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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 146: 908-914, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426235

RESUMEN

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is a recently acknowledged form of anthropogenic pollution of growing concern to the biology and ecology of exposed organisms. Though ALAN can have detrimental effects on physiology and behaviour, we have little understanding of how marine organisms in coastal areas may be impacted. Here, we investigated the effects of ALAN exposure on coral reef fish larvae during the critical recruitment stage, encompassing settlement, metamorphosis, and post-settlement survival. We found that larvae avoided illuminated settlement habitats, however those living under ALAN conditions for 10 days post-settlement experienced changes in swimming behaviour and higher susceptibility to nocturnal predation. Although ALAN-exposed fish grew faster and heavier than control fish, they also experienced significantly higher mortality rates by the end of the experimental period. This is the first study on the ecological impacts of ALAN during the early life history of marine fish.


Asunto(s)
Peces/fisiología , Larva/efectos de la radiación , Luz/efectos adversos , Animales , Ecosistema , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Peces/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/fisiología , Metamorfosis Biológica/efectos de la radiación , Conducta Predatoria/efectos de la radiación
2.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 390-408, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422435

RESUMEN

One of the direct causes of biodiversity loss is environmental pollution resulting from the use of chemicals. Different kinds of chemicals, such as persistent organic pollutants and some heavy metals, can be endocrine disruptors, which act at low doses over a long period of time and have a negative effect on the reproductive and thyroid system in vertebrates worldwide. Research on the effects of endocrine disruptors and the use of bioindicators in neotropical ecosystems where pressure on biodiversity is high is scarce. In Chile, although endocrine disruptors have been detected at different concentrations in the environments of some ecosystems, few studies have been performed on their biological effects in the field. In this work, Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog), an introduced species, is used as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine disruptors in aquatic systems with different degrees of contamination in a Mediterranean zone in central Chile. For the first time for Chile, alterations are described that can be linked to exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as vitellogenin induction, decreased testosterone in male frogs, and histological changes in gonads. Dioxin-like and oestrogenic activity was detected in sediments at locations where it seem to be related to alterations found in the frogs. In addition, an analysis of land use/cover use revealed that urban soil was the best model to explain the variations in frog health indicators. This study points to the usefulness of an invasive species as a bioindicator for the presence of endocrine-disruptive chemicals.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos/toxicidad , Biomarcadores Ambientales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Xenopus laevis/fisiología , Animales , Línea Celular Tumoral , Chile , Ecosistema , Ecotoxicología/métodos , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Femenino , Sedimentos Geológicos/análisis , Gónadas/patología , Humanos , Especies Introducidas , Masculino , Reproducción , Testosterona/metabolismo , Vitelogeninas/metabolismo
3.
Med. clín (Ed. impr.) ; 153(3): 100-105, ago. 2019. mapas, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183431

RESUMEN

Introducción y objetivos: Actualmente en España, la quema del carbón sigue siendo una de las fuentes principales de electricidad. Su combustión genera la emisión de múltiples sustancias nocivas, entre ellas, las partículas PM2,5 que se han relacionado con incrementos en morbimortalidad cardiovascular. Los objetivos del estudio son: 1) determinar la distribución geográfica nacional de dichas partículas y su posible asociación con la proximidad a las centrales térmicas de carbón y 2) estimar el impacto sobre la salud cardiovascular derivado de las emisiones de partículas PM2,5 de las centrales térmicas de carbón en España durante el año 2014. Métodos: Para realizar el estudio de dispersión de los contaminantes atmosféricos procedentes de las centrales térmicas se empleó el modelo matemático CALPUFF. Los datos demográficos y epidemiológicos se obtuvieron del Instituto Nacional de Estadística. Se emplearon metodologías validadas en el ámbito internacional para valorar la asociación contaminante-respuesta. Resultados: El número total de defunciones atribuibles al carbón fue de 709 casos, de los cuales 586 (82,6%) se relacionaron con las partículas PM2,5. La mayor parte de ellas fueron debidas a infartos, ictus fatales y a insuficiencia cardiaca, que constituyeron un total de 170 de las muertes por PM2,5 (29%). Las tasas de incidencia más elevadas se observaron en Asturias y Castilla y León. Conclusiones: Este estudio describe un aumento de morbimortalidad cardiovascular en España relacionada con las emisiones procedentes de la quema de carbón. Refleja como aquellas comunidades con mayor presencia de centrales térmicas (Asturias y Castilla y León) fueron las más afectadas y extrapola que sus habitantes tienen un mayor riesgo de mortalidad por exposición a partículas PM2,5


