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1.
Food Chem ; 352: 129364, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657482

RESUMEN

Rice is contaminated with pesticides applied in pre and post-harvest. These contaminations could be reduced through household operations like washing and cooking. Therefore, in the present research, a pre-soaking rice cooking method was used to reduce pesticides residues. Response Surface Methodology with Central Composite Design was applied to minimize pesticides concentration by choosing the best soaking time and water:rice grain relation before cooking. A quadratic polynomial equation was obtained. Desirability function approach gave the optimal cooking conditions as 14 h soaking time and water:rice grain relation of 3. This process allowed a pesticide elimination of 100.0%, 93.5%, 98.4%, 98.5%, 99.0%, and 95.0%, of azoxystrobin, cyproconazole, deltamethrin, epoxiconazole, kresoxim-methyl and penconazole, respectively.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria/métodos , Oryza/química , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Factores de Tiempo , Agua/química
2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109113, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652337

RESUMEN

Ochratoxins are a group of mycotoxins that frequently occur as contaminants in agricultural commodities and foods, including dry-cured meats and cheeses. The fungus Aspergillus westerdijkiae is frequently isolated from aged foods and can produce ochratoxin A (OTA). However, individual strains of the fungus can have one of two OTA production phenotypes (chemotypes): OTA production and OTA nonproduction. Monitoring and early detection of OTA-producing fungi in food are the most effective strategies to manage OTA contamination. Therefore, we examined genome sequence data from five A. westerdijkiae strains isolated from the surface of cheese from southern Italy to identify genetic markers indicative of the twoOTA chemotypes. This analysis revealed a naturally occurring deletion of the OTA regulatory gene, otaR, in an OTA-nonproducing isolate.We used this information to design a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method that could identify A. westerdijkiae and distinguish between the two OTA chemotypes. In this method, the PCR primers were complementary to conserved sequences flanking otaR and yielded different-sized amplicons from strains with the different chemotypes. The primers did not yield ota-region-specific amplicons from other OTA-producing species. Because the method is specific to A. westerdijkiae and can distinguish between the two OTA chemotypes, it has potential to significantly improve OTA monitoring programs.


Asunto(s)
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Queso/microbiología , Alimentos en Conserva/microbiología , Carne/microbiología , Ocratoxinas/biosíntesis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/métodos , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/aislamiento & purificación , Cartilla de ADN/genética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Italia
3.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109089, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662900

RESUMEN

Contamination of bivalve molluscs with viruses is well recognized as a food safety risk. A microbiological criterion for norovirus (NoV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV) in shellfish, however, does not exist in the European Union currently. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contamination levels of these viruses for fluctuation over a long period (2013-2017) in oyster (n = 266) and mussel samples (n = 490) using a method based on ISO/TS 15216-1: 2013. Samples were taken at different points in the food chain, either directly post-harvest, at Dutch dispatch centers or in retail stores, from September until March of each year. Altogether, 53.1% of the mussel and 31.6% of the oyster samples tested positive for NoV RNA. Simultaneous presence of NoV GI and GII RNA was observed in 31.6% of mussel and 10.2% of oyster samples. Contamination levels in NoV positive mussel samples collected post-harvest from B-areas were significantly higher than in those collected post-harvest from A-areas, or at dispatch centers or retail stores. Levels in oysters from dispatch were significantly lower than those collected in retail stores. Ready for sale mussels and oysters contained 2.04 and 1.76 mean log10 transformed NoV genome copies/gram (gc/g), respectively. GII levels were at a constant level in ready for sale mussels throughout all sampling periods in the study. This seemed to be true for oysters as well. HAV RNA was detected in only one of the tested mussel samples (n = 392) (typed HAV 1A) and in none of the tested oyster samples (n = 228). Critical evaluation of NoV and HAV levels in shellfish can be of help for risk assessment and risk management actions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Caliciviridae/epidemiología , Virus de la Hepatitis A/aislamiento & purificación , Hepatitis A/epidemiología , Norovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Ostreidae/virología , Animales , Infecciones por Caliciviridae/veterinaria , Cadena Alimentaria , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Inocuidad de los Alimentos , Hepatitis A/veterinaria , Virus de la Hepatitis A/genética , Humanos , Países Bajos/epidemiología , Norovirus/genética , Mariscos/virología
4.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 344: 109116, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676332

