA (10.4 [6.2-14.6] vs. 15.8 [12.8-18.8], P = .04). Similarly, those with knee OA demonstrated less makgeolli intake than did those without knee OA (P = .002). Subjects who consumed >0.6 g/day of beer also demonstrated less knee OA than did those who consumed <0.6 g/day of beer (OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99). However, knee OA was not associated with the categories of alcohol consumption amount (g/day), including total daily alcohol intake (g/day), soju daily intake (g/day), and makgeolli daily intake (g/day) (P > .05 of all).Alcohol consumption was negatively associated with prevalence of knee OA in a Korean population. This preliminary observation will need to be confirmed in future studies.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Osteoartritis de la Rodilla/diagnóstico por imagen , Radiografía , República de Corea/epidemiología
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24737, 2021 Feb 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607818

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Early hematoma expansion of hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage is affected by various factors. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors and develop a nomogram to predict early hematoma expansion.A retrospective analysis was carried out in patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage admitted to our institution between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2018; the patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence of early hematoma expansion. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to analyze the risk factors of hematoma expansion. The nomogram was developed based on a multivariate logistic regression model, and the discriminative ability of the model was analyzed.A total of 477 patients with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage and with a baseline hematoma volume <30 ml were included in our retrospective analysis. The hematoma expansion rate was 34.2% (163/477). After multivariate logistic regression, 9 variables (alcohol history, Glasgow coma scale score, total serum calcium, blood glucose, international normalized ratio, hematoma shape, hematoma density, volume of hematoma on initial computed tomography scan, and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage) identified as independent predictors of hematoma expansion were used to generate the nomogram. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the nomogram was 0.883 (95% confidence interval 0.851-0.914), and the cutoff score was -0.19 with sensitivity of 75.5% and specificity of 87.3%.The nomogram can accurately predict the risk of early hematoma expansion.


Asunto(s)
Hematoma/etiología , Hemorragia Intracraneal Hipertensiva/complicaciones , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Hemorragia Cerebral/complicaciones , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Femenino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nomogramas , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Curva ROC , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos
3.
Am J Epidemiol ; 190(2): 295-304, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524122

RESUMEN

Socioeconomic status has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors. However, few studies have examined this relationship among populations in the US Gulf Coast region. We assessed neighborhood deprivation in relation to obesity and diabetes in 9,626 residents participating in the Gulf Long-Term Follow-Up Study (2011-present) who completed a home visit (2011-2013) with height, weight, waist, and hip measurements. Obesity was categorized as body mass index of at least 30, and diabetes was defined by doctor's diagnosis or prescription medication. Participant home addresses were linked to an established Area Deprivation Index and categorized into 4 levels (1 = least deprived). In adjusted, modified Poisson regression models, participants with greatest deprivation were more likely to have obesity compared with those with least deprivation (adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) = 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08, 1.35), central obesity (aPR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.19), and diabetes (aPR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.14). Repeated analyses among a subgroup of participants (n = 3,016) whose hemoglobin A1C values were measured 3 years later indicated the association with diabetes (defined as diagnosis, medications, or hemoglobin A1C ≥ 6.5) was similar (aPR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.86). Results suggest neighborhood deprivation is associated with obesity and diabetes in a US region with high baseline prevalence.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Obesidad/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Índice de Masa Corporal , Fumar Cigarrillos/epidemiología , Femenino , Hemoglobina A Glucada , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Clase Social , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sudeste de Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Texas/epidemiología
4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572994

RESUMEN

Whether lockdown related to the COVID-19 pandemic influences alcohol consumption is not well known. This study assesses alcohol consumption and hazardous drinking behavior during the initial phase of pandemic measures in Norway and identifies potential risk factors. A cross-sectional study (N = 25,708) was conducted in Bergen, Norway, following the first six weeks of strict infection control measures. In a model of self-assessed increased alcohol consumption, logistic regression analysis was conducted with independent variables for COVID-19-related worries, joblessness, quarantine, self-reported drinking behavior, age, gender, and occupational situation. These are reported with odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. Fifty-one percent of respondents reported economic or health-related worries due to COVID-19, 16% had been in quarantine, 49% worked/studied from home, 54% reported hazardous drinking behavior, and 13% reported increased alcohol consumption. People aged 30-39 years had elevated odds of increased alcohol consumption during lockdown (OR 3.1, 2.4-3.8) compared to the oldest adults. Increased drinking was more frequent among people reporting economic worries (OR 1.6, 1.4-1.8), those quarantined (OR 1.2, 1.1-1.4), and those studying or working at home (OR 1.4, 1.3-1.6). More than half of respondents reported hazardous drinking behavior. Increased alcohol consumption during lockdown was common among people with economic worries, people in quarantine, and people studying or working at home. These data could be important when adjusting pandemic measures.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Pandemias , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Cuarentena , Adulto Joven
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468986