Introduction and objectives: One of the main sources of energy in Spain is still coal combustion. It releases multiple pollutants into the atmosphere, such as PM2.5, that has been linked to an increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to determine the national distribution of these particles and their proximity to coal plants, 2) to estimate the cardiovascular impact of PM2.5 particles in Spain in 2014. Methods: In order to complete the national pollutant dispersion study, we used the CALPUFF model. The epidemiologic and demographic data were obtained from the National Statistics Institute. The associations «pollutant-effect» were obtained by internationally validated methodologies. Results: The total number of deaths due to coal pollutants were 709, from which 586 (82.6%) were related to PM2.5 particles. Most of them were due to myocardial infarctions, fatal strokes and heart failure, adding up to 170 cases of mortality related to PM2.5 (29%). The greatest densities were found in the regions of Asturias and Castilla y León. Conclusions: This study describes an increase in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Spain, due to coal combustion pollutants. It finds a greater impact in the provinces of Asturias and Castilla León, where a higher presence of coal power plants can be found. This reflects that the people that live in those areas have a greater risk of cardiovascular death due to PM2.5 pollutant exposure from coal


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Centrales Termoeléctricas , Carbón Mineral/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/complicaciones , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/mortalidad , Centrales Eléctricas , Indicadores de Morbimortalidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19814-19827, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093912

RESUMEN

AbstractPollution from bromine and some of its related compounds is currently unregulated in soil from Russia and other countries, and tools for sound assessment of environmental impacts of bromine contamination are largely missing. Hence, assessing potential implications for humans and ecosystems of bromine soil contamination is urgently needed, which requires the combination of measured soil concentrations from environmental studies and quantified potential toxicity impacts. To address this need, we used data from an experimental study assessing bromine in soils (384 samples) of Tomsk oblast, Russia, starting from measured concentrations obtained by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in an earlier study. From these data, we calculated the bromine mass in soils and used these as starting point to characterize related cumulative impacts on human health and ecosystems in the Tomsk region, using a global scientific consensus model for screening-level comparative toxicity characterization of chemical emissions. Results show that the combination of sampling methodology with toxicity characterization techniques presents a new approach to be used in environmental studies aimed at environmental assessment and analysis of a territory. Our results indicate that it is important to account for substance-specific chemical reaction pathways and transfer processes, as well as to consider region-specific environmental characteristics. Our approach will help complement environmental assessment results with environmental sustainability elements, to consider potential tradeoffs in impacts, related to soil pollution, in support of improved emission and pollution reduction strategies.


Asunto(s)
Bromo/toxicidad , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminantes del Suelo/toxicidad , Bromo/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Federación de Rusia , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
5.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095125

