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1.
Monaldi Arch Chest Dis ; 90(1)2020 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225996

RESUMEN

Exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is an ominous sign in heart failure due to reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) whatever it is represented. But EOV is detected also in normal healthy individuals and in other cardiovascular disease (CVD) patients, however, its prevalence in these is not completed clear. The aim was to describe the occurrence of EOV in healthy subjects and the overall population all CVD patients who performing symptom limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Healthy subjects were divided in athletes and normal subjects, while, CVD patients were subdivided into: i) t hose with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF); ii) those with mild to moderate impairment of LVEF (41-49%); iii) those with severe impairment of LVEF (≤40%); iv) HFrEF or with preserved LVEF (HFpEF); and iv) patients after heart transplantation (HXT). EOV was observed only in CVD patients and in those with depressed LVEF; the prevalence of EOV was observed 1.9% (3/55) those with mild to moderate impairment of LVEF (41-49%), 3.4% (56/1613) those with severe impairment of LVEF (≤40%), and 7.3% (214/2903) in HFrEF); no EOV was observed in CVD with preserved LVEF. Kremser's EOV was observed in patients, and, particularly, in those with systolic function impairment. Moreover, as EOV impacts prognosis in HFrEF, its occurrence can modify prognostic-decision models. Even though, EOV prevalence was derived from largest single center population, more studies are needed to tackle the EOV prevalence in different CVD conditions and in normal subjects.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares , Respiración de Cheyne-Stokes/etiología , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda , Atletas , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/fisiopatología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/fisiopatología , Humanos , Consumo de Oxígeno , Pronóstico , Volumen Sistólico , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/complicaciones , Disfunción Ventricular Izquierda/diagnóstico , Función Ventricular Izquierda
2.
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi ; 48(2): 104-110, 2020 Feb 24.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135609

RESUMEN

Objective: To investigate the effects of ticagrelor on cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with coronary heart disease after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods: A total of 1 073 patients, who were diagnosed as coronary heart disease and underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) within 1 year after PCI, were enrolled from September 2017 to September 2019 in Peking University Third Hospital, including 309 patients in ticagrelor group and 764 patients in clopidogrel group. Clinical information, blood test results, echocardiographic parameters, cardiorespiratory fitness related parameters (including peak oxygen uptake (VO(2)), anaerobic threshold VO(2), peak oxygen pulse (VO(2)/HR) and carbon dioxide ventilation equivalent (VE/VCO(2)) slope), coronary lesions and intervention information were obtained. Cardiopulmonary fitness related indexes were compared between the two groups, and the correlation between ticagrelor use and cardiopulmonary fitness related indexes was analyzed by multivariate logistic regression. Patients who underwent CPET within 1 month after PCI were included in the subgroup analysis. Results: In ticagrelor group, the age was (60.3±10.3) years, and 253(81.9%) cases were male. The age of clopidogrel group was (60.6±10.0) years, and there were 608(79.6%) males. No significant differences were observed in peak VO(2), anaerobic threshold VO(2), and peak VO(2)/HR between the two groups (all P>0.05), but the VE/VCO(2) slope was significantly higher in the ticagrelor group than in the clopidogrel group (30.075 (27.207, 33.603) vs. 28.853 (25.970, 32.336), P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the peak VO(2), anaerobic threshold VO(2) and peak VO(2)/HR were not significantly correlated with the ticagrelor use (all P>0.05), while the VE/VCO(2) slope was independently correlated with ticagrelor use (OR=1.098, 95%CI 1.032-1.168, P=0.003). Subgroup analysis of patients who underwent CPET within 1 month after PCI also indicated that no significant difference were observed in peak VO(2), anaerobic threshold VO(2), peak VO(2)/HR and VE/VCO(2) slope between the two groups (all P>0.05). Logistic regression analysis suggested that the peak VO(2), anaerobic threshold VO(2) and peak VO(2)/HR were not significantly correlated with ticagrelor use (all P>0.05), while the VE/VCO(2) slope was significantly correlated with ticagrelor use (OR=1.132, 95%CI 1.030-1.244, P=0.010). Conclusion: Among coronary heart disease patients after PCI, treatment with clopidogrel does not result in significant decrease in exercise endurance as compared with patients treated with ticagrelor.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Intervención Coronaria Percutánea , Anciano , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Consumo de Oxígeno , Ticagrelor
3.
Br J Radiol ; 93(1107): 20190807, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32003574