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The public health strategies adopted for the containment of COVID-19 have generated psychosocial stressors that act as risk factors for alcohol consumption. The objectives of this study were to establish whether alcohol risk consumption varied during COVID-19 confinement, and how these variations manifested as a function of different sociodemographic variables. METHODS: The study was conducted during confinement with 3,779 participants in Spain. We used an online survey with sociodemographic variables (sex, age and employment situation) and AUDIT-C. Frequency and mean difference analysis were performed (Student t, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) to establish intra-group variations before the pandemic compared to during confinement, and intergroup for each time period, reporting effect size. RESULTS: Alcohol risky consumption presented high prevalence rates before confinement (25,9% of alcohol consumers), showing a general decrease during confinement (15,1%), both in men (X2=224,829; p<0,001) and women (X2=214,324; p<0,001). Women had higher risk consumption rates both before the pandemic (X2=13,124; p<0,001; d=1,067) and during confinement (X2=26,316; p<0,001; d=2,85); however, men reported higher score in AUDIT-C before the pandemic (t(2343)=-7,887; p<0,001; d=0,322) and during confinement (t(2343)=-5,664; p<0,001; d=0,231). Considering age, significant differences in prevalence among groups were found before the pandemic (X2=22,889; p<0,001) and during confinement (X2=38,302; p<0,001), with the age range 18-24 showing less prevalence. Differences among age groups were also found in the risky consumption scores during confinement (F(5,2338)=43,849; p=0,001), increasing with age. With regards to the employment situation, differences before the pandemic (KW(5,2933)=13,467; p=0,019; E2R=0,44), and during confinement (KW(5,2933)=149,818; p<0,001; E2R=0,51) were also found. Self-employed workers showed a higher score in alcohol risky consumption with respect to full-time employees (p=0,047). CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol risky consumption decreased in a generalized way during the confinement by COVID-19, but the changes in prevalence and risk index were dependent on sociodemographic variables. It is recommended that these findings are considered in the design of public health policies and strategies.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
6.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 12, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482714

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to describe the status of alcohol consumption and drug use among young adults as well as their determinants. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 356 young adults (aged 18 to 24 years) living in Palau in 2013. The prevalence of self-reported alcohol and marijuana usage were compared within and between sexes, age groups, ethnicities, and education levels. RESULTS: The proportion of current drinking was higher in people aged 21-24 than in those aged 18-20 (73.2% vs. 60.9%, p = 0.09 in men and 48.3% vs. 30.0%, p = 0.02 in women), while that of marijuana use did not differ between the age groups. The proportions of current drinking and marijuana use were higher in Palauan than in other ethnicities (current drinking: 70.6% vs. 40.6%, p = 0.005 in men and 38.8% vs. 16.6%, p = 0.04 in women; lifetime marijuana use: 80.0% vs. 52.9%, p = 0.02 in men and 56.1% vs. 30.6%, p = 0.09 in women). The proportion of frequent (3 times or more) marijuana users was higher for the lower educated than for the higher educated (62.5% vs. 32.1%, p < 0.001 in men and 33.9% vs. 24.4%, p = 0.12 in women). CONCLUSIONS: Sex, age, ethnicity, and education were significant determinants of alcohol and marijuana use.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/etnología , Estudios Transversales , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso de la Marihuana/etnología , Palau/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores Sexuales , Adulto Joven
7.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0245546, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33481848