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is among the most common zoonotic pathogens originating from animals consumed as food, especially raw chicken meat (RCM). As far as we know, this might be the first report that explores the efficacy of metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs), such as zinc peroxide nanoparticles (ZnO2-NPs), zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs), and titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) against multidrug resistant (MDR) and/or pandrug resistant (PDR) S. aureus strains with a strong biofilm-producing ability isolated from RCM and giblets. The overall prevalence of coagulase-positive staphylococci was 21%, with a contamination level range between 102 and 104 CFU/g. The incidence of virulence genes See (21/36), pvl (16/36), clfA (15/36), sec (12/36), tst (12/36), and sea (11/36) among S. aureus strains were relatively higher those of seb, sed, fnbA, and fnbB. For antimicrobial resistance gene distribution, most strains harbored the blaZ gene (25/36), aacA-aphD gene (24/36), mecA gene (22/36), vanA gene (20/36), and apmA gene (20/36) confirmed the prevalence of MDR among S. aureus of RCM products. However, cfr (11/36), spc (9/36), and aadE (7/36) showed a relatively lower existence. The data of antibiogram resistance profiles was noticeably heterogeneous (25 patterns) with 32 MDR and four PDR S. aureus strains. All tested strains had a very high MAR index value (>0.2) except the P11 pattern (GEN, MXF, PMB), which showed a MAR index of 0.19. Among the strong biofilm-producing ability (BPA), 14 (70%) strains were isolated from wet markets, while only six strong BPA strains were isolated from supermarkets. The mean values of BPA ranged from 2.613 ± 0.04 to 11.013 ± 0.05. Clearly, ZnO2-NPs show significant inhibitory activity against S. aureus strains compared with those produced by the action of ZnO-NPs and TiO2-NPs. The results of anti-inflammatory activity suggest ZnO2-NPs as a lead compound for designing an alternative antimicrobial agent against drug-resistant and strong biofilm-producing S. aureus isolates from retail RCM and giblets.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Contaminación de Alimentos/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Titanio/farmacología , Óxido de Zinc/farmacología , Animales , Biopelículas/efectos de los fármacos , Biopelículas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple/genética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Microbiología de Alimentos , Carne/microbiología , Nanopartículas del Metal , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/epidemiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Staphylococcus aureus/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/aislamiento & purificación , Virulencia/genética
5.
Food Chem ; 352: 129187, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652196

RESUMEN

A novel covalent organic framework material (3DGA@COFs), for use as a solid-phase dispersion sorbent, has been synthesized for extracting organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) from vegetables. The prepared 3DGA@COFs material exhibited many advantageous features, including a large specific surface area (127.95 m2/g) and high pore volume (0.0344 cm3/g), which made it an ideal sorbent for sample pretreatment. The experimental conditions affecting extraction performance (adsorbent type, adsorbent amount, reaction time, pH, ionic concentration, and eluent) were optimized systematically. The extracted analytes were detected by HPLC-MS/MS. Under optimized conditions, the proposed method exhibited a wide linear range (0.5-100 µg/L) and low limits of detection (0.01-0.14 µg/L). The recoveries (75.40%-102.13%) satisfied the requirements for a precise detection method. The proposed method was successfully used for determining malathion, triazophos, quinalphos in lettuce, tomato and cucumber samples, thus indicating the potential of using 3DGA@COFs materials for pretreating vegetable samples.


Asunto(s)
Grafito/química , Hidrogeles/química , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/síntesis química , Compuestos Organofosforados/aislamiento & purificación , Plaguicidas/aislamiento & purificación , Extracción en Fase Sólida/métodos , Verduras/química , Adsorción , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Límite de Detección , Estructuras Metalorgánicas/química , Compuestos Organofosforados/análisis , Compuestos Organofosforados/química , Plaguicidas/análisis , Plaguicidas/química , Factores de Tiempo
6.
Food Chem ; 351: 129351, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647687

RESUMEN

Histamine is a biogenic amine that is formed from histidine by action of the enzyme histidine decarboxylase and can be toxic at high intakes. Thus, the quantification of these analytes in foods constitutes a significant axis of food safety. In this study we present the development, validation and application of a new method for the determination of histamine and its precursor histidine in fish products and oriental sauces. The analytes were separated rapidly through a cation exchange column using an acidic mobile phase (7 mmol L-1 nitric acid) and reacted downstream with o-phthalaldehyde in post-column mode in the absence of nucleophilic reagents. The derivatives were detected spectrofluorimetrically at λex/λem. = 360/440 nm. Following investigation of the chromatographic and post-column conditions, the method was validated as for its intended applications. The limits of detection were 0.16 and 0.17 µmol L-1 for histidine and histamine respectively (ca. 0.1 mg kg-1) and the precision was better than 5%. Various food samples were successfully analyzed without matrix interferences following minimal pretreatment. The percent recoveries ranged between 91.3 and 117.9%.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía por Intercambio Iónico/métodos , Peces , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Histamina/análisis , Histidina/análisis , Animales , Histamina/química , Histidina/química
7.
Food Chem ; 351: 129345, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647691