RESUMEN

THE RATIONALE: The clinical course of bronchial asthma (BA) largely depends on the environmental conditions. One of the biological factors of the environmental pollution is the plant pollen. The presence of plant pollen in the air exerts the negative influence on the human health via specific (allergenic) and non-specific effects. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of the aeropalinological factors of the aerial environment of the Southern Coast of the Crimea (SCC) on the results of the spa and health resort-based treatment (SRT) of the patients with bronchial asthma (BA). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 168 patients presenting with BA including 119 (70.83%) women and 49 (29.17%) men; all of them were residents of the Crimea who underwent SRT while staying at the SCC during the period from 2011 to 2013. The average age of the patients was 52.94±11.78 years. The examination of all the patients included a questionnaire survey, general medical inspection, physical examination, complete blood cell count, analysis of sputum cytology, external respiration function testing, and the assessment of the disease control with the use of the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ). The duration of treatment was 21 days. The drug treatment of all the patients was carried out in accordance with the generally recognized protocols for the management of asthma. Four groups of patients were formed depending on the periods of plant dusting at the Southern Coast of the Crimea, viz. cypress (n=51), pine (n=24), ragweed (n=29), and cedar (n=47); in addition, one more group of patients was distinguished who resided at SCC outside the periods of these plants dusting (n=17). RESULTS: After the completion of the spa and health resort-based treatment, the highest frequency of the absence of cough (62.5%) and dry rales in the lungs (87.5%) was revealed in the patients treated during the pine dusting period (the cough and dry rales in lungs were absent in 31.0-49.0% and 55.3-79.3% of the cases respectively during the dusting seasons of other plants of interest). The aeropalinological factors were shown to have no significant influence on the values of the parameters obtained with the use of the general blood tests and the analysis of sputum cytology. The best characteristics of the external respiration function were documented in the patients who had been treated during the pine dusting period. At the end of the SRT, no significant differences were found as regards the results of the ACQ and AST tests between the patients of the groups being compared. Nor was there a significant dependence of the dynamics of the clinical, laboratory, and functional indicators achieved as a result of SRT on the magnitude of the aeropalinological factors at the Southern Coast of the Crimea. The worst immediate effectiveness of SRT was inherent in the patients suffering from bronchial asthma who had been treated during dusting of the ragweed. CONCLUSIONS: Certain results of the spa and health resort-based treatment of the patients presenting with BA under conditions of the Southern Coast of the Crimea depend on the character and composition of the aeropalynologic factors in this region. Specifically, the treatment based at a health resort facility during the dusting period of the pine leads to the achievement of the best clinical and functional status of the patients in comparison with those treated during the cypress, ragweed, and cedar dusting periods, or in the absence of dusting of these plants. The worst immediate effectiveness of SRT was documented in the BA patients who had been treated during the ragweed dusting period.


Asunto(s)
Asma/terapia , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Polen/efectos adversos , Adulto , Femenino , Colonias de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento , Ucrania
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 679: 260-269, 2019 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082599

RESUMEN

Heavy metals are known for their negative impact on the physiological processes of lichen photobiont. In spite of this, certain lichens are known to be effective pioneers of polluted sites. Cladonia cariosa, C. rei, and Diploschistes muscorum are prominent examples of lichens that spontaneously colonise post-industrial wastes. We examined the effect of total and intracellular Zn, Pb, Cd, As, Cu, and Ni accumulation in the thalli of these species on the physiological parameters of photobiont. Increased accumulation of Zn, Cd, Cu, and Ni in D. muscorum and of Zn and Ni in C. rei negatively affected contents of photosynthetic pigments, whereas concentrations of Pb had a positive effect in all lichen species. Moreover, pigment contents were positively associated with the concentrations of most examined elements in C. cariosa. The results indicate that even if chlorophyll contents reduced, its degradation does not progress. This suggests that metal stress may exert a negative effect on the synthesis rather than on the integrity of chlorophyll. Most importantly, lichen samples of each of the species from polluted sites proved to possess significantly higher FV/FM ratios than those from a reference site; moreover, the contents of elements of lichen thalli positively influenced this parameter. The efficient functioning of the algal component under heavy-metal stress conditions indicates that the examined lichens are well adapted to extremely contaminated substrates.


Asunto(s)
Ascomicetos/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Líquenes/efectos de los fármacos , Metales Pesados/efectos adversos , Ascomicetos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Líquenes/crecimiento & desarrollo , Polonia , Estrés Fisiológico
7.
Environ Monit Assess ; 191(6): 372, 2019 May 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101990

RESUMEN

The expression levels of Esterase Isoenzyme and total soluble protein fractionation were studied in two coleopteran insects Blaps polycresta and Trachyderma hispida to evaluate the possible hazards from ceramic and plastic factories in the Khorshed Region, East of Alexandria, Egypt. Two insect collection sites were selected. The first site was the garden of the Faculty of Science, Moharram Bek, Alexandria University, which is considered a non-polluted site, and Khorshed district, considered as the polluted site. Percentages of heavy metals were estimated using SEM-X-ray microanalysis of soft tissues of both sexes of the two coleopteran insects. Esterase Isoenzymes were found to be overexpressed in B. Polycresta but not T. hispida. Female B. polycresta from the polluted site exhibited overexpression of the second and third loci. Furthermore, the females were found to be more affected than males, which only showed the overexpression of the second loci. T. hispida (females and males) collected from the reference site were found to have increased esterase activity compared with those sampled from the polluted site. The Snake-Skin™ Dialysis tubing technique, used for optimizing the protein extraction method, reflected the highest quantified proteins compared to other, traditional methods. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of the whole-body protein reflected definite variations between T. hispida and B. polycresta in fraction number and activity at the two sites. Varied expression levels for metallothionein (MT) heavy metal resistance proteins for B. polycresta and T. hispida were also detected in the study. Based on these results, we suggest that biochemical biomarkers could infer environmental hazards, B. polycresta and T. hispida are successful biomarkers for heavy metal pollution.