RESUMEN

Amidst the rapid global spread of Covid-19, many governments enforced country-wide lockdowns, with likely severe well-being consequences. In this regard, South Africa is an extreme case suffering from low levels of well-being, but at the same time enforcing very strict lockdown regulations. In this study, we analyse the causal effect of a lockdown and consequently, the determinants of happiness during the aforementioned. A difference-in-difference approach is used to make causal inferences on the lockdown effect on happiness, and an OLS estimation investigates the determinants of happiness after lockdown. The results show that the lockdown had a significant and negative impact on happiness. In analysing the determinants of happiness after lockdown, we found that stay-at-home orders have positively impacted happiness during this period. On the other hand, other lockdown regulations such as a ban on alcohol sales, a fear of becoming unemployed and a greater reliance on social media have negative effects, culminating in a net loss in happiness. Interestingly, Covid-19, proxied by new deaths per day, had an inverted U-shape relationship with happiness. Seemingly people were, at the onset of Covid-19 positive and optimistic about the low fatality rates and the high recovery rates. However, as the pandemic progressed, they became more concerned, and this relationship changed and became negative, with peoples' happiness decreasing as the number of new deaths increased.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Femenino , Felicidad , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
8.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108461, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454159

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To assess what factors were associated with reported changes to usual alcohol drinking behaviour during the start of lockdown in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Online cross-sectional survey of 30,375 adults in the UK from 21st March to 4th April 2020 (sample weighted). Logistic regression models were used to examine sociodemographic, drinking and COVID-19 factors associated with i) drinking less and ii) drinking more (versus same as usual). RESULTS: Of 22,113 drinkers, 48.1 % reported drinking about the same, 25.7 % reported drinking less, and 26.2 % reported drinking more than usual over the past week. Drinking less was independently associated with being younger (OR = 0.88, p < .001), male (OR = 0.76, p < .001), BAME (OR = 0.76, p = .028), low income (OR = 0.74, p < .001), having COVID-19 (OR = 2.04, p < .001), adhering to COVID-19 protective behaviours (OR = 1.58, p = .020), stress about becoming ill from COVID-19 (OR = 1.26, p = .004) and not being a key worker (OR = 0.87, p = .030). Drinking more was independently associated with being younger (OR = 0.73, p < .001), female (OR = 1.36, p < .001), post-16 qualifications (OR = 1.21, p = .012), high income (OR = 1.43, p < .001), stress about catching (OR = 1.22, p = .020) or becoming ill from COVID-19 (OR = 1.28, p < .001), stress about finances (OR = 1.43, p < .001), and having an anxiety disorder (OR = 1.24, p = .011). CONCLUSIONS: In a large, population sample of adults in the UK, around a quarter of drinkers reported drinking more alcohol and a quarter drinking less than usual during the COVID-19 related lockdown. Certain groups, such as those who are younger, female, of high socioeconomic position, have an anxiety disorder, and are stressed about finances or COVID-19 may need targeted alcohol reduction support during lockdown.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , /psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores de Riesgo , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(1): 94-98, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988730

RESUMEN

The effect of systemic corticosteroids on clinical outcomes in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains controversial. While the use of corticosteroids raises concerns regarding delayed viral clearance, secondary infections, and long-term complications that can lead to increased mortality, corticosteroids have the potential to reduce mortality if used appropriately. Herein, we report good outcomes in two patients with COVID-19 who received systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy. An 83-year-old man with hypertension and smoking history and a 62-year-old man with a drinking habit were transferred to our hospital with a diagnosis of COVID-19. The patients developed general malaise and loss of appetite with persistent high fever. Despite the prescription of antiviral drugs, their hypoxemia progressed rapidly. However, after the introduction of systemic corticosteroids, their symptoms improved as the fever decreased, and their hypoxemia gradually improved. These results suggest that some patients with COVID-19 may benefit from the appropriate use of systemic corticosteroids as adjunctive therapy.