RESUMEN

Increasing pesticide contamination in foods of animal origin has made the wide-scope multi-residue analysis of pesticides an international concern. In this study, a sensitive and reliable multi-residue pesticide analysis method for beef was developed with the use of 129 pesticides to demonstrate the full scope of the method. The pesticides were extracted and purified using a modified QuEChERS technique and analysed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An orthogonal array design was employed for optimisation of the method, significantly scientising and simplifying the process. Method validation revealed satisfactory sensitivity with limits of quantification values ranging from 0.003 to 11.37 µg∙kg-1. Matrix effects ranged from 83.85% to 120.66%. Recovery at three spiking levels (20, 50, and 100 µg∙kg-1) were 70.51-128.12% and the intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 20%, indicating good accuracy and precision.


Asunto(s)
Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Residuos de Plaguicidas/análisis , Carne Roja/análisis , Animales , Bovinos , Límite de Detección
8.
Appl Opt ; 60(7): 1924-1929, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690282

RESUMEN

A rapid and label free aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) microfluid sensor was proposed and tested. The device was fabricated with hollow-core photonics crystal fiber infiltrated with the AFB1 solution. The autofluorescence emitting from the AFB1 molecules was detected. The sensor length was optimized. The AFB1 concentration was tested with a 4 cm long sensor. The best limit of detection was achieved as low as 1.34 ng/ml, which meets the test requirement of the national standards for AFB1 in food. The effectiveness of this sensor being applied in beer solution was also verified to be a little more sensitive than in aqueous solution. Compared with traditional AFB1 detection methods, the proposed single-ended device perfectly satisfies the demand of process control in alcoholic beverages manufacture.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxina B1/química , Bebidas Alcohólicas/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Dispositivos Laboratorio en un Chip , Bebidas Alcohólicas/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos , Límite de Detección
9.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238953, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729385

RESUMEN

Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Asunto(s)
Helmintos , Verduras , Animales , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Pakistán , Suelo
10.
Food Chem ; 352: 129422, 2021 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714164

RESUMEN

The fatty acid, squalene, and phytosterols, coupled to chemometrics were utilized to detect the adulteration of camellia oil (CAO) with palm superolein (PAO), refined olive oil (ROO), high oleic- sunflower oil (HO-SUO), sunflower oil (SUO), corn oil (COO), rice bran oil (RBO), rice oil (RIO), peanut oil (PEO), sesame oil (SEO), soybean oil (SOO), and rapeseed oil (RAO). CAO was characterized with higher triterpene alcohols, thus differentiated from other vegetable oils in principle component analysis (PCA). Using partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), CAO adulterated with PAO, ROO, HO-SUO, SUO, COO, RBO, RIO, PEO, SEO, SOO, RAO (5%-100%, w/w), could be classified, especially higher than 92.31% of the total discrimination accuracy, at an adulterated ratio above 30%. With less than 22 potential key markers selected by the variable importance in projection (VIP), the optimized PLS models were confirmed to be accurate for the adulterated level prediction in CAO.


Asunto(s)
Camellia/química , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Fraude/prevención & control , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Informática , Fitosteroles/análisis , Aceites Vegetales/química , Análisis Discriminante , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Análisis de los Mínimos Cuadrados , Análisis de Componente Principal
11.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116715, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652183

