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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 221: 108594, 2021 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender minority (SGM) young persons are experiencing compounding effects of COVID-19 due to unique social inequalities and existent mental health and substance use challenges. Given that 41% of all young persons are enrolled in universities, and the increased vulnerabilities faced by SGM young persons during the pandemic, it is imperative to understand the effects of alcohol use on mental health among SGM university students amid COVID-19. This study aims to examine the associations between changes in alcohol use since the start of COVID-19 and mental distress among SGM university students in the U.S., and to explore sex-stratified differences. METHODS: A nonprobability cross-sectional sample of 509 SGM university students (Mage = 22.04 years, SD = 3.99) were retrospectively surveyed online between May-August 2020 and asked if their alcohol use had changed since the start of COVID-19. Statistical analyses explored the association between changes in alcohol use since the start of COVID-19 and mental distress. RESULTS: Average psychological distress (M = 27.79, SD = 7.82) was relatively high as per existing research and established clinical cutoff scores. Roughly 32% had increased alcohol use since the start of COVID-19. Subsequently, greater alcohol use (p < .05) since the start of COVID-19 was associated with higher psychological distress among SGM university students, and among females but not males assigned at birth. CONCLUSIONS: Higher education, medical, and behavioral health professionals should consider how to adapt their practice to address alcohol use and psychological burdens among SGM university students (especially females) who are facing health inequities during and beyond COVID-19, requiring SGM-affirmative care.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Salud Mental , Distrés Psicológico , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
2.
J Med Toxicol ; 17(2): 218-221, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33528767

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered outbreaks of unanticipated toxicities, including methanol toxicity. Multiple methanol outbreaks have been described, including contaminated hand sanitizer in the southwest USA. In this case, we describe a fatal case of methanol toxicity from hand sanitizer ingestion, geographically separated from the outbreak in the southwest USA and prior to the announcement of nationwide warnings by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The product was identified as one later recalled by the FDA for methanol contamination. Additionally, the consumption in this case was related to a desire to conceal alcohol consumption from family members. This case of methanol toxicity should increase awareness of the ease of which contaminated products can be widely distributed and of the use of alternative ethanol-containing products to obscure relapse in alcohol use disorder.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/efectos adversos , Alcohólicos , Alcoholismo/complicaciones , Contaminación de Medicamentos , Desinfección de las Manos , Desinfectantes para las Manos/envenenamiento , Metanol/envenenamiento , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcohólicos/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Resultado Fatal , Humanos , Masculino
4.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(4): 773-783, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587290

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic created disruptions and stressors which may have influenced alcohol consumption frequency trends. Varying COVID-19 health burden and alcohol policies may have contributed to different consumption trends between states. The aim of this study is to assess trends in alcohol consumption and moderation by state of residence. METHODS: We examined trends in adult drinking days, during the first wave of the pandemic (March 10 to June 8) using longitudinal data from the Understanding America Study (N = 6,172 unique participants; N = 28,059 observations). Because state mandates were responsive to disease burden, we modeled the interaction of time by COVID-19 burden, defined as whether the state had the median (or higher) daily incidence of COVID-19 cases on the survey date, and state random effects. We controlled for individual sociodemographics, perceived personal/familial COVID-19 burden, mental health symptomology, and risk avoidance. RESULTS: Drinking days increased throughout the duration (incidence risk ratio [IRR] for drinking per increase in one calendar day = 1.003, 95% CI 1.001, 1.004); trends were heterogeneous by disease burden, with individuals living in states with lower COVID-19 burden increasing (IRR = 1.005, 95% CI 1.003, 1.007) faster than those living in states with higher COVID-19 burden (IRR = 1.000, 95% CI 0.998, 1.002). Trends were heterogeneous between states, but there was no evidence of systematic geographic clustering of state trends. CONCLUSIONS: Drinking days increased during the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic, particularly among residents of states with lower disease burden.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Autoinforme , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
5.
Nurs Res ; 70(2): 114-122, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630534