Asunto(s)
Corticoesteroides/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Metilprednisolona/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Antivirales/uso terapéutico , Betacoronavirus , Terapia Combinada , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiología , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108488, 2021 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The aim was to examine the correlates of increased alcohol consumption during the COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions that were implemented in a sample of UK adults. METHODS: This paper presents analyses of data from a cross-sectional study. Adults aged 18 years and over, residing in the UK and self-isolating from others outside their own household were eligible to participate. Participants reported increase or no increase in their level of alcohol consumption from before to during lockdown, as well as symptoms of anxiety, depression and mental wellbeing. Socio-demographic characteristics were compared between adults with and without reported increased alcohol consumption. The associations between reported increased alcohol consumption and mental health outcomes were investigated using logistic and linear regression analyses. RESULTS: 691 adults (61.1 % women; 48.8 % aged 35-64 years) were included in the analysis. Of these, 17 % reported increased alcohol consumption after lockdown. A higher proportion of 18-34-year olds reported increased alcohol consumption compared to older groups. The prevalence of poor overall mental health was significantly higher in individuals with increased alcohol consumption (vs. no increase) (45.4 % versus 32.7 %; p-value = 0.01). There was a significant association between increased alcohol consumption and poor overall mental health (OR = 1.64; 95 % CI = 1.01, 2.66), depressive symptoms (unstandardized beta = 2.93; 95 % CI = 0.91, 4.95) and mental wellbeing (unstandardized beta=-1.38; 95 % CI=-2.38, -0.39). CONCLUSIONS: More than one in six UK adults increased their alcohol consumption during lockdown and a higher proportion of these were younger adults. Increased alcohol consumption was independently associated with poor overall mental health, increased depressive symptoms and lower mental wellbeing. These findings highlight the importance of planning targeted support as we emerge from lockdown and plan for potential second and subsequent waves.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Salud Mental , Cuarentena/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Prevalencia , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
11.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(1 Pt 1): 265-274, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking are the most common types of substance use and misuse (SUM) among adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial factors associated with current cigarette smoking and hazardous alcohol drinking among adolescents in Taiwan. METHODS: Data were collected via self-administered questionnaires on computers from students at 14 senior high schools in Taipei, Taiwan. Hierarchical multiple regression strategies were used to determine the risk factors for SUM. RESULTS: A total of 5879 participants were recruited, the majority of whom were female (56.7%). The prevalence rates of current smoking and hazardous alcohol drinking were 3.84% and 7.38%, respectively. Risk factors associated with current smoking were similar to those for hazardous alcohol drinking, including male gender, low school ranking, and depression. In addition, current smoking was associated with increasing age, hazardous alcohol drinking, and fewer parents with whom they can talk, whereas hazardous alcohol drinking was associated with current smoking, not living with both biological parents, and more peers with whom they can talk. CONCLUSION: The potential coexistence of adolescent SUM and common psychosocial correlates demands an integrated approach. Health professionals should provide corresponding intervention programs and coordinate with parents and teachers to develop an anti-SUM environment, especially for males and high-risk schools. Preventive psychiatric services as an integral part of anti-SUM strategies for adolescents targeting to depression may be useful in reducing the risk.


Asunto(s)
Fumar Cigarrillos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316978