RESUMEN

Herbs and spices are food crops susceptible to contamination by toxigenic fungi. Ozone, as a decontamination approach in the industry, has attractive benefits over traditional food preservation practices. A contribution to the studying of ozone as an antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic agent in herbs and spices storage processes is achieved in this research. Nine powdered sun-dried herbs and spices were analyzed for their fungal contamination. The results indicate that licorice root and peppermint leaves were found to have the highest population of fungi while black cumin and fennel record the lowest population. The most dominant fungal genera are Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Rhizopus. Ozone treatment was performed at a concentration of 3 ppm applied for exposure times of 0, 30, 90, 150, 210, and 280 min. After 280 min of exposure to ozone, the reduction of fungal count ranged from 96.39 to 98.26%. The maximum reduction in spore production was achieved in the case of A. humicola and Trichderma viride exposed for 210 min ozone gas. There was a remarkable reduction in the production of the total mycotoxin, reaching 24.15% in aflatoxins for the 150 min-treated inoculum in the case of A. flavus. The total volume of essential oil of chamomile and peppermint was reduced by 57.14 and 26.67%, respectively, when exposed to 3 ppm. For 280 min. In conclusion, fumigation with ozone gas can be used as a suitable method for achieving sanitation and decreasing microbial load in herbs and spices. Still, it is crucial to provide precautions on ozone's effect on major active constituents before recommending this method for industrial application.


Asunto(s)
Aflatoxinas , Micotoxinas , Ozono , Aflatoxinas/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Especias/análisis
12.
Food Chem ; 351: 129311, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636533

RESUMEN

A competitive lateral flow immunoassay using amorphous carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) and non-immunoglobulin antigen has been developed for the rapid detection of adulteration of cow's milk with buffalo's milk. Purified polyclonal antibodies against a specific buffalo's milk protein fraction were conjugated to CNPs and sprayed on a conjugate pad. The test line consisted of buffalo's skimmed milk proteins (1.6 µg/cm), while the control line contained anti-rabbit antibodies raised in goat (0.5 µg/cm). In the test procedure milk sample is mixed with 100 mM borate buffer (pH 8.8 containing 1% BSA and 0.05% Tween 20) and pipetted onto the sample-cum-conjugate pad. A black/grey test line can be observed if the sample is free from buffalo's milk. The sensitivity of the test i.e. no visible test line is 5% adulteration of cow's milk with buffalo's milk. The test has applicability at the milk receiving stations and can be applied to heated milk samples.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Inmunoensayo/métodos , Leche/química , Animales , Búfalos , Carbono , Bovinos , Femenino , Nanopartículas/química
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112101, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549998

RESUMEN

We studied the abundance of microplastics from commercial table salts and table salts from salt pans at Marakkanam and Parangipettai, Tamil Nadu, India. Microplastic abundance in the salts collected from salt pans had a range of 3.67 ± 1.54 to 21.33 ± 1.53 nos./10 g of salt which were higher than the microplastics retrieved from the commercial salts which ranged from 4.67 ± 1.15 to 16.33 ± 1.53 nos./10 g of salt. All the microplastics retrieved were fibers which were secondary in origin. Black, red, blue, green, white, brown, and colorless microplastics were observed in the samples. FT-IR results showed that 4 types of polymers, namely, Nylon, Polypropylene (PP), Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE), and Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) were present in the samples. Domestic and municipal wastewater discharges into the estuaries may contribute to microplastics in the table salts. Our study proves that table salts (processed and unprocessed) are prone to microplastic contamination.


Asunto(s)
Microplásticos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , India , Plásticos , Sales (Química) , Espectroscopía Infrarroja por Transformada de Fourier , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
14.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 165: 112114, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578190

RESUMEN

This study provides the primary data of ten trace element concentrations from four highly consumed cultured freshwater fish species in comparison to six marine fish collected from markets of the Shandong province, China, and evaluates the potential human health risks from consuming these fish. A significant difference in five metal concentrations (Cr, As, Se, Cd, Pb) was found between freshwater and marine fish. With the exception of chromium, the other four element contents in marine fish were higher than those in freshwater fish. According to estimated daily intake (EDI), target hazard quotient (THQ), total target hazard quotient (TTHQ), and the permissible safety limits prescribed by various agencies, consumption of the examined fish species is safe for human health. However, chromium in freshwater fish and arsenic in marine fish should still be a cause for concern in terms of human health, especially for fisher folk communities and populations that frequently consume fish.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Oligoelementos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Agua Dulce , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Oligoelementos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530648