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A permissive drinking culture is one reason for the high level of alcohol consumption among Korean men. Despite shared experiences of the Korean drinking culture that often encourages social drinking, Korean American and Korean male workers may differ in their drinking behavior. This study examines the predictors of controlled drinking behavior and between these two groups. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine and compare the predictors of controlled drinking behavior between Korean American and Korean male workers. METHODS: Two hundred eighty-two male participants (141 Korean Americans and 141 Koreans) who engaged in social drinking were surveyed. Ajzen's theory of planned behavior was used to examine the predictors of controlled drinking behavior. Structural equation modeling was employed to test the theoretical model for each group, followed by multiple-group analyses. RESULTS: Most participants were college-educated and white-collar workers. Korean American workers had fewer heavy episodic drinking days in the past month than Korean workers. Model testing for each group revealed that subjective norms and perceived behavioral control predicted intentions of controlled drinking, but only perceived behavioral control was a significant predictor of controlled drinking behavior. Multiple-group analyses indicated no difference between the two groups regarding the predictors of controlled drinking behaviors. DISCUSSION: Programs to promote controlled drinking for Korean American and Korean male workers should incorporate strategies to increase perceived behavioral control, such as training on how to decline drinking. In addition, early education for healthy drinking culture with a strict drinking environment needs to be considered to improve controlled drinking behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Americanos Asiáticos/psicología , Actitud Frente a la Salud , Autoimagen , Adulto , Bebidas Alcohólicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , República de Corea , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Conducta Social , Identificación Social
6.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 952021 Jan 20.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468986

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The public health strategies adopted for the containment of COVID-19 have generated psychosocial stressors that act as risk factors for alcohol consumption. The objectives of this study were to establish whether alcohol risk consumption varied during COVID-19 confinement, and how these variations manifested as a function of different sociodemographic variables. METHODS: The study was conducted during confinement with 3,779 participants in Spain. We used an online survey with sociodemographic variables (sex, age and employment situation) and AUDIT-C. Frequency and mean difference analysis were performed (Student t, ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) to establish intra-group variations before the pandemic compared to during confinement, and intergroup for each time period, reporting effect size. RESULTS: Alcohol risky consumption presented high prevalence rates before confinement (25,9% of alcohol consumers), showing a general decrease during confinement (15,1%), both in men (X2=224,829; p<0,001) and women (X2=214,324; p<0,001). Women had higher risk consumption rates both before the pandemic (X2=13,124; p<0,001; d=1,067) and during confinement (X2=26,316; p<0,001; d=2,85); however, men reported higher score in AUDIT-C before the pandemic (t(2343)=-7,887; p<0,001; d=0,322) and during confinement (t(2343)=-5,664; p<0,001; d=0,231). Considering age, significant differences in prevalence among groups were found before the pandemic (X2=22,889; p<0,001) and during confinement (X2=38,302; p<0,001), with the age range 18-24 showing less prevalence. Differences among age groups were also found in the risky consumption scores during confinement (F(5,2338)=43,849; p=0,001), increasing with age. With regards to the employment situation, differences before the pandemic (KW(5,2933)=13,467; p=0,019; E2R=0,44), and during confinement (KW(5,2933)=149,818; p<0,001; E2R=0,51) were also found. Self-employed workers showed a higher score in alcohol risky consumption with respect to full-time employees (p=0,047). CONCLUSIONS: The alcohol risky consumption decreased in a generalized way during the confinement by COVID-19, but the changes in prevalence and risk index were dependent on sociodemographic variables. It is recommended that these findings are considered in the design of public health policies and strategies.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Cuarentena/psicología , Asunción de Riesgos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , España/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
7.
Neurosci Lett ; 745: 135630, 2021 02 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440234