RESUMEN

Emerging but limited evidence suggests that alcohol consumption has increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed: (1) whether drinking behaviors changed during the pandemic; and, (2) how those changes were impacted by COVID-19-related stress. We conducted a cross-sectional online survey with a convenience sample of U.S. adults over 21 years in May 2020. We conducted adjusted linear regressions to assess COVID-19 stress and alcohol consumption, adjusting for gender, race, ethnicity, age, and household income. A total of 832 responded: 84% female, 85% White, and 72% ages 26-49. Participants reported consuming 26.8 alcohol drinks on 12.2 of the past 30 days. One-third of participants (34.1%) reported binge drinking and 7.0% reported extreme binge drinking. Participants who experienced COVID-19-related stress (versus not) reported consuming more drinks (ß = 4.7; CI (0.2, 9.1); p = 0.040) and a greater number of days drinking (ß = 2.4; CI (0.6, 4.1); p = 0.007). Additionally, 60% reported increased drinking but 13% reported decreased drinking, compared to pre-COVID-19. Reasons for increased drinking included increased stress (45.7%), increased alcohol availability (34.4%), and boredom (30.1%). Participants who reported being stressed by the pandemic consumed more drinks over a greater number of days, which raises concerns from both an individual and public health perspective.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Borrachera/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Adulto , Bebidas Alcohólicas/provisión & distribución , Tedio , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico
13.
S Afr Med J ; 0(0): 13183, 2020 12 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus pandemic, lockdown restrictions and a ban on alcohol sales were introduced in South Africa. Objectives. To investigate the impact of lockdown measures on the number of patients who visited a tertiary urban trauma centre. Methods. The period of investigation was from 1 February to 30 June 2020 and was segmented into three intervals: pre-lockdown (February and March 2020), hard lockdown (April and May 2020) and immediately post lockdown (June 2020). The electronic HECTIS health record registry was interrogated for the total number of patients that were seen per month. These were further categorised according to mechanism of injury (stab, gunshot, blunt assault and road traffic injuries). Penetrating (stab and gunshot) and blunt assault victims were collectively grouped as violent trauma. Results. The mean total number of patients seen decreased by 53% during the hard lockdown period. There was a moderate reduction (15%) in patients with gunshot injuries seen during the hard lockdown phase, but there was an 80% increase in the post-lockdown period. The proportion of patients injured in road traffic collisions pre lockdown, hard lockdown and immediate post lockdown was 16.4%, 8.9% and 11.1%, respectively. Patients injured in road traffic collisions decreased by 74% during the hard lockdown period and maintained a reduction of 32% during the immediate post-lockdown period. The mean total number of patients who visited the trauma unit returned to pre-lockdown levels in June. Conclusions. There was an overall trend of reduced number of patients who visited the trauma unit during the hard lockdown period; however, these numbers returned to pre-lockdown levels during the immediate post-lockdown period. The number of road traffic injury admissions remained reduced during all three phases of lockdown, while the number of gunshot victims increased substantially during the post-lockdown period.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas y Traumatismos/epidemiología , Heridas por Arma de Fuego/epidemiología , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Sudáfrica/epidemiología , Centros Traumatológicos/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 725-730, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: It is well established that college students increase their drinking when they leave home. This study examined changes in drinking as a result of campus closure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), focusing on the influence of living situation. METHOD: A sample of 312 college students (mean age = 21.2 years; 62% female; 67% White) responded to an online survey regarding their drinking behavior before and after university closures because of COVID-19. Those participants who lived with peers pre-closure and moved home to live with parents post-closure were compared with those who remained living with peers or remained living with parents in terms of changes in frequency and quantity of drinking. RESULTS: A comparison of pre- to post-closure drinking indicated significant decreases in the typical number of drinks per week (from 11.5 to 9.9) and maximum drinks per day (from 4.9 to 3.3) and a slight increase in typical drinking days per week (from 3 to 3.2). Patterns of change significantly varied across groups. Those who moved from peers to parents showed significantly greater reductions in drinking days (from 3.1 to 2.7), number of drinks per week (from 13.9 to 8.5), and maximum drinks in one day (from 5.4 to 2.9) than those who remained living with peers or with parents. In contrast, the latter two groups significantly increased their frequency (from 3.0 to 3.7 days and 2.0 to 3.3 days, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Participants reduced their quantity of drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Returning to live with parents during emerging adulthood may be protective for heavy drinking.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Características de la Residencia , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Grupo Paritario , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/tendencias , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/tendencias , Adulto Joven
15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0240595, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332367

RESUMEN

SETTING: Alcohol use increases the risk of tuberculosis (TB) disease and is associated with worse outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether alcohol use affects TB severity at diagnosis in a high-burden setting. DESIGN: Participants were smear-positive people living with TB (PLWTB) in India. Disease severity was assessed as 1) high versus low smear grade, 2) time to positivity (TTP) on liquid culture, 3) chest radiograph cavitation, and 4) percent lung affected. Alcohol use and being at-risk for alcohol use disorders (AUD) were assessed using the AUDIT-C. Univariable and multivariable analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Of 1166 PLWTB, 691 (59.3%) were drinkers; of those, 518/691 (75.0%) were at-risk for AUD. Drinkers had more lung affected than non-drinkers (adjusted mean difference 10.8%, p<0.0001); this was not significant for those at-risk for AUD (adjusted mean difference 3.7%, p = 0.11). High smear grade (aOR 1.0, 95%CI: 0.7-1.4), cavitation (aOR 0.8, 95%CI 0.4-1.8), and TTP (mean difference 5.2 hours, p = 0.51) did not differ between drinkers and non-drinkers, nor between those at-risk and not at-risk for AUD. CONCLUSIONS: A large proportion of PLWTB were drinkers and were at-risk for AUD. Alcohol drinkers had more lung affected than non-drinkers. Studies are needed to explore mechanisms of this association.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Femenino , Humanos , India , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/aislamiento & purificación , Estudios Prospectivos , Radiografía , Factores de Riesgo , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Tuberculosis Pulmonar/microbiología , Adulto Joven
16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33322086

RESUMEN

Gender differences in alcohol use have narrowed over the decades. This study aimed to explore changes in alcohol consumption patterns between 2007 and 2016 to identify gender convergence in alcohol use in Korea. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. For all respondents (41,662 girls/women and 32,041 boys/men) aged ≥12 years, lifetime drinking, current drinking, age of drinking onset, heavy alcohol use, and binge drinking were analyzed. Gender differences in heavy alcohol use and binge drinking decreased from 2007 to 2016 (p = 0.001 and p < 0.001, respectively). The prevalence of heavy alcohol use and binge drinking decreased in boys/men (67.5% to 63.9%, p = 0.001; 63.4% to 60.9%, p = 0.001, respectively), but not in girls/women (50.2% to 50.4%, p = 0.279; 30.6% to 32.0%, p = 0.994, respectively). The proportion of lifetime abstainers decreased among both girls/women (24.3% to 19.1%, p < 0.001) and boys/men (12.1% to 9.7%, p = 0.01). In girls/women, the mean age of drinking onset decreased (from 24.1 to 23.6 years, p = 0.017); however, in boys/men, significant changes were not observed (from 18.9 to 18.7 years, p = 0.307). Healthcare providers should be aware of the growing health risks resulting from increased unhealthy alcohol use in women and develop gender-specific preventive interventions.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Factores Sexuales , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas Nutricionales , Embarazo , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 54(1): 10252-0, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33338100

RESUMEN

Fetuses exposed to alcohol and/or tobacco are at risk for perinatal adversities. However, little is currently known about the association of the separate or concomitant use of alcohol and tobacco with infant motor and cognitive development. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate the association between maternal consumption of alcohol and/or tobacco during pregnancy and the motor and cognitive development of children starting from the second year of life. The study included 1006 children of a cohort started during the prenatal period (22-25 weeks of pregnancy), evaluated at birth and reevaluated during the second year of life in 2011/2013. The children were divided into four groups according to the alcohol and/or tobacco consumption reported by their mothers at childbirth: no consumption (NC), separate alcohol consumption (AC), separate tobacco consumption (TC), and concomitant use of both (ACTC). The Bayley Scale of Infant and Toddler Development Third Edition screening tool was used for the assessment of motor and cognitive development. Adjusted Poisson regression models were used to determine the association between groups and delayed development. The results indicated that only the ACTC group showed a higher risk of motor delay, specifically regarding fine motor skills, compared to the NC group (RR=2.81; 95%CI: 1.65; 4.77). Separate alcohol or tobacco consumption was not associated with delayed gross motor or cognitive development. However, the concomitant use of the two substances increased the risk of delayed acquisition of fine motor skills.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Desarrollo Infantil , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Uso de Tabaco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/epidemiología
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113476, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198047

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic effect on the functioning of individuals and institutions around the world. This cross-sectional registry-based study examined some of the burdens of the pandemic, the prevalence of mental health difficulties, and risk factors for psychosocial morbidity among community residents in Arkansas. The study focused on a period of gradual reopening but rising infection rates. The investigation included validated screening measures of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), trauma-related symptoms (PCL-5), and alcohol use (AUDIT-C). A notable percentage of participants reported elevated symptoms on each of these outcomes. In separate multivariable analyses that accounted for a number of demographic and pandemic-related covariates, individuals who reported greater pandemic-related disruption in daily life, and those with a prior history of mental health concerns, were more likely to screen positive for depressive, anxiety and trauma-related symptoms. Findings illuminate burdens experienced by community residents during a period of phased reopening, and offer a foundation for future screening and intervention initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Arkansas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
20.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 115, 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the predictors of the onset of alcohol use as well as predictors of remission and relapse, both from heavy drinking and from alcohol dependence. Similarities and differences in both clinical and psychosocial predictors across the transitions were examined. METHODS: A sample of men from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (N = 1769) completed an assessment of lifetime drinking history, which allowed age markers for starting and stopping different drinking patterns. The men also completed various assessments regarding personality, alcohol motives, and psychiatric diagnoses. Survival analyses were used to examine the predictors of the three transitions of onset, remission, and relapse for the phenotypes of heavy drinking and of alcohol dependence, censoring the individuals who had not yet experienced an event. RESULTS: As expected, predictors of onset for drinking, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence were largely consistent and included externalizing symptomology, nicotine dependence, and cotwin history of drinking as risk factors. Predictors of remission from heavy drinking, somewhat similarly to remission from alcohol dependence, included the risk factor of externalizing disorders but also, as predicted, included more risk and protective factors in the psychosocial realm that were not predictors of onset. Contrary to our prediction, relapse to heavy drinking and alcohol dependence were predicted largely by unique psychosocial risk and protective factors including social and coping motives. CONCLUSION: Current findings extend the findings of past research to remission and relapse in the later decades of life and have implications for treatment of alcohol use problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Recurrencia , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Gemelos/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Guerra de Vietnam
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