RESUMEN

After years of lethargy, studies on two non-conventional microstructures in time and space of the beams used in radiation therapy are enjoying a huge revival. The first effect called "FLASH" is based on very high dose-rate irradiation (pulse amplitude ≥106 Gy/s), short beam-on times (≤100 ms) and large single doses (≥10 Gy) as experimental parameters established so far to give biological and potential clinical effects. The second effect relies on the use of arrays of minibeams (e.g., 0.5-1 mm, spaced 1-3.5 mm). Both approaches have been shown to protect healthy tissues as an endpoint that must be clearly specified and could be combined with each other (e.g., minibeams under FLASH conditions). FLASH depends on the presence of oxygen and could proceed from the chemistry of peroxyradicals and a reduced incidence on DNA and membrane damage. Minibeams action could be based on abscopal effects, cell signalling and/or migration of cells between "valleys and hills" present in the non-uniform irradiation field as well as faster repair of vascular damage. Both effects are expected to maintain intact the tumour control probability and might even preserve antitumoural immunological reactions. FLASH in vivo experiments involving Zebrafish, mice, pig and cats have been done with electron beams, while minibeams are an intermediate approach between X-GRID and synchrotron X-ray microbeams radiation. Both have an excellent rationale to converge and be applied with proton beams, combining focusing properties and high dose rates in the beam path of pencil beams, and the inherent advantage of a controlled limited range. A first treatment with electron FLASH (cutaneous lymphoma) has recently been achieved, but clinical trials have neither been presented for FLASH with protons, nor under the minibeam conditions. Better understanding of physical, chemical and biological mechanisms of both effects is essential to optimize the technical developments and devise clinical trials.


Asunto(s)
Tratamientos Conservadores del Órgano/métodos , Terapia de Protones/métodos , Animales , Gatos , Proliferación Celular , Daño del ADN , Reparación del ADN , Fraccionamiento de la Dosis de Radiación , Linfoma Cutáneo de Células T/radioterapia , Ratones , Órganos en Riesgo/efectos de la radiación , Oxígeno , Consumo de Oxígeno , Traumatismos por Radiación/prevención & control , Tolerancia a Radiación , Radiometría/métodos , Neoplasias Cutáneas/radioterapia , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Porcinos , Pez Cebra
4.
Cell Biochem Biophys ; 78(1): 111-119, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062829

RESUMEN

There are different varieties of mushrooms not yet studied spread all over the planet. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical properties and effects on mitochondrial respiration of eight Basidiomycete mushrooms: Flaviporus venustus EF30, Hydnopolyporus fimbriatus EF41 and EF44, Inonotus splitgerberi EF46, Oudemansiella canarii EF72, Perenniporia sp. EF79, Phellinus linteus EF81, and Pleurotus albidus EF84. Total phenols, ABTS, TEAC, FRAP, and ORAC were measured in order to determine the antioxidant capacity. Antimicrobial potential was studied by disc-diffusion and microdilution method. Cytotoxicity was determined in murine peritoneal macrophages. The bioenergetic aspects were evaluated by the uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondrias. The H. fimbriatus mushroom was the one that presented the most significant results for the antioxidant assays. Three mushrooms presented antimicrobial activity, indicating a potential for formulation of drugs. The results suggest that I. spligerberi has an uncoupling activity, even at the lowest concentration tested, dissipating the mitochondrial electrochemical gradient. On the other hand, P. albidus has effect only on succinate-oxidase activity without influencing mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Therefore, both interfere negatively in mitochondrial respiration. In relation with the cytotoxicity in peritoneal macrophages, O. canarii and F. venustus were cytotoxic in this type of cells.


Asunto(s)
Basidiomycota/química , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/química , Animales , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Basidiomycota/metabolismo , Macrófagos Peritoneales/citología , Macrófagos Peritoneales/efectos de los fármacos , Macrófagos Peritoneales/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Fosforilación Oxidativa/efectos de los fármacos , Consumo de Oxígeno/efectos de los fármacos , Fenoles/aislamiento & purificación , Fenoles/farmacología , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Ácido Succínico/química
5.
Chin J Physiol ; 63(1): 15-20, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32056982

RESUMEN

To characterize physiological stress response against simulated short-distance sprints among world-class paddlers. Thirteen dragon boat gold medalists performed 200-m and 500-m simulated race trials on a kayak ergometer in a randomized, counter-balanced, crossover fashion. During the 200-m and 500-m sprints, oxygen consumption (VO2) increased from 8.7 to 31.2 ml/kg/min and from 8.0 to 32.7 ml/kg/min within 60 s, respectively. A plateau of 35 ml/kg/min below maximal VO2(VO2max) (39.7 ± 6.3 ml/kg/min) was reached at 75 s during the 500-m sprint. Respiratory exchange ratio dropped from 1.21 ± 0.16 to 1.07 ± 0.12 and 1.28 ± 0.13 to 1.06 ± 0.16 at 45 s, and resurged to 1.17 and 1.28 at the end of 200-m and 500-m sprints with lactate concentration reached 13 ± 2 and 15 ± 2 mM. Aerobic energy contribution to paddling power increases from ~10% for the first 15 s to ~80% for the last 15 s during the 500-m trial. Postexercise plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances increased by 376% and 543% above baseline after 200-m and 500-m trials (P < 0.001, between trials), respectively, followed by quick returns to baseline in 30 min (P < 0.001). Increased plasma creatine kinase (+48%) was observed only after the 500-m trial (P < 0.001, between trials), not 200-m trial. Our data suggest that muscle damage occurred only when maximal sprinting exceeding 2 min, highlighting an importance of volume than intensity on exercise-induced muscle damage.


Asunto(s)
Consumo de Oxígeno , Navíos , Estrés Fisiológico , Humanos , Ácido Láctico , Deportes
6.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072217

RESUMEN

Physical fitness is defined as an individual's ability to be physically active. The main components are cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength, and flexibility. Regardless of physical activity level, physical fitness is an important determinant of morbidity and mortality.The aim of the current study was to describe the physical fitness assessment methodology in the German National Cohort (NAKO) and to present initial descriptive results in a subsample of the cohort.In the NAKO, hand grip strength (GS) and CRF as physical fitness components were assessed at baseline using a hand dynamometer and a submaximal bicycle ergometer test, respectively. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) was estimated as a result of the bicycle ergometer test. The results of a total of 99,068 GS measurements and 3094 CRF measurements are based on a data set at halftime of the NAKO baseline survey (age 20-73 years, 47% men).Males showed higher values of physical fitness compared to women (males: GS = 47.8 kg, VO2max = 36.4 ml·min-1 · kg-1; females: GS = 29.9 kg, VO2max = 32.3 ml · min-1 · kg-1). GS declined from the age of 50 onwards, whereas VO2max levels decreased continuously between the age groups of 20-29 and ≥60 years. GS and VO2max showed a linear positive association after adjustment for body weight (males ß = 0.21; females ß = 0.35).These results indicate that the physical fitness measured in the NAKO are comparable to other population-based studies. Future analyses in this study will focus on examining the independent relations of GS and CRF with risk of morbidity and mortality.


Asunto(s)
Prueba de Esfuerzo , Aptitud Física , Adulto , Femenino , Alemania , Fuerza de la Mano , Humanos , Masculino , Oxígeno , Consumo de Oxígeno , Adulto Joven
7.
Pneumologie ; 74(2): 88-102, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050280

RESUMEN

Cardiorespiratory fitness has been established as an independent overall predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, patients' symptoms or stated levels of exercise intolerance correlate only poorly with resting functional and imaging tests. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard for the integrative assessment of the cardiocirculatory, pulmonary and metabolic response to exercise and can help identify the source of exercise limitation, monitor disease progression, evaluate treatment responsiveness and inform about prognosis. Though CPET offers more valuable and pertinent information with slightly more expenditure of time compared to other methods even at submaximal exercise levels, it remains underutilized for various reasons such as costs, reimbursement and expertise. CPET can be seen as a complex, but not necessarily difficult tool. The objective of this review was to provide a description of the underlying principles of physiology, and an easy-to-follow guidance to indications, methodology, and interpretative strategies of CPET.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Prueba de Esfuerzo/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Ejercicio , Tolerancia al Ejercicio , Humanos , Consumo de Oxígeno
8.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 141-153, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935777

RESUMEN

This study analyzed the effects of physical exercise interventions on cardiovascular endpoints in childhood cancer survivors. Relevant articles were systematically searched in PubMed, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases (since inception to 11th September 2019). We performed a meta-analysis (random effects) to determine the mean difference (expressed together with 95% confidence intervals) between pre- and post-intervention values for those cardiovascular endpoints reported in more than three studies. Twenty-seven studies (of which 16 were controlled studies) comprising 697 participants were included. Only three studies reported adverse events related to exercise interventions. Exercise resulted in an increased performance on the 6-minute walk distance test (mean difference=111 m, 95% confidence interval=39-183, p=0.003) and a non-significant trend (mean difference=1.97 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 95% confidence interval=-0.12-4.06, p=0.065) for improvement in peak oxygen uptake. Furthermore, left ventricular ejection fraction was preserved after exercise interventions (mean difference=0.29%, 95% confidence interval=-1.41-1.99, p=0.738). In summary, exercise interventions might exert a cardioprotective effect in childhood cancer survivors by improving - or attenuating the decline of - physical capacity and cardiovascular function. Further studies, particularly randomized controlled trials, are needed to confirm these benefits.


Asunto(s)
Supervivientes de Cáncer , Capacidad Cardiovascular/fisiología , Terapia por Ejercicio , Presión Sanguínea/fisiología , Niño , Endotelio Vascular/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Frecuencia Cardíaca/fisiología , Humanos , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Volumen Sistólico/fisiología
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(3): 175-181, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31952081

RESUMEN

Functional threshold power (FTP) is defined as the highest power that a cyclist can maintain in a quasi-steady state without fatigue for approximately 1 hour. To improve practicality, a 20-minute time-trial test was proposed, where FTP is represented by 95% of the mean power produced. It is preceded by a specific 45-min warm-up, with periods of low intensity, fast accelerations, and a 5-min time-trial. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the reliability of this protocol, including the reliability of the warm-up, pacing strategy, and FTP determination. For this purpose, 25 trained cyclists performed a familiarization and two other tests separated by seven days. The coefficient of variation (CV [%]), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and change in the mean between test and retest were calculated. The results show that the 20-min time-trial was reliable (CV=2.9%, ICC=0.97), despite a less reliable warm-up (CV=5.5%, ICC=0.84). The changes in the mean between the test and retest were trivial to small for all measurements, and the pacing strategy was consistent across all trials. These results suggest that FTP determination with a 20-min protocol was reliable in trained cyclists.


Asunto(s)
Umbral Anaerobio/fisiología , Ciclismo/fisiología , Conducta Competitiva/fisiología , Prueba de Esfuerzo/métodos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Ejercicio de Calentamiento/fisiología
10.
Arch. med ; 20(1): 33-39, 2020-01-18.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1053184

RESUMEN

Objective: analyze the agreement of the V̇O2max values estimated by American College of Sports Medicine and Foster equations with direct measure gas analyze in young Brazilian males. The maximal oxygen uptake, as a health indicator and mortality predictor, can be assessed in different ways. The gold standard comprises the direct measurement of exhaled gases, which entails high cost. A more conveniently form can be estimation equations. Materials and methods: this study assessed VO2max of 41 young Brazilian males (21.4 ±2.2 years) by cardiopulmonary exercise test in a treadmill ergometer with a ramp protocol. Bland and Altman analysis was performed to verify the agreement between V̇ O2max measured and estimated values by ACSM and Foster equations. Results:the measured VO2max was 52.3 ± 4.9 ml.kg-1.min-1. The difference between the measured V̇O2max and the estimated V̇ O2max by the ACSM equation (9.40±3.67) was approximately 7.5 times greater than the difference between the measured V̇O2max and estimated V̇O2max by Foster's equation (1.25±3.46). Bland Altman graphics shows that only ACSM equation had mean differences that were significantly different from the measured value. Conclusions: the ACSM equation showed not appropriate for during treadmill stress testing young adults in a ramp protocol and Foster equation seems to be a more accurate estimator of V̇O2max for this population, besides showed a bias along the aerobic capacity, trending to overestimates and underestimates V̇O2max of least and most fit people, respectively..(AU)


Objetivo: analizar la concordancia de los valores de VO2max estimados por las ecuaciones del Colegio Americano de Medicina del Deporte y de Foster con el análisis de gases de medida directa en varones brasileños jóvenes. el consumo máximo de oxigeno, como un indicador de salud y predictor de mortalidad, se puede evaluar de diferentes maneras. El estándar de oro comprende la medición directa de los gases exhalados, lo que implica un alto costo. Una forma más conveniente puede ser las ecuaciones de estimación. Materiales y métodos: este estudio evaluó el VO2máx de 41 hombres brasileños jóvenes (21,4 ± 2,2 años) mediante una prueba de ejercicio cardiopulmonar en un ergómetro en cinta ergométrica con un protocolo de rampa. El análisis de Bland y Altman se realizó para verificar la concordancia entre V̇O2max medido y valores estimados por las ecuaciones del ACSM y de Foster. Resultados: el VO2max medido fue de 52,3 ± 4,9 ml.kg-1.min-1. La diferencia entre el V̇O2max medido y el VO2max estimado por la ecuación ACSM (9,40 ± 3,67) fue aproximadamente 7.5 veces mayor que la diferencia entre el VO2max medido y el VO2max estimado por la ecuación de Foster (1,25 ± 3,46). Los gráficos de Bland Altman muestran que solo la ecuación de ACSM tenía diferencias estadísticas del valor medido. Conclusiones: la ecuación ACSM no fue adecuada durante la prueba de ejercicio en cinta de correr en adultos jóvenes en un protocolo de rampa y la ecuación de Foster parece ser un estimador más preciso de VO2max para esta población, además mostró un sesgo a lo largo de la capacidad aeróbica, con tendencia a sobreestimar y subestimar VO2 máx. de personas menos y más en preparadas, respectivamente..(AU)


Asunto(s)
Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno , Ejercicio
11.
J Exp Biol ; 223(Pt 2)2020 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31915201

RESUMEN

Climate change is impacting many, if not all, forms of life. Increases in extreme temperature fluctuations and average temperatures can cause stress, particularly in aquatic sessile ectotherms such as freshwater mussels. However, some species seem to thrive more than others in face of temperature-related stressors. Thermal tolerance may, for example, explain the success of invasive species. It is also known that mitochondria can play a key role in setting an ectothermic species' thermal tolerance. In this study, we aimed to characterize the mitochondrial thermo-tolerance in invasive and endemic freshwater mussels. With the use of high-resolution respirometry, we analyzed the mitochondrial respiration of two freshwater bivalve species exposed to a broad range of temperatures. We noticed that the invasive dreissenid Dreissena bugensis possessed a less thermo-tolerant mitochondrial metabolism than the endemic unionid Elliptio complanata This lack of tolerance was linked with a more noticeable aerobic metabolic depression at elevated temperatures. This decrease in mitochondrial metabolic activity was also linked with an increase in leak oxygen consumption as well as a stable maintenance of the activity of cytochrome c oxidase in both species. These findings may be associated both with the species' life history characteristics, as D. bugensis is more adapted to unstable habitats, in which selection pressures for resistance adaptations are reduced. Our findings add to the growing body of literature characterizing the mitochondrial metabolism of many aquatic ectotherms in our changing world.


Asunto(s)
Bivalvos/fisiología , Especies Introducidas , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Animales , Bivalvos/metabolismo , Ecosistema , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología
12.
Food Chem ; 313: 126045, 2020 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954278

RESUMEN

The polyphenolic content and the antioxidant capacity of seven tannins with different botanical origin were measured with spectrophotometric methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, Total Polyphenols Index, DPPH, FRAP), HPLC (phloroglucinolysis), voltammetric analysis (Linear Sweep Voltammetry, LSV). The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) was measured in an oxygen saturated model wine solution, containing transition metals and metabisulphite, with a noninvasive luminescence-based technology. The results showed a high variability in polyphenolic concentration related to the botanical origin of tannins. The OCR determined over 21 days was described by quadratic equations, with coefficients varying with tannin botanical origin, dose and SO2 concentration. The tannins ranked differently for antioxidant capacity, depending on the kind of test. The oxygen consumption parameters were positively correlated only with the LSV data measured with anodic current between 100 and 1200 mV (LSV1200mV) and with the FRAP index.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/química , Polifenoles/química , Taninos/química , Vino/análisis , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión , Oxígeno/química , Consumo de Oxígeno , Espectrofotometría
13.
Life Sci ; 245: 117307, 2020 Mar 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31954746

RESUMEN

AIM: To investigate whether a chronic 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (i.e. Fluoxetine-FLX) exposure in young adult rats overfed during suckling period would modulate interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) mitochondria and browning agents in white adipose tissue (WAT). METHODS: Male Wistar rats were assigned into either a normofed group (n = 9 per group) or an overfed group (n = 3 per group) induced by litter size reduction at postnatal day 3 (PND3). Pharmacological manipulation was carried out between PND39 and PND59 and groups were assigned accordingly: Normofed + vehicle solution - NaCl 0.9% (NV group), normofed + FLX solution - 10 mg/kg b.w. (NF group), overfed + vehicle (OV group) and overfed + FLX (OF group). We evaluated mitochondrial oxygen consumption and reactive species (RS) production, oxidative stress analyses (MDA concentration, carbonyl content, REDOX state [GSH/GSSG], global oxy score) in the iBAT, gene (leptin, Ucp1, Sirt1, Pgc1α and Prdm16) and protein (UCP1) expression in the iBAT and epididymal WAT (eWAT). KEY FINDINGS: OV group increased body weight gain, Lee index and oxidative stress in the iBAT. Both FLX-treated groups showed less weight gain compared to their controls. OF group showed different leptin expression in the WAT and iBAT; increased functional UCP1 content and mitochondrial activity with less oxidative stress in the iBAT and upregulation of browning genes in eWAT (Pgc1α, Prdm16 and Ucp1). CONCLUSION: Altogether our findings indicated that FLX treatment in young adult overfed animals improved the iBAT mitochondrial function, reduced oxidative stress and induced transcriptional activation of browning agents in white adipose tissue.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo Pardo/efectos de los fármacos , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/efectos de los fármacos , Fluoxetina/farmacología , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Hipernutrición/metabolismo , Inhibidores de la Captación de Serotonina/farmacología , Animales , Peso Corporal/efectos de los fármacos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxígeno/efectos de los fármacos , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Especies Reactivas de Oxígeno/metabolismo , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Proteína Desacopladora 1/metabolismo
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 22, 2020 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sedentary behavior (SB) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are important issues in occupational health. Developing a questionnaire to concurrently assess workers' SB and CRF could fundamentally improve epidemiological research. The Worker's Living Activity-time Questionnaire (WLAQ) was developed previously to assess workers' sitting time. WLAQ can be modified to evaluate workers' CRF if additional physical activity (PA) data such as PA frequency, duration, and intensity are collected. METHODS: A total of 198 working adults (93 women and 105 men; age, 30-60 years) completed anthropometric measurements, a treadmill exercise test for measuring maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), and modified WLAQ (m-WLAQ, which included questions about PA data additional to the original questions). Multiple regression analyses were performed to develop prediction equations for VO2max. The generated models were cross-validated using the predicted residual error sum of squares method. Among the participants, the data of 97 participants who completed m-WLAQ twice after a 1-week interval were used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest reliability analyses. RESULTS: Age (r = - 0.29), sex (r = 0.48), body mass index (BMI, r = - 0.20), total sitting time (r = - 0.15), and PA score (total points for PA data, r = 0.47) were significantly correlated with VO2max. The models that included age, sex, and BMI accounted for 43% of the variance in measured VO2max [standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 5.04 ml·kg- 1·min- 1]. These percentages increased to 59% when the PA score was included in the models (SEE = 4.29 ml·kg- 1·min- 1). Cross-validation analyses demonstrated good stability of the VO2max prediction models, while systematic underestimation and overestimation of VO2max were observed in individuals with high and low fitness, respectively. The ICC of the PA score was 0.87 (0.82-0.91), indicating excellent reliability. CONCLUSIONS: The PA score obtained using m-WLAQ, rather than sitting time, correlated well with measured VO2max. The equation model that included the PA score as well as age, sex, and BMI had a favorable validity for estimating VO2max. Thus, m-WLAQ can be a useful questionnaire to concurrently assess workers' SB and CRF, which makes it a reasonable resource for future epidemiological surveys on occupational health.


Asunto(s)
Capacidad Cardiovascular , Ejercicio/fisiología , Salud Laboral , Consumo de Oxígeno/fisiología , Conducta Sedentaria , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Índice de Masa Corporal , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Tiempo
15.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 105-112, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893401

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We have repeatedly observed a right-left asymmetry (RLA) of prefrontal cerebral oxygenation of subjects during the resting state. AIM: To clarify if the RLA is a reliably observable phenomenon at the group level and whether it is associated with systemic physiology, absolute tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) or total hemoglobin concentration ([tHb]). MATERIAL AND METHODS: StO2 and [tHb] values at the right and left prefrontal cortex (PFC) were calculated for two 5- min resting phases based on data from 76 single measurements (24 healthy adults, aged 22.0 ± 6.4 years). StO2 and [tHb] were measured with an ISS OxiplexTS frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy device. In addition, end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR) and the pulse-respiration quotient (PRQ = HR/RR) were measured and analyzed for the two phases. RESULTS: On the group level it was found that i) StO2 was higher at the right compared to the left PFC (for both phases), ii) RLA of StO2 (∆StO2 = StO2 (right)-StO2 (left) was independent of PETCO2, HR and PRQ, and iii) ∆StO2 was associated with absolute StO2 and [tHb] values (positively and negatively, respectively). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: This study shows that i) RLA of StO2 at the PFC is a real phenomenon, and that ii) ∆StO2 at the group level does not depend on PETCO2, HR, RR or PRQ, but on absolute StO2 and [tHb]. We conclude that the RLA is a real effect, independent of systemic physiology, and most likely reflects genuine properties of the brain, i.e. different activity states of the two hemispheres.


Asunto(s)
Hemoglobinas , Oxígeno , Corteza Prefrontal , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adolescente , Adulto , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxígeno , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
16.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 193-199, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893410

RESUMEN

Measurement of oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) changes in the cerebral cortex using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) shows that its levels increase during moderate-intensity exercise and persists after exercise. However, the effects of exercise duration on O2Hb persistence in the premotor cortex (PMC) are unknown. We aimed to determine the effects of exercise duration on the persistence of O2Hb changes after moderate-intensity cycling as exercise. Healthy young volunteers were recruited to participate in this study. After a 3-min rest period, the exercise was initiated at a workload corresponding to 50% VO2peak. The exercise continued for 10 min and 20 min, followed by 15 min of rest. The O2Hb levels in the right (R-PMC) and left premotor cortices (L-PMC) were measured using an NIRS system. The O2Hb values during the 15-min post-exercise rest period in the R-PMC were 0.010 ± 0.011 mM·cm after the 10-min exercise and 0.035 ± 0.010 mM·cm after the 20-min exercise, without significant differences (p = 0.104). The O2Hb value in the L-PMC during post-exercise rest (0.055 ± 0.010 mM·cm) after the 20-min exercise was significantly higher than that after the 10-min exercise (0.023 ± 0.007 mM·cm; p = 0.014). Thus, the effects of exercise duration on O2Hb persistence have laterality in the PMC.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Corteza Motora , Consumo de Oxígeno , Oxihemoglobinas , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Corteza Motora/metabolismo , Oxihemoglobinas/metabolismo , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
17.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 201-207, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893411

RESUMEN

Our previous research confirmed that patients with malignant hematopoietic disease already had a low hemoglobin level before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, no study has determined whether a correlation exists between exercise load, hemoglobin level, and muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2), during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)-derived SmO2 is associated with exercise load, as determined by a dynamometer, before allo-HSCT. This study included 19 male patients who received allo-HSCT in Hyogo College of Medicine Hospital (Japan) between November 2009 and October 2012. Patients performed isometric repeated dorsiflexion at 50% maximum voluntary contraction for 180 s to determine exercise load, and SmO2 was evaluated during exercise at the same time using NIRS (BOM-L1TRW, Omega Wave, Inc., Japan). The hemoglobin level was also evaluated before allo-HSCT. Patients with hematopoietic disease before allo-HSCT already had a low hemoglobin level. There was a significant correlation between exercise load and ∆SmO2; however, the hemoglobin level was not correlated with exercise load. In these patients, exercise load might be affected by muscle oxygen consumption rather than by the hemoglobin level. This finding shows that NIRS can used to assess fatigue in patients with malignant hematopoietic disease.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Enfermedades Hematológicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas , Hemoglobinas , Músculo Esquelético , Consumo de Oxígeno , Enfermedades Hematológicas/metabolismo , Enfermedades Hematológicas/fisiopatología , Neoplasias Hematológicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hematológicas/fisiopatología , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Oxígeno/metabolismo
18.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 209-214, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893412

RESUMEN

Cognitive function is reported to improve by moderate aerobic exercise. However, the effects of intermittent exercise with rest between the moderate-intensity exercise are unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise on cerebral oxygenation and cognitive function. This study included 18 healthy adults. For the continuous exercise protocol, 5 min of rest was followed by 30 min of exercise; 5 min of rest was allowed after each exercise. For the intermittent exercise protocol, 3 sets of 10 min of exercise were completed, with 5 min of rest between the sets. Exercise intensity was 50% of maximum oxygen uptake. Oxyhemoglobin (O2Hb) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was measured during each protocol, and cognitive tasks (Stroop test) were performed before and after exercise. O2Hb levels for the left and right PFCs were significantly higher post-exercise than pre-exercise for both exercise protocols (p < 0.01). The average reaction time in the Stroop test was significantly shorter post-exercise than pre-exercise for both protocols (p < 0.01). There was no significant difference in the error rate pre- and post-exercise for both protocols (continuous p = 0.22; intermittent p = 0.44). There was no significant difference between both protocols in all measurement results (O2Hb: p = 0.67; average reaction time p = 0.50; error rate p = 0.24). O2Hb was higher and average reaction time was shorter after exercise than before exercise for both exercise protocols. Intermittent and continuous exercise may improve cognitive function to the same degree after exercise.


Asunto(s)
Cerebro , Cognición , Ejercicio , Oxígeno , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto , Cerebro/metabolismo , Cognición/fisiología , Humanos , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxígeno
19.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 223-229, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893414

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to compare muscle O2 dynamics during exercise between aerobic capacity-matched overweight and normal-weight adults. Overweight women (OW, n = 9) and normal-weight women (NW, n = 14) performed graded treadmill exercise until exhaustion. Muscle O2 saturation (SmO2) and relative changes from rest in deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration (∆deoxy-Hb) and total hemoglobin concentration (∆total-Hb) were monitored continuously at gastrocnemius medialis muscle by near infrared spatial resolved spectroscopy. Significantly higher SmO2 and lower ∆deoxy-Hb and ∆total-Hb were observed in OW compared with NW. Pulmonary O2 uptake (VO2) normalized by fat-free mass was matched between groups. In both groups, peak VO2 was significantly correlated with change in SmO2 and ∆deoxy-Hb. Our findings suggest that both muscle blood volume and deoxygenation were lower in overweight adults, compared to aerobic capacity-matched normal-weight adults. Moreover, lowered muscle O2 extraction was related to peak VO2 in overweight adults, as well as in normal-weight adults.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Músculo Esquelético , Sobrepeso , Consumo de Oxígeno , Adulto , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Sobrepeso/metabolismo
20.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1232: 231-237, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31893415

RESUMEN

Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX) has shown a correlation between prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenated hemoglobin (O2Hb) level and negative affective responses. We hypothesized that O2Hb changes differ between the PFC and motor-related areas. This study investigated changes in hemoglobin levels in the PFC and motor-related areas during CPX. Twelve young healthy adults participated in this study. They performed a CPX after 4 min of rest and 4 min of warming up. Cortical O2Hb, deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), and total hemoglobin (THb) levels were measured with NIRS during CPX. Regions of interest (ROI) were the PFC, premotor area (PMA), supplementary motor area (SMA), and primary motor cortex (M1). The anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation (RC), and peak oxygen uptake (Peak) points were determined. The rest, AT, RC and Peak points of O2Hb, HHb, and THb were averaged over 5 s; hemoglobin slopes, from RC to the Peak points, were calculated to compare functional changes in cortical oxygenation. Average values of O2Hb, HHb, and THb in each ROI were compared among the rest, AT, RC, and Peak points. Average values of hemoglobin slopes, from RC to Peak points, were compared among ROIs using Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The HHb of all ROIs significantly increased at Peak point, compared with at the AT point. THb of the PFC, PMA, and SMA significantly increased at the RC or Peak points, compared with at the rest point. Hemoglobin slopes, from RC to Peak, showed no significant differences among ROIs. Each ROI exhibited similar changes, regardless of cortical function.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Motora , Oxígeno , Corteza Prefrontal , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Adulto , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Corteza Motora/metabolismo , Oxígeno/metabolismo , Consumo de Oxígeno , Oxihemoglobinas/metabolismo , Corteza Prefrontal/metabolismo , Adulto Joven
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