RESUMEN

Aluminum (Al) exposure at human dietary levels raises health concerns, yet little is known about the Al exposure from the Taiwanese diet. The amount of aluminum (Al)-containing food consumption in the Taiwanese total diet is increasing, which contributes to the total diet consumption., which raises the health concerns. In this study, we aim to assess estimated weekly intake (EWI) and the percentage of provisional tolerable weekly intake (%PTWI) of the dietary exposure to Al in different age-sex groups. We also applied probabilistic risk analyses to quantify the parameters' uncertainty by focusing on the distribution function for the Al concentration in food, consumption rate, and body weight in specific age groups. Results indicated that the EWIs declined with increasing age after 6-years old (7-12 > 13-15 > 16-18 > 19-64 > 65+). Results indicated that the EWIs gradually declined after 6-year of age. The EWIs of Al-rich food in cake + waffle, kelp, snacks, and bread contributed 20%, 17%, 17%, and 11%, respectively, to the total EWIs, corresponding with the much higher consumption rates for these four foods. The 75th percentile of EWIs for the children aged 34-6 years had a %PTWI valued at over 100%, indicating a potential risk of Al intake via dietary exposure. Our findings show that there is a concern about the consumption of Al-rich foods for children in Taiwan.


Asunto(s)
Aluminio , Exposición Dietética , Aluminio/análisis , Niño , Dieta , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Taiwán/epidemiología
16.
Food Chem ; 349: 129160, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550018

RESUMEN

Indigo carmine (IC) dye is hazardous and allergenic for humans even though it has been excessively used in a wide range of industries. Therefore, the quantitative determination of IC is still challenging. Herein, for the first time, we have developed fluorometric and colorimetric dual-mode nanoprobe derived from the ion-pair association complex between the negatively charged IC and positively charged N@C-dots in pH = 3.0. Consequently, the binding between N@C-dots and IC resulted in cyan blue and quenching of N@C-dots fluorescence. The dependence of the fluorescence response on IC concentrations was linear over the range of 0.73-10.0 µM (R2 = 0.9989) with LOD of 0.24 µM. On the other hand, the linearity of the colorimetric method ranged from 9.97 to 80.0 µM (R2 = 0.9986) with LOD of 3.3 µM. The sensor was applied for estimation of IC in fruit juice and soft drink without the need for exhaustive extraction steps.


Asunto(s)
Bebidas/análisis , Carbono/química , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Carmin de Índigo/análisis , Límite de Detección , Nitrógeno/química , Colorimetría , Fluorometría , Humanos
17.
Food Chem ; 349: 129137, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33556727

RESUMEN

Contamination of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in agricultural products have attracted more and more attentions recently. In this review, relationship between PFASs and vegetables is summarized comprehensively. PFASs could transfer to cultivation soils by irrigation water, bio-amended soil, and atmospheric deposition mainly from industrial emissions. Carbon chain length of PFASs, species of vegetables and so on are key factors for PFASs migration and bioaccumulation in soils, plants and vegetables. Studies on food risk assessment of PFOA and PFOS show low consumption risk for most vegetables, however researches on other substances are lacking. In the future, we need to pay more attention on novel pollution pathway in cultivation, traceability research for considerable contamination, dietary exposure levels for different vegetables and more substances, as well as more exact and scientific food risk assessments. Additionally, effective means for PFASs adsorption in soil and removal from soil are also expected.


Asunto(s)
Bioacumulación , Fluorocarburos/metabolismo , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Verduras/metabolismo , Alquilación , Fluorocarburos/química , Medición de Riesgo
18.
Food Chem ; 349: 129157, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578248

RESUMEN

Carbendazim (CBZ) pesticide residues in food products have become a growing concern in recent years. Herein, a sensitive biosensor for detecting CBZ was developed based on luminescent resonance energy transfer (LRET) from aptamer labeled upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs, donor) to manganese dioxide (MnO2, acceptor) nanosheets. The strong overlap between the absorption spectrum of MnO2 and the UCNPs fluorescence emission allowed the luminescence quenching. With the addition of CBZ, it tended to bind with specific aptamers, which culminated in the UCNPs-aptamer dropping off MnO2 nanosheets and restoring the fluorescence. A linear calibration plot between logarithmic CBZ concentration and fluorescence intensity was acquired in the range of 0.1-5000 ng·mL-1, with a limit of detection 0.05 ng·mL-1, indicating that the UCNPs- MnO2 aptasensor is a rapid, sensitive and specific quantitative detection platform for CBZ. Furthermore, the precision and accuracy of the developed LRET biosensor was validated by HPLC method with no significant differences.


Asunto(s)
Bencimidazoles/análisis , Técnicas Biosensibles/métodos , Carbamatos/análisis , Transferencia Resonante de Energía de Fluorescencia/métodos , Análisis de los Alimentos/métodos , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Límite de Detección , Aptámeros de Nucleótidