Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 20.928
Filtrar
1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112049, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647852

RESUMEN

The disposal of untreated sanitary sewage in the soil has several consequences for human health and leads to environmental risks; thus, it is necessary investigating, monitoring and remediating the affected sites. The aims of the current study are to evaluate ecotoxicological effects on Eisenia andrei earthworms exposed to soil subjected to sources of sanitary sewage discharge and to investigate whether prevention values established by the Brazilian legislation for soil quality, associated with the incidence of chemical substances in it, are satisfactory enough to assure the necessary quality for different organisms. Earthworms' behavior, reproduction, acetylcholinesterase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated. The reproduction and behavior of earthworms exposed to sanitary sewage were adversely affected. Increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity acted as antioxidant defense mechanism. Significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels and acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition have indicated lipid peroxidation in cell membrane and neurotransmission changes, respectively. Results have confirmed that sanitary sewage induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, based on biochemical data analysis, the integrated biomarker response (IBR) has evidenced different toxicity levels in earthworms between the investigated points. Finally, results have indicated that effluents released into the soil, without proper treatment, lead to contaminant accumulation due to soil saturation and it can hinder different processes and biological development taking place in the soil. In addition, the current study has shown that physical-chemical analyses alone are not enough to assess soil quality, since it is also requires adopting an ecotoxicological approach. Brazilian legislation focused on soil quality must be revised and new guiding values must be proposed.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos/fisiología , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Brasil , Catalasa/metabolismo , Ecotoxicología , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Humanos , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Suelo/química , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 329: 124896, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657502

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to evaluate nitrogen pollution risks from distinct materials composting with the discrepancy of component, including chicken manure, municipal solid and straw waste (CM, MSW, SW). Results showed total nitrogen maximum mean concentrations were observed in CM (39.57 g/kg). Pollution risks in CM were continuous, while MSW and SW mainly concentrated during heating phases. Microbial analysis confirmed that pollution risks from ammonification and nitrification were more prevalent in CM. The risks of pollution caused by nitrate reduction accompanied N2O were the most serious in MSW. The multifunctional nitrogen-related microbes Pseudomonas and Bacillus were affected by microenvironments and contributed to different pollution risks. Furthermore, PICRUSt analysis identified the "inferred" key genes (pmoC-amoC, nrfH, nifD etc.) related to nitrogen pollution risks. This study evaluated nitrogen pollution risks and proposed the future directions, providing theoretical basis and feasible optimization measures for the mitigation of nitrogen pollution during composting.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Animales , Contaminación Ambiental , Estiércol , Nitrificación , Nitrógeno/análisis , Suelo
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112071, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690004

RESUMEN

PM2.5 and PM10 samples were collected from the outdoor environment of five types of cities (provincial central cities, regional central cities, resource-based cities, agricultural cities, and forested cities) situated in Northeast China. Based on bioaccessibility and respiratory deposition fluxes, health risks of PM2.5- and PM10-bound six heavy metals [HM6: Arsenic (As), Chromium (Cr), Cadmium (Cd), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co), and Lead (Pb)] were studied. Cobalt (Co) and Cr were found to be the most abundantly bioaccessible fraction among HM6 after extraction of simulated lung fluids. After inhalation exposure, among HM6, Co mainly contributed 88.39-93.19% to the non-carcinogenic risk, while Cr account for 82.92-93.72% of cancer risk. The estimated daily intake of bioaccessible HM6 in outdoor environment during the heating period was calculated to be 293.11 ± 121.03, 117.08 ± 32.46, 105.57 ± 32.49, 100.35 ± 25.58 and 83.11 ± 17.64 ng/h for provincial central cities, regional central cities, agricultural city, resource-based cities and forested cities, respectively, for local residents. During the heating period of 180 days, non-carcinogenic risks (As, Cr, Cd, Ni, Co) in outdoor environment of 0.5 residence time were below the safety threshold (HQ < 1). Cancer risks for Cr and Co were above 10-5 in the five types of cities, but in the assumable range (< 10-4). Our study highlighted the wide range of measures needed to cut airborne particles pollution to safer levels.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Arsénico , China , Ciudades , Contaminación Ambiental , Calefacción , Humanos , Exposición por Inhalación , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año
4.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 42(4): 1688-1695, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742804

RESUMEN

Research on health and the economic losses caused by PM2.5 pollution nationwide is critical for pollution control planning. First, the spatiotemporal distribution of PM2.5 and exposure levels were simulated and analyzed using the air quality model (WRF-Chem) in China in 2016. Then, the health burden and economic loss caused by PM2.5 pollution were estimated using environmental health risk and environmental value assessment methods. Finally, the health and economic benefits from achieving specific PM2.5 control targets were estimated. In 2016 in China, high levels of PM2.5 were concentrated in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and the surrounding areas, the Yangtze River Delta, the Sichuan Basin, and the desert areas in northwest China. Furthermore, 71.49% of the total population of China was exposed to an environment with PM2.5 concentrations higher than 35 µg·m-3. Subsequently, the national PM2.5-related mortality was 1.06 million, accounting for 10.9% of the total deaths in China. Stroke and ischemic heart disease accounted for approximately 80% of the total PM2.5-related deaths caused by the five diseases studied. Meanwhile, the PM2.5 pollution resulted in economic losses of 705.93 billion yuan, which was 0.95% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in 2016. There were significant spatial differences in the health burden and economic loss, which primarily occurred in regions with high PM2.5 levels or population density. Moreover, reducing PM2.5 to 35 µg·m-3 would only result in a 17.11% reduction in the health burden and economic loss, while a more exacting standard (reducing PM2.5 to 10 µg·m-3) would bring 80.47% of the health and economic benefits. It is suggested that environmental managers further strengthen their control to better protect the health and wealth benefits of residents, especially for sensitive groups, such as patients with cardio-cerebrovascular diseases, particularly in areas with high premature mortality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Beijing , China/epidemiología , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Material Particulado/análisis
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 209, 2021 Mar 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755809

RESUMEN

This study, conducted in Kirklareli city centre, aims to analyse heavy metal pollution in soil due to heating season (HS). For this purpose, 86 soil samples were taken from the identified locations with a depth of 0-10 cm before (43 samples in September 2015) and after (43 samples in April 2016) HS. Besides, 10 soil samples (5 samples before the HS and 5 samples after the HS) were collected to determine the contamination level from 50 cm deep soil as a reference value. Collected soil samples were tested for Zn, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Cr, Hg and Cd metal concentration as well as pH values. Both seasons showed similar results in the soil samples in terms of mean metal concentration levels in the following order: Zn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd > Hg. The mean concentration values of all the metals were higher after the HS than the levels before the HS. The study also attempted to determine anthropogenic metal input. An increase was observed in anthropogenic metal input after the HS when compared with before HS. Geoaccumulation index (Igeo) was employed to determine the degree of metal pollution, while the contamination factor (Cf) was used to determine the level of contamination. The overall degree of pollution was identified using the degree of contamination (Cd) and modified degree of contamination (mCd). Besides, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) receptor model used to find the possible sources of heavy metals in soil samples.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Calefacción , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Turquia
6.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112282, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711666

RESUMEN

This study investigates the impact of environmental regulations (ERs) and foreign direct investment (FDI) on the green total factor productivity (GTFP) of the industrial sectors in 30 provinces in China by controlling human capital, technological innovation, energy structure, degree of opening up, and ownership structure for the period of 2004-2017. This not only helps to explain the influence path of ERs and FDI on green economic growth, but also effectively measures the moderating effect of ERs on technology spillover from FDI. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between ERs, FDI and industrial GTFP from the perspective of regional heterogeneity, focusing on studying how ERs regulate the impact of FDI on GTFP. By constructing an influence mechanism of ERs and FDI on industrial GTFP, this study employs the feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) model and dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) model to analyze the effects of ERs, FDI and their cross-terms on GTFP. The empirical results show that (1) the relationship between ERs and GTFP is not linear, but "U"-shaped and China is still in the left half of the "U"-shaped curve; (2) FDI flowing into China has a "pollution heaven" effect on the GTFP in the eastern and central regions while a "pollution halo" effect on the GTFP in the western region; (3) the strengthening of ERs weakens the negative effect of FDI on GTFP and plays a role in "screening" foreign investment; and (4) the spatial heterogeneity could affect the synergistic effect between ERs and FDI. Therefore, it is necessary for China to consider a series of environmental policies to "screen" inward FDI to ensure its move to a green economy benefits its own sustainable development by contributing to the increase in GTFP.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Económico , Inversiones en Salud , China , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Industrias , Internacionalidad
7.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112263, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714042

RESUMEN

Urban runoff is a diffuse source of pollution contributing to the poor ecological and chemical status of surface waters. Whilst the EU Priority Hazardous Substances Directive now identifies environmental quality standards for selected metals in relation to the bioavailable metal fraction the relationship between analytically determined metal size fractions transported by urban runoff and the often variably defined concept of bioavailability has not been thoroughly evaluated. This paper provides a review of the terminology used within urban runoff studies to characterise metal fractions and behaviour. Measured dissolved and truly dissolved (determined by ultrafiltration; <3000 molecular weight cutoff) Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations are also compared to the bioavailable metal fraction (as predicted using Bio-met, a simplified biotic ligand model) in snowmelt and rainfall derived runoff samples from three urban catchments. The study shows that predicted bioavailable concentrations were significantly lower than truly dissolved concentrations for all metals and discusses current bioavailability modelling parameters in relation to rainfall and snowmelt runoff data sets. Statistical analysis of relationships between field and predicted bioavailable data sets indicate that the bioavailable fractions originate from both colloidal and truly dissolved fractions.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Metales , Metales Pesados/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Zinc/análisis
8.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112293, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714048

RESUMEN

This paper aims to investigate the causal relationship among renewable energy technologies, biomass energy consumption, per capita GDP, and CO2 emissions for Germany. We constructed an innovative algorithm, the Quantum model, and applied it with Machine Learning experiments - through a software capable of emulating a quantum system - to data over the period of 1990-2018. This process is possible after eliminating the "irreversibility" of classical computations (unitary transformations) by making the process "reversible". The empirical findings support the powerful role of biomass energy in reducing carbon dioxide emissions, although the effect of renewable energy technology displays a much stronger magnitude. Moreover, income remains an important determinant of environmental pollution in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Energía Renovable , Biomasa , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Desarrollo Económico , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Alemania
9.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116870, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714128

RESUMEN

The green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is listed as a globally endangered species and is vulnerable to anthropogenic threats, including environmental pollution. This study investigated the antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacteria isolated from wild green turtles admitted to a sea turtle rehabilitation center in Taiwan. For this investigation, cloacal and nasal swab samples were collected from 28 green turtles between 2018 and 2020, from which a total of 47 Gram-negative bacterial isolates were identified. Among these, Vibrio spp. were the most dominant isolate (31.91%), and 89.36% of the 47 isolates showed resistance to at least one of 18 antimicrobial agents tested. Isolates resistant to one (6.38%), two (8.51%), and multiple (74.47%) antimicrobials were observed. The antimicrobial agents to which isolates showed the greatest resistance were penicillin (74.47%), followed by spiramycin, amoxicillin, and cephalexin. The antimicrobial-resistance profiles identified in this study provide useful information for the clinical treatment of sea turtles in rehabilitation facilities. The results of our study also imply that wild green turtles may be exposed to polluting effluents containing antimicrobials when the turtles traverse migratory corridors or forage in feeding habitats. To benefit sea turtle conservation, future research should focus on (1) how to prevent pollution from antimicrobials in major green turtle activity areas and (2) identifying sources of antimicrobial-resistant bacterial strains in coastal waters of Taiwan.


Asunto(s)
Tortugas , Animales , Bacterias , Contaminación Ambiental , Bacterias Gramnegativas , Taiwán
10.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112281, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714733

RESUMEN

Environmental harm from plastic pollution partly results from compliance failure at the individual level. Three prevalent non-compliant motivations for polluting plastics include economic gains, ignorance of the rules and unlikely penalization from inadequately enforced rules. Given compliance is primarily the responsibility of local waste management, we conducted interviews to gain insights to the factors driving changes in the crucial on-ground controls of plastic pollution. We expand on non-compliant motivations and provide a theoretical framework to test the aforementioned. We show that compliance strategies are strongly driven by state judicial and economic controls, specifically new plastic legislation and levies. Furthermore, the priorities of waste managers and the socio-economics and population density of their constituents drove changes in local management efforts. Our findings support the view that the growing global attention on plastic pollution shapes not only what happens at a state level, but also importantly on-ground at the local level.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Administración de Residuos , Contaminación Ambiental , Densidad de Población
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 158, 2021 Mar 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660076

RESUMEN

The present study aimed to evaluate the sources of pollution and the potential human and ecological risks of hazardous elements (HEs) in 40 hotspot sites of the agricultural soil around the Arvand River, Iran. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Hg were measured to be 7.2, 0.8, 14.0, 67.9, 69.5, 63.0, 296, and 0.66 (mg kg-1), respectively. With the exception of Ni, the mean concentrations of all the elements were found to be higher than those in the background. The spatial distribution of HEs in the study area indicated an increasing trend of contamination from the north to the south. Pb, Zn, and Hg were the most enriched elements, resulting in a high pollution load. Moreover, the agricultural soil of the study area was threatened by a very high ecological risk due to the contribution of Hg, Cd, and Pb. Multivariate statistical analyses determined that the pollution sources are specified by the oil refinery emissions and effluents, irrigation with polluted water, fertilizers, dust storms, and airport emissions. The carcinogenic risk of HEs in both adults and children revealed an acceptable level; however, children faced a great chance of non-carcinogenic risk. The results provide a scientific basis for monitoring HEs and managing health risks via effective methods in the agricultural areas of the Arvand River basin.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Adulto , Niño , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Irán , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Ríos , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145354, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736407

RESUMEN

The effect of long-term ageing (up to 700 days) on the mobility, potential bioavailability and bioaccessibility of antimony (Sb) was investigated in two soils (S1: pH 8.2; S2: pH 4.9) spiked with two Sb concentrations (100 and 1000 mg·kg-1). The Sb mobility decreased with ageing as highlighted by sequential extraction, while its residual fraction significantly increased. The concentration of Sb (CDGT), as determined by diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), showed a reduction in potential contaminant bioavailability during ageing. The DGT analysis also showed that Sb-CDGT after 700 days ageing was significantly higher in S1-1000 compared to S2-1000, suggesting soil pH plays a key role in Sb potential bioavailability. In-vitro tests also revealed that Sb bioaccessibility (and Hazard Quotient) decreased over time. Linear combination fitting of Sb K-edge XANES derivative spectra showed, as a general trend, an increase in Sb(V) sorption to inorganic oxides with ageing as well as Sb(V) bound to organic matter (e.g. up to 27 and 37% respectively for S2-100). The results indicated that ageing can alleviate Sb ecotoxicity in soil and that the effectiveness of such processes can be increased at acidic pH. However, substantial risks due to Sb mobility, potential bioavailability and bioaccessibility remained in contaminated soils even after 700 days ageing.


Asunto(s)
Antimonio , Contaminantes del Suelo , Antimonio/análisis , Disponibilidad Biológica , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649215

RESUMEN

Surface ozone is a severe air pollution problem in the North China Plain, which is home to 300 million people. Ozone concentrations are highest in summer, driven by fast photochemical production of hydrogen oxide radicals (HOx) that can overcome the radical titration caused by high emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from fuel combustion. Ozone has been very low during winter haze (particulate) pollution episodes. However, the abrupt decrease of NOx emissions following the COVID-19 lockdown in January 2020 reveals a switch to fast ozone production during winter haze episodes with maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) ozone concentrations of 60 to 70 parts per billion. We reproduce this switch with the GEOS-Chem model, where the fast production of ozone is driven by HOx radicals from photolysis of formaldehyde, overcoming radical titration from the decreased NOx emissions. Formaldehyde is produced by oxidation of reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which have very high emissions in the North China Plain. This remarkable switch to an ozone-producing regime in January-February following the lockdown illustrates a more general tendency from 2013 to 2019 of increasing winter-spring ozone in the North China Plain and increasing association of high ozone with winter haze events, as pollution control efforts have targeted NOx emissions (30% decrease) while VOC emissions have remained constant. Decreasing VOC emissions would avoid further spreading of severe ozone pollution events into the winter-spring season.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles , China , Productos Agrícolas , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/química , Pandemias , Salud Pública
14.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 32(2): 729-736, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650383

RESUMEN

Mulch-filmaccounted for more than half of plastic film used in Chinese agriculture. The wide utilization of mulch-film brings great economic value but also causes "white pollution". The residual film is difficult to be recycled and degraded, which directly affects soil regeneration. We introduced the current status of the plastic film usage in China and reviwed the research progress in its degradation. The biological and non-biological pathways and mechanisms of mulch-film degradation were summarized, with particular focus on the polyolefin degradation with synergistic effect of photocatalysis, metal ion doping as well as the impacts of different sources of bacteria and enzymes on the degradation efficiency of polyolefins. The more efficient degradation methods of plastic film are prospected. This review would provide reference for the further studies of plastic film degradation and microplastic degradation.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Suelo , Agricultura , China , Contaminación Ambiental
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(3)2021 Feb 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540862

RESUMEN

This work is dedicated to developing enzyme biosensor software to solve problems regarding soil pollution analysis. An algorithm and specialised software have been developed which stores, analyses and visualises data using JavaScript programming language. The developed software is based on matching data of 51 non-commercial standard soil samples and their inhibitory effects on three enzyme systems of varying complexity. This approach is able to identify the influence of chemical properties soil samples, without toxic agents, on enzyme biosensors. Such software may find wide use in environmental monitoring.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Programas Informáticos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Técnicas Biosensibles , Contaminación Ambiental , Estándares de Referencia , Suelo , Microbiología del Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
16.
Med Lav ; 112(1): 15-33, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635292

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Descriptive epidemiology identifies associations between environmental exposures and health effects that require results from methodologically stronger studies before causation can be considered. OBJECTIVE: To critically review the methodology and results of Sentieri, a descripitive study on residence in areas with one or more industrial source of pollution. METHODS: We systematically reviewed the literature quoted by Sentieri for the selection of health effects of nine types of pollution sources of a-priori interest. We also reviewed and meta-analyzed the results of the first report of Sentieri, that analyzed mortality in 44 polluted sites (PS), and 17 causes of deaths during 1995-2002. RESULTS: Among 159 study results quoted by Sentieri, 23.9 % were supportive of an association between residence near a pollution source and a health effect, 30.2 % were partially supportive, 10.7 % were not supportive, and 35.2 % were not relevant. Among 653 standardized mortality ratios for associations between PS-specific pollution sources and causes of death, 14.4% were significantly above 1.02, and 9.0% were significantly below 0.98. Among 48 meta-analysis, seven were significantly above 1.0, including five on exposure to asbestos. CONCLUSIONS: Sentieri exemplifies the limitations of descriptive environmental epidemiology studies, in which most hypotheses have limited prior support, most results do not show associations, data on potential confounders and other sources of bias are not available. Such studies tend to replicate well-known associations and occasionally can identify critical situations requiring more investigation, but cannot be used to infer causality either in general or in specific circumstances.