Asunto(s)
Cerámica , Escarabajos/efectos de los fármacos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Isoenzimas/metabolismo , Animales , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Escarabajos/genética , Escarabajos/metabolismo , Egipto , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Femenino , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Industrias , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Isoenzimas/genética , Masculino , Metalotioneína/genética , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Metales Pesados/análisis , Metales Pesados/toxicidad , Factores Sexuales , Especificidad de la Especie
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 828-840, 2019 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096413

RESUMEN

Analysis that link hydrological processes with oceanographic dispersion offer a promising approach for assessing impacts of land-based activities on marine ecosystems. However, such an analysis has not yet been customised to quantify specific pressures from mining activities on marine biodiversity including those from spillages resulting from tailing dam failure. Here, using a Brazilian catchment in which a tailing dam collapsed (Doce river) as a case study, we provide a modelling approach to assess the impacts on key ecosystems and marine protected areas subjected to two exposure regimes: (i) a pulse disturbance event for the period 2015-2016, following the immediate release of sediments after dam burst, which witnessed an average increase of 88% in sediment exports; and (ii) a press disturbance phase for the period 2017-2029, when impacts are sustained over time by sediments along the river's course. We integrated four components into impact assessments: hydrological modelling, coastal-circulation modelling, ecosystem mapping, and biological sensitivities. The results showed that pulse disturbance causes sharp increases in the amount of sediments entering the coastal area, exposing key sensitive ecosystems to pollution (e.g. rhodolith beds), highlighting an urgent need for developing restoration strategies for these areas. The intensity of impacts will diminish over time but the total area of sensitive ecosystems at risk are predicted to be enlarged. We determined monitoring and restoration priorities by evaluating and comparing the extent to which sensitive ecosystems within marine protected areas were exposed to disturbances. The information obtained in this study will allow the optimization of recovery efforts in the marine area affected, and valuation of ecosystem services lost.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Desastres , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Minería , Brasil , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Modelos Biológicos , Ríos
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2450605, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31119157

RESUMEN

Atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence is rising worldwide. Literature data suggest the incidence of AD in developing countries is gradually getting close to that of developed ones, in which AD affects 20% of the paediatric population. Such an increment, associated with significant variations in prevalence among the various countries, underlines the importance of environmental factors in the disease onset. Among these, great importance is given to hygiene, intestinal microbiota, exposure to bacterial endotoxins, outdoor living with contact to animals, atmospheric pollution, weather, and diet. Genetic (alteration of the skin barrier function) as well as immunologic factors concur with the environmental ones. Only the systematical study of all these elements can best elucidate AD epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos/efectos adversos , Dermatitis Atópica/epidemiología , Dermatitis Atópica/etiología , Animales , Dermatitis Atópica/patología , Dieta/efectos adversos , Endotoxinas/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Humanos , Higiene , Pediatría/tendencias , Factores de Riesgo , Tiempo (Meteorología)
10.
Chemosphere ; 227: 289-298, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999170

RESUMEN

Residual dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in the environment and a continuously increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration are two issues that have received a lot of attention. This study was conducted using a pot experiment to investigate the interactive effects of elevated CO2 and DDT on the uptake of DDT, the physiological responses and the resulting health risks in three vegetables. These vegetables included Brassica juncea var. foliosa Bailey (B. Bailey), Brassica campestris L. var. communis Tsen et Lee Suzhou Qing (B. Lee) and Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis (Lour.) Olsson Chun Dawang (B. Olsson). Two levels of CO2 and four DDT treatment levels were set up. Results showed 5 mg kg-1 DDT significantly reduced the shoot biomass of B. Bailey when compared to 0 mg kg-1 DDT treatment under ambient CO2 condition. Elevated CO2 concentration stimulated the growth of B. Bailey and B. Lee, increased the DDT uptake in the shoots of both vegetables and the values of some photosynthesis indices, and triggered the activity of peroxidase and catalase in the shoots when compared to the related ambient CO2 treatment. Elevated CO2 concentration increased the values of hazard indexes for non-carcinogenic and cancer risks of all vegetables when compared to the individual ambient CO2 treatment (each of vegetable has an ambient CO2 treatment), especially for B. Bailey (increase amplitude of 123.81%-127.78% at 5 mg kg-1 DDT). Long-term ingestion with these DDT-polluted vegetables might result in an elevated carcinogenic risk and elevated atmospheric CO2 may enhance the non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks.