RESUMEN

Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic and progressive disease influenced by genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors. The consequences of alcohol consumption involve alterations in neural circuits of emotion and cognition, as well as in the motor planning circuit. Furthermore, during the natural aging process, several biochemical and functional alterations are also observed with neurological consequences. Thus, considering the consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on neural systems and natural aging process, we aimed to analyze the degree of motor and functional impairment in elderly with chronic alcohol consumption. Sixty elderly underwent an analysis of alcohol consumption profile (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - AUDIT) that divided them into a control group (CON) and an alcohol group (ALC). The analysis of quality of life was performed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the analysis of motor function was performed using the Borg Scale, the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and the Motor Scale for Elderly (MSE). We were able to conclude that the misuse of alcohol by the elderly promotes significant physical limitations. These limitations result in a worsening of functional capacity of walking and various dimensions of motor ability: fine motor skill, global coordination, balance, body scheme, spatial organization, temporal organization, and general motor aptitude. Besides the physical limitations caused by alcohol use, the quality of life in their physical, mental, and social aspects was reduced. Thus, actions are required to help the elderly understand these losses and exercise control over alcohol misuse.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/fisiopatología , Alcoholismo/fisiopatología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Equilibrio Postural/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/diagnóstico , Alcoholismo/psicología , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prueba de Paso/métodos
8.
Prev Med ; 145: 106422, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422577

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has triggered a public health crisis of unprecedented scale. Increased alcohol use has been extensively documented during other crises, particularly among persons with anxiety and depression. Despite COVID-19's differential impact by age, the association of age, mental health and alcohol use during the pandemic has not been explored. This study aimed to examine whether age modified the association of anxiety and depressive symptoms with alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic. Two online surveys were administered to U.S. adult social media users in March and April 2020. Generalized linear models were conducted in 2020 among 5850 respondents (52.9% female; 22.0% aged 18-39 years, 47.0% aged 40-59 years, and 31.0% aged ≥60 years) to examine if age modified the association of anxiety and depression symptomatology and alcohol use. Overall, 29% of respondents reported increased alcohol use. Adjusted odds ratios of reporting increased alcohol use were 1.41 (95% CI = 1.20-1.66) among respondents with anxiety symptoms and 1.64 (95% CI = 1.21-2.23) among those with depressive symptoms compared to those without such symptoms. Whereas respondents aged 18-39 years had the highest probability of reporting increased alcohol use, the probability of older persons (40-59 and ≥60 years) reporting increased drinking was much greater among those with symptoms of anxiety and depression, compared to those without symptoms. These findings warrant age-differentiated public health messaging on the risks of excessive alcohol use and scale-up of substance use services for middle-aged and older adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , /psicología , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estrés Psicológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Psychiatry Res ; 296: 113676, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385782

RESUMEN

To determine whether the past half-year of COVID-19-related lockdowns, stay-at-home orders, and social isolation were associated with changes in high-risk alcohol use, a total of 5,931 individuals completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) at one of six time points from April through September 2020. Over the 6-month period, hazardous alcohol use and likely dependence increased month-by-month for those under lockdowns compared to those not under restrictions. This increase in harmful alcohol use and related behaviors is likely to have prolonged adverse psychosocial, interpersonal, occupational, and health impacts as the world attempts to recover from the pandemic crisis.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Aislamiento Social , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Responsabilidad Social
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(4): 1099-1109, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420591

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Metabolic dysfunction, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse disorders are associated with disruptions in circadian rhythm and circadian clock gene machinery. While the effects of alcohol on several core components of the clock genes have been described in rodent models, pharmacological activation or inhibition of clock gene functions has not been studied on alcohol drinking behaviors. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether cryptochrome (CRY1/2) activator KL001 altered alcohol intake in mice in excessive and relapse-like alcohol drinking models. METHODS: Mice, subjected to 3 weeks of chronic intermittent alcohol drinking (IAD) (two-bottle choice, 24-h access every other day) developed excessive alcohol intake and high preference. We evaluated the pharmacological effects of KL001 after either 1-day acute withdrawal from IAD or 1-week chronic withdrawal using the alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) model. RESULTS: Single pretreatment with KL001 at 1-4 mg kg-1 reduced alcohol intake and preference after acute withdrawal in a dose-related manner. The effect of KL001 on reducing excessive alcohol consumption seems alcohol specific, as the compound does not alter sucrose (caloric reinforcer) or saccharin (noncaloric reinforcer) consumption in mice. Both single- and multiple-dosing regimens with an effective dose of KL001 (4 mg kg-1) prevented the ADE after chronic withdrawal, with no tolerance development after the multi-dosing regimen. CONCLUSIONS: Pretreatment with KL001 (a CRY1/2 activator) reduces excessive and "relapse" alcohol drinking in mice. Our in vivo results with a CRY activator suggest a possible novel target for alcohol treatment intervention.


Asunto(s)
Alcoholismo/prevención & control , Depresores del Sistema Nervioso Central/sangre , Criptocromos/efectos de los fármacos , Etanol/sangre , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Animales , Carbazoles/farmacología , Relación Dosis-Respuesta a Droga , Tolerancia a Medicamentos , Activación Enzimática/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Recurrencia , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Abstinencia a Sustancias/psicología , Sulfonamidas/farmacología
12.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(6): 725-730, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308400

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: It is well established that college students increase their drinking when they leave home. This study examined changes in drinking as a result of campus closure due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), focusing on the influence of living situation. METHOD: A sample of 312 college students (mean age = 21.2 years; 62% female; 67% White) responded to an online survey regarding their drinking behavior before and after university closures because of COVID-19. Those participants who lived with peers pre-closure and moved home to live with parents post-closure were compared with those who remained living with peers or remained living with parents in terms of changes in frequency and quantity of drinking. RESULTS: A comparison of pre- to post-closure drinking indicated significant decreases in the typical number of drinks per week (from 11.5 to 9.9) and maximum drinks per day (from 4.9 to 3.3) and a slight increase in typical drinking days per week (from 3 to 3.2). Patterns of change significantly varied across groups. Those who moved from peers to parents showed significantly greater reductions in drinking days (from 3.1 to 2.7), number of drinks per week (from 13.9 to 8.5), and maximum drinks in one day (from 5.4 to 2.9) than those who remained living with peers or with parents. In contrast, the latter two groups significantly increased their frequency (from 3.0 to 3.7 days and 2.0 to 3.3 days, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Participants reduced their quantity of drinking during the COVID-19 pandemic. Returning to live with parents during emerging adulthood may be protective for heavy drinking.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Características de la Residencia , Estudiantes/psicología , Universidades , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Grupo Paritario , Cuarentena/psicología , Cuarentena/tendencias , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Universidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades/tendencias , Adulto Joven
13.
Eur Psychiatry ; 64(1): e4, 2020 12 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33342458

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older adults exhibit heightened vulnerability for alcohol-related health impairments. Increases in the proportion of older adults within the European Union's total population and prevalence rates of alcohol use disorders in this age group are being observed. This large scale international study was conducted to identify those older adults with an increased risk to engage in hazardous drinking behaviour. METHODS: Socio-demographic, socio-economic, personality characteristics (Big Five Inventory, BFI-10), and alcohol consumption patterns of 13,351 individuals from 12 different European countries, collected by the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe, were analyzed using regression models. RESULTS: Age, nationality, years of education, as well as personality traits, were significantly associated with alcohol intake. For males, extraversion predicted increased alcohol intake (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.07-1.16), whereas conscientiousness (RR = 0.93, CI = 0.89-0.97), and agreeableness (RR = 0.94, CI = 0.90-0.99), were associated with a reduction. For females, openness to new experiences (RR = 1.11, CI = 1.04-1.18) predicted increased alcohol intake. Concerning excessive drinking, personality traits, nationality, and age-predicted consumption patterns for both sexes: Extraversion was identified as a risk factor for excessive drinking (OR = 1.15; CI = 1.09-1.21), whereas conscientiousness was identified as a protective factor (OR = 0.87; CI = 0.823-0.93). CONCLUSION: Hazardous alcohol consumption in the elderly was associated with specific personality characteristics. Preventative measures, crucial in reducing deleterious health consequences, should focus on translating the knowledge of the association of certain personality traits and alcohol consumption into improved prevention and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Personalidad , Anciano , Envejecimiento , Escolaridad , Europa (Continente)/epidemiología , Extraversión Psicológica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Jubilación , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113476, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198047

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic has had a dramatic effect on the functioning of individuals and institutions around the world. This cross-sectional registry-based study examined some of the burdens of the pandemic, the prevalence of mental health difficulties, and risk factors for psychosocial morbidity among community residents in Arkansas. The study focused on a period of gradual reopening but rising infection rates. The investigation included validated screening measures of depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), generalized anxiety (GAD-7), trauma-related symptoms (PCL-5), and alcohol use (AUDIT-C). A notable percentage of participants reported elevated symptoms on each of these outcomes. In separate multivariable analyses that accounted for a number of demographic and pandemic-related covariates, individuals who reported greater pandemic-related disruption in daily life, and those with a prior history of mental health concerns, were more likely to screen positive for depressive, anxiety and trauma-related symptoms. Findings illuminate burdens experienced by community residents during a period of phased reopening, and offer a foundation for future screening and intervention initiatives.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/tendencias , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/tendencias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Arkansas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Resultado del Tratamiento
15.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 115, 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143748

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The current study examined the predictors of the onset of alcohol use as well as predictors of remission and relapse, both from heavy drinking and from alcohol dependence. Similarities and differences in both clinical and psychosocial predictors across the transitions were examined. METHODS: A sample of men from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry (N = 1769) completed an assessment of lifetime drinking history, which allowed age markers for starting and stopping different drinking patterns. The men also completed various assessments regarding personality, alcohol motives, and psychiatric diagnoses. Survival analyses were used to examine the predictors of the three transitions of onset, remission, and relapse for the phenotypes of heavy drinking and of alcohol dependence, censoring the individuals who had not yet experienced an event. RESULTS: As expected, predictors of onset for drinking, heavy drinking, and alcohol dependence were largely consistent and included externalizing symptomology, nicotine dependence, and cotwin history of drinking as risk factors. Predictors of remission from heavy drinking, somewhat similarly to remission from alcohol dependence, included the risk factor of externalizing disorders but also, as predicted, included more risk and protective factors in the psychosocial realm that were not predictors of onset. Contrary to our prediction, relapse to heavy drinking and alcohol dependence were predicted largely by unique psychosocial risk and protective factors including social and coping motives. CONCLUSION: Current findings extend the findings of past research to remission and relapse in the later decades of life and have implications for treatment of alcohol use problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Adulto , Edad de Inicio , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Alcoholismo/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Motivación , Recurrencia , Sistema de Registros , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis de Supervivencia , Gemelos/psicología , Veteranos/psicología , Veteranos/estadística & datos numéricos , Guerra de Vietnam
18.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 810-813, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065821

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the population prevalence of people with changes in their usual patterns of alcohol use during the early stages of the novel coronavirus pandemic of 2020 (COVID-19) pandemic in Australia; assess the association between mental health status and changes in alcohol use during the pandemic; and examine if the associations were modified by gender and age. METHODS: This study was an anonymously-completed online self-report survey. Changes in alcohol use were assessed using a single fixed-choice study-specific question. Mental health was assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale. RESULTS: A total of 13,829 people contributed complete data and were included in the analysis. Overall, about one in five adults reported that they had been drinking more alcohol since the COVID-19 pandemic began than they used to. People were more likely to be drinking alcohol more than they used to if they had more severe symptoms of depression or anxiety. The associations between depressive and anxiety symptoms and increased alcohol use since the COVID-19 pandemic began were consistent between females and males. LIMITATIONS: Online surveys are less accessible to some groups of people. The data are self-report and not diagnostic. Cross-sectional data can identify associations, not causal relationships. The study was limited to participants from Australia. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that there is a need for public policies focused on alcohol use during the COVID-19 pandemic and the strategies should include specific consideration of the needs of people with mental health problems.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Australia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuestionario de Salud del Paciente , Prevalencia , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
19.
J Affect Disord ; 277: 893-900, 2020 12 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The mental health status caused by major epidemics is serious and lasting. At present, there are few studies about the lasting mental health effects of COVID-19 outbreak. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mental health of the Chinese public during the long-term COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A total of 1172 online questionnaires were collected, covering demographical information and 8 common psychological states: depression, anxiety, somatization, stress, psychological resilience, suicidal ideation and behavior, insomnia, and stress disorder. In addition, the geographical and temporal distributions of different mental states were plotted. RESULTS: Overall, 30.1% of smokers increased smoking, while 11.3% of drinkers increased alcohol consumption. The prevalence rates of depression, anxiety, mental health problems, high risk of suicidal and behavior, clinical insomnia, clinical post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, moderate-to-high levels of perceived stress were 18.8%, 13.3%, 7.6%, 2.8%, 7.2%, 7.0%, and 67.9%, respectively. Further, the geographical distribution showed that the mental status in some provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities was relatively more serious. The temporal distribution showed that the psychological state of the participants was relatively poorer on February 20, 24 to 26 and March 25, especially on March 25. LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional design cannot make causal inferences. The snowball sampling was not representative enough. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the prevalence rate of mental disorders in the Chinese public is relatively low in the second month of the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, people's mental state is affected by the geographical and temporal distributions.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Depresión/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Trastornos Somatomorfos/epidemiología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prevalencia , Resiliencia Psicológica , Trastornos del Inicio y del Mantenimiento del Sueño/epidemiología , Fumar/epidemiología , Fumar/psicología , Trastornos Somatomorfos/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 41(9): 1531-1535, 2020 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076613

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the correlation between alcohol drinking and high-risk sexual behaviors in HIV negative clients of female sex workers and provide scientific evidence for prevention of HIV sexual transmission. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in HIV negative clients in Ji'nan and Haikou from December 2018 to May 2019. The estimated sample size was 337, the information about their demographic characteristics, AIDS knowledge awareness, sexual behaviors and alcohol drinking habit were collected through convenience sampling. The data were analyzed by using SPSS 24.0 software. Results: A total of 381 clients were included in this study. Most of them were less than 40 years old, accounting for 89.2% (340/381); 85.3% of them (325/381) reported an education level of high school and above; the clients who were married, had cohabitation with females or had girl friends accounted for 53.2% (202/380). The overall awareness rate of AIDS knowledge was 83.7% (318/380). Of all participants, 80.8% (308/381) had commercial sex in the past year, 79.8% (304/381) had non-commercial sex partners, 62.7% (239/381) had high-risk sexual behaviors. The results of logistic regression showed that compared with those with alcohol drinking frequency ≤2 times per month in last year, the clients with alcohol drinking frequency more than once a week (aOR=3.22, 95%CI: 1.25-8.27) were more likely to have high risk sexual behaviors after adjustment for age, living area, location type of residence, time of local residence, education level, monthly income level, occupation, marital status, knowledge awareness of AIDS and HIV related services, the number of commercial or non-commercial sexual partners in the past year, cost of commercial sex and HIV test frequency. Conclusions: Alcohol drinking is related to high risk sexual behaviors in HIV negative clients, and will increase the risk of HIV transmission. To control AIDS, the intervention of alcohol drinking should be combined with other preventions to improve the correct use of condoms.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas , Asunción de Riesgos , Conducta Sexual , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/epidemiología , Consumo de Bebidas Alcohólicas/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajadores Sexuales
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