Asunto(s)
Asbestos , Neoplasias , Asbestos/efectos adversos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental , Humanos
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 16982-16999, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641097

RESUMEN

This study aims to provide a detailed overview of environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis using bibliometric analysis for the Web of Science (WOS) database. Our analysis provides an overview of research trends, journals and most influential authors. China has contributed the most scientific publications; followed by the USA, Turkey, and Pakistan. Muhammad Shahbaz, Beijing Institute of Technology, and Environmental Science and Pollution Research are the most productive author, research institute, and research journal in EKC publications. Trend analysis of researchers, academic and country-level, reveal that publications in the environmental Kuznets curve have upward trend; also, cocitation analysis indicates that EKC publications are closely related. "Economic growth and income inequality" (1955) by Simon Kuznets is considered to be the basic literature, and "environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis: A Survey" by Dinda (2004) is the most cited research article in the literature. Keywords and abstracts analysis further reveals that carbon emissions, renewable energy, energy consumption, economic growth, and sustainable development are the hot topics in current literature. We propose that joint research projects between industrial and emerging economies will promote research activities.


Asunto(s)
Dióxido de Carbono , Desarrollo Económico , Beijing , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , China , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Pakistán , Energía Renovable , Turquia
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112095, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561713

RESUMEN

Rivers are a major pathway for the transport of plastics into the ocean. Plastic pollution capture devices offer one way to reduce the accumulation of plastic in the environment. This paper provides a framework for selecting a device to reduce plastic pollution in freshwater, synthesizing information of forty prevailing plastic pollution capture devices. We distinguish three major components of plastic pollution technology (booms, receptacles, and watercraft vehicles) and collect details on each technology including its features, limitations, efficiency, reported costs, and maintenance requirements. A framework is developed to aid in device selection by water and waste managers, which highlights the need for a watershed assessment, an understanding of site conditions, the attainment of community buy-in, and a long-term maintenance plan. While plastic pollution capture devices can help reduce the flux of plastic waste from freshwater, management of plastic waste at the source is also needed to ultimately clean our oceans and waterways.


Asunto(s)
Plásticos , Ríos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Agua Dulce , Océanos y Mares , Residuos/análisis
19.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112086, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578189

RESUMEN

Research on microplastics is not straightforward, and, until recently, the visual methods used to identify microplastics might have overestimated their amounts, mainly when the target plastics were <500 µm. The analytical approach has moved on since then, and more sophisticated methods are now used to sample and extract microplastic particles from a very wide variety of environmental samples. Therefore, as spectroscopy is the most reliable way to identify microplastics with sufficient certainty, reviewers demand the assignment of polymer types to single microplastic particles in environmental and biological samples, as a condition of final manuscript acceptance. This is a legitimate requirement for three fundamental reasons. First, it is important to confirm the correct nomenclature-which is a scientific principle applicable beyond microplastics pollution research. Second, plastics research is important, primarily due to the intrinsic characteristics of plastic constituent polymers, such as persistence in the environment, which often does not apply to other anthropogenic particles. Third, current scientific discussion on microplastic contamination issues is centered on their relatively long persistence in the environment, and only if reliable methods are used to identify plastic particles will the microplastic research field improve its credibility, survive the test of time, and become a permanent research field.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación Ambiental , Plásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112116, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581569

RESUMEN

Marine plastic pollution is a global issue, from the shores to the open ocean. Understanding the pathway and fate of plastic debris is fundamental to manage and reduce plastic pollution. Here, the fate of floating plastic pollution discharged along the coasts is studied by comparing two sources, one based on river discharges and the other on mismanaged waste from coastal populations, using a Lagrangian numerical analysis in a global ocean circulation model. About 1/3 of the particles end up in the open ocean and 2/3 on beaches. The input scenario largely influences the accumulation of particles toward the main subtropical convergence zones, with the South Pacific and North Atlantic being mostly fed by the coastal population inputs. The input scenario influences the number of beached particles that end up in several coastal areas. Beaching occurs mainly locally, although a significant number of particles travel long distances, allowing for global connectivity.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Plásticos , Contaminación Ambiental , Océanos y Mares , Ríos , Residuos/análisis
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...