Asunto(s)
Brassica/toxicidad , Dióxido de Carbono , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/efectos adversos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/toxicidad , Hojas de la Planta/toxicidad , Verduras/toxicidad , Dióxido de Carbono/efectos adversos , Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , DDT/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Contaminación de Alimentos , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/metabolismo , Medición de Riesgo
11.
Chemosphere ; 226: 259-272, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933735

RESUMEN

The epigenome may be an important interface between exposure to environmental contaminants and adverse outcome on human health. Many environmental pollutants deregulate gene expression and promote diseases by modulating the epigenome. Adverse epigenetic responses have been widely used for risk assessment of chemical substances. Various pollutants, including trace elements and persistent organic pollutants, have been detected frequently in the environment. Epigenetic toxicity of environmental matrices including water, air, soil, and food cannot be ignored. This review provides a comprehensive overview of epigenetic effects of pollutants and environmental matrices. We start with an overview of the mechanisms of epigenetic regulation and the effects of several types of environmental pollutants (trace elements, persistent organic pollutants, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and volatile organic pollutants) on epigenetic modulation. We then discuss the epigenetic responses to environmental water, air, and soil based on in vivo and in vitro assays. Finally, we discuss recommendations to promote the incorporation of epigenotoxicity into contamination screening and health risk assessment.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Epigénesis Genética/efectos de los fármacos , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
12.
Chemosphere ; 226: 381-387, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947047

RESUMEN

With the rapid development of the industrialization and urbanization, the urban environment was heavily contaminated by metals. Therefore, studies on health risk assessment of exposure to metals for urban population is necessary and urgent, especially for children, who are more susceptible to environmental pollution due to their undeveloped immune system. Moreover, ingestion has been proved to be the most important pathway of human metals exposure. Therefore, typical metals, including Lead(Pb), Cadmium(Cd), Arsenic(As), Chromium(Cr), and Manganese(Mn), were analyzed in duplicated diet, drinking water, and soil in this study. The integrated risks of oral exposure to these metals for the local children were then evaluated on a field sampling and measured child-specific exposure factors basis. Results showed that the studied urban environments were polluted by metals to a certain degree. Food ingestion was the largest, which accounted for 66.7%-98.4%. Furthermore, soil ingestion was also a non-negligible exposure route, which accounted for 29.7% for Pb. The combined oral non-carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks all exceeding the corresponding maximum acceptable levels. The non-carcinogenic risk was mainly attributed to the food ingestion of As and Cr, and the soil ingestion of As, while, the carcinogenic risk was mainly attributed to the food ingestion of As and Cr, and the soil ingestion of Cr. This study emphasizes attentions should be paid to children in urban areas due to the potential adverse health risk associated with metals via oral exposure pathway.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Metales Pesados/química , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , China , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Metales Pesados/análisis , Población Urbana
13.
Chemosphere ; 227: 191-197, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30986601

RESUMEN

While increasing evidence suggests that ozone (O3) exposure is associated with adverse birth outcomes, only one study has focused on its impact on the premature rupture of membranes (PROM). Therefore, we thus examined the effect of O3 on PROM in Xinxiang, China, using an over-dispersed Poisson generalized additive model. Several confounding factors, including meteorological factors, temporal trends, the day of the week, and public holidays, were considered in the model. We identified a total of 3255 instances of PROM from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017, and there was a significant association between the daily maximum 8-h mean concentrations (O3-8h) and PROM. Each 10 µg/m3 increase in the 3-day average concentration (lag02) of O3-8h corresponded to an increment in PROM of 5.42% (95% CI: 1.45-9.39%). Although the results of the stratified analyses were insignificant, a few trending results were observed: stronger associations between O3 and PROM would occur in women with advanced age (≥35) or during the warm season than those in younger women (<35) or during the cool season. Our study indicates that O3 exposure is an important risk factor of PROM and should be considered in its prevention and control in the study area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Rotura Prematura de Membranas Fetales/inducido químicamente , Ozono/efectos adversos , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , China , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Ozono/análisis , Embarazo , Factores de Riesgo , Estaciones del Año , Calidad del Agua , Adulto Joven
14.
Ann Ist Super Sanita ; 55(1): 94-99, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30968844

RESUMEN

In contexts of social and environmental disasters, practices of memory and narration can become actions implemented by the affected groups to cope with the suffering related to the disaster experience, to mobilise in the name of social justice, and to favour those dynamics by which the survivors develop their sense of being part of a community. This article is based on qualitative data collected through an anthropological study based on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Italy and Brazil. It discusses the practices by which the survivors of the impact of asbestos-related disaster on their lives make sense of their suffering experience and engage in a grassroots health-based movement. Attention is paid on the social aspects of the health impact of asbestos exposure, and the role of the affected communities in the elaboration of their own paths of care by remembering and communicating the disaster is considered.


Asunto(s)
Asbestos/efectos adversos , Asbestosis/prevención & control , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Asbestosis/epidemiología , Brasil , Humanos , Italia , Narración , Justicia Social , Apoyo Social
15.
Chemosphere ; 226: 817-824, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965253

RESUMEN

Reptiles, the most diverse taxon of terrestrial vertebrates, might be particularly vulnerable to soil pollution. Reptiles especially lizards have been rarely evaluated in ecotoxicological studies, and there is a very limited report for effects of soil pesticide contaminants on lizards. In this study, male and female lizards (Eremias argus) were exposed to Glufosinate-ammonium (GLA) and l- Glufosinate-ammonium (L-GLA) for 60 days. Slower sprint speed, higher frequency of turning back and reduced brain index were observed in treatment groups. The accumulation of GLA in the brain of lizard was higher than that of L-GLA. Moreover, the activities of neurotoxicity-related enzymes and biomarkers of oxidative stress were also investigated. In summary, the neurotoxic effects of lizards have been observed after exposure to GLA and L-GLA. Based on the result of the Integrated Biomarker Response (IBR), males were more sensitive to contaminants than females. On the other hand, the neurotoxic pathways by GLA and L-GLA triggered were slightly different: GLA mainly acted on glutamine synthetase (GS), acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and Catalase (CAT) and L-GLA aimed at AchE, Na+/K+-ATPase, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Malondialdehyde (MDA). In summary, the accumulation of GLA and L-GLA in lizard's brain induced neurotoxicity by altering the levels of enzymes related to nervous system and antioxidant activity and further resulted in the decrease of brain index and locomotor performance.


Asunto(s)
Aminobutiratos/toxicidad , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Lagartos/metabolismo , Locomoción/efectos de los fármacos , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/etiología , Aminobutiratos/farmacocinética , Aminobutiratos/farmacología , Animales , Encéfalo/enzimología , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ecotoxicología , Femenino , Lagartos/fisiología , Masculino , Síndromes de Neurotoxicidad/enzimología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Plaguicidas/metabolismo , Factores Sexuales
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(6)2019 Mar 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884876

RESUMEN

Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an increasing phenomenon worldwide that can cause a series of biological and ecological effects, yet little is known about its potential interaction with other stressors in aquatic ecosystems. Here, we tested whether the impact of lead (Pb) on litter decomposition was altered by ALAN exposure using an indoor microcosm experiment. The results showed that ALAN exposure alone significantly increased leaf litter decomposition, decreased the lignin content of leaf litter, and altered fungal community composition and structure. The decomposition rate was 51% higher in Pb with ALAN exposure treatments than in Pb without ALAN treatments, resulting in increased microbial biomass, ß-glucosidase (ß-G) activity, and the enhanced correlation between ß-G and litter decomposition rate. These results indicate that the negative effect of Pb on leaf litter decomposition in aquatic ecosystems may be alleviated by ALAN. In addition, ALAN exposure also alters the correlation among fungi associated with leaf litter decomposition. In summary, this study expands our understanding of Pb toxicity on litter decomposition in freshwater ecosystems and highlights the importance of considering ALAN when assessing environmental metal pollutions.


Asunto(s)
Agua Dulce/análisis , Agua Dulce/microbiología , Plomo/toxicidad , Iluminación , Biomasa , Ecosistema , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Contaminación Ambiental/análisis , Hongos/efectos de los fármacos , Hongos/genética , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Hongos/efectos de la radiación , Hidrólisis/efectos de los fármacos , Hidrólisis/efectos de la radiación , Iluminación/efectos adversos , Iluminación/métodos , Lignina/análisis , Metagenómica , Hojas de la Planta/química , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Hojas de la Planta/enzimología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de la radiación
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 175: 118-127, 2019 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897410

RESUMEN

Combined effects of cadmium (Cd) and acid rain on physiological characteristics in Eleocarpus glabripetalus seedlings were investigated under controlled conditions. The single Cd treatment and the combined Cd and acid rain treatment increased growth at low Cd concentrations, while decreased growth and photosynthesis at high Cd2+ concentrations. A low Cd2+ concentration (50 mg kg-1) combined with different acid rain treatments increased the seedling biomass. A high Cd2+ concentration (100 mg kg-1) under different acid rain treatments significantly decreased the biomass, the Fe content, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic parameters. Relative electric conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and peroxidase (POD) activity were increased while the reduced glutathione (GSH) content and catalase (CAT) activity were significantly lower at high Cd2+ concentration under acid rain. The results indicated that the combination of a high concentration of Cd2+ and acid rain aggravated the toxic effect of Cd2+ or acid rain alone on the growth and physiological parameters of E. glabripetalus due to serious damage to the chloroplast structure. These results provide novel insights into the combined effects of Cd2+and acid rain on woody plants and might also serve as a guide to evaluate forest restoration and biological safety in areas with Cd2+and acid rain pollution.


Asunto(s)
Lluvia Ácida/efectos adversos , Cadmio/efectos adversos , Elaeocarpaceae/fisiología , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Plantones/efectos de los fármacos , Clorofila/metabolismo , Cloroplastos/efectos de los fármacos , Bosques , Glutatión/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Fotosíntesis/efectos de los fármacos , Plantones/fisiología
18.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 478-495, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831345

RESUMEN

Environmental contamination is one of the major factors or cofactors affecting amphibian populations. Since 2000, the number of studies conducted in laboratory conditions to understand impacts of chemical exposures increased. They aimed to characterize biological effects on amphibians. This review proposes an overview of biological responses reported after exposures to metals, phytopharmaceuticals or emerging organic contaminants and focuses on endpoints relating to reproduction and development. Due to amphibian peculiar features, these periods of their life cycle are especially critical to pollutant exposures. Despite the large range of tested compounds, the same model species are often used as biological models and morphological alterations are the most studied observations. From the results, the laboratory-to-field extrapolation remained uneasy and exposure designs have to be more elaborated to be closer to environmental conditions. Few studies proposed such experimental approaches. Lastly, gametes, embryos and larvae constitute key stages of amphibian life cycle that can be harmed by exposures to freshwater pollutants. Specific efforts have to be intensified on the earliest stages and notably germ cells.


Asunto(s)
Anfibios/embriología , Contaminantes Ambientales/toxicidad , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Larva/efectos de los fármacos , Estadios del Ciclo de Vida/efectos de los fármacos , Reproducción/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Compuestos Orgánicos/toxicidad , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas/análisis
19.
Environ Pollut ; 248: 565-573, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831353

RESUMEN

Coastal habitats, in particular sandy beaches, are becoming increasingly exposed to artificial light pollution at night (ALAN). Yet, only a few studies have this far assessed the effects of ALAN on the species inhabiting these ecosystems. In this study we assessed the effects of ALAN on Tylos spinulosus, a prominent wrack-consumer isopod living in sandy beaches of north-central Chile. This species burrows in the sand during daylight and emerges at night to migrate down-shore, so we argue it can be used as a model species for the study of ALAN effects on coastal nocturnal species. We assessed whether ALAN alters the distribution and locomotor activity of this isopod using a light system placed in upper shore sediments close to the edge of the dunes, mimicking light intensities measured near public lighting. The response of the isopods was compared to control transects located farther away and not exposed to artificial light. In parallel, we measured the isopods' locomotor activity in the laboratory using actographs that recorded their movement within mesocosms simulating the beach surface. Measurements in the field indicated a clear reduction in isopod abundance near the source of the light and a restriction of their tidal distribution range, as compared to control transects. Meanwhile, the laboratory experiments showed that in mesocosms exposed to ALAN, isopods exhibited reduced activity and a circadian rhythm that was altered and even lost after a few days. Such changes with respect to control mesocosms with a natural day/night cycle suggest that the changes observed in the field were directly related to a disruption in the locomotor activity of the isopods. All together these results provide causal evidence of negative ALAN effects on this species, and call for further research on other nocturnal sandy beach species that might become increasingly affected by ALAN.


Asunto(s)
Ritmo Circadiano/efectos de la radiación , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Isópodos/fisiología , Iluminación/efectos adversos , Locomoción/efectos de la radiación , Animales , Chile , Ecosistema
20.
Pediatr. aten. prim ; 21(81): 21-29, ene.-mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-184524

RESUMEN

Objetivo: estudiar la relación existente entre los niveles de contaminantes atmosféricos y los ingresos hospitalarios pediátricos totales y por patología respiratoria en particular. Pacientes y métodos: estudio ecológico en el cual la variable dependiente analizada han sido los ingresos pediátricos generales y aquellos por patología respiratoria, concretamente neumonías, crisis asmáticas y bronquiolitis, en un hospital del centro de Madrid durante seis años (2012-2017). Como variables independientes se estudiaron los valores promedio de contaminantes ambientales registrados en la ciudad de Madrid. Se calcularon coeficientes de correlación y regresión lineal múltiple. Se comparó el promedio de ingresos cuando los valores de dióxido de nitrógeno (NO2) eran superiores e inferiores a 40 µg/m3. Resultados: durante el periodo de tiempo estudiado se registraron 10 512 ingresos en Pediatría general, 5328 (50,68%) causados por procesos respiratorios. Se encontró una correlación entre los niveles de NO2, CO, benceno y los ingresos hospitalarios totales y respiratorios en todos los casos con un valor de p <0,0001. En la regresión lineal múltiple los ingresos totales se relacionaron con los niveles de NO2 positiva y negativamente con la temperatura, en relación con los ingresos respiratorios se incrementan con los niveles de NO2 y benceno y disminuyen con la temperatura. Se calculó que si los niveles de NO2 no hubieran superado en ningún mes los niveles de 40 µg/m3 se podrían haber evitado el 8,37% (IC 95: 7,77 a 8,98) de los ingresos totales y el 6,73% (IC 95: 6 a 7,52) de los ingresos respiratorios. Conclusiones: se encontró una relación entre los ingresos totales y por enfermedad respiratoria en la infancia y los niveles de contaminantes atmosféricos, especialmente NO2. La mejora de la calidad del aire podría evitar un porcentaje significativo de ingresos pediátricos y propiciarla debería ser tarea prioritaria para los pediatras


Objective: to assess the association between levels of airborne pollutants and paediatric hospital admissions, overall and due to respiratory problems. Patients and methods: we conducted an ecological study in which the dependent variables were the number of total paediatric hospital admissions and the number of paediatric admissions due to respiratory problems, specifically pneumonia, asthma exacerbations and bronchiolitis, in a hospital located in the centre of Madrid over a period of 6 years (2012-2017). The independent variables were the mean levels of air pollutants recorded in the city of Madrid. We calculated correlation coefficients and fit multiple linear regression models. We compared the average number of admissions when the levels of nitrogen (NO2) were above and below 40 µg/m3. Results: in the period under study, there were 10 512 admissions to the general paediatrics ward, of which 5328 (50.68%) were due to respiratory problems. We found a correlation between the levels of NO2, CO, and benzene and the number of overall admissions and respiratory admissions, in every instance with a p-value of less than 0.0001. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the number of overall admissions was associated with NO2 levels (positively) and temperature (negatively), while respiratory admissions were associated to NO2 and benzene levels (positively) and temperature (negatively). We estimated that if the levels of NO2 had stayed below 40 µg/m3 throughout the study period, 8.37% (95 CI: 7.77 to 8.98) of total admissions and 6.73% (95 CI: 6 to 7.52) of respiratory admissions could have been avoided. Conclusions: we found an association between the number of admissions, overall and for respiratory causes, in the paediatric age group and the levels of air pollutants, especially NO2. Improving air quality could prevent a significant proportion of paediatric hospital admissions, and promoting this change should be a priority for paediatricians


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/aislamiento & purificación , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Tiempo de Internación/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Ecológicos , Contaminación Ambiental/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/prevención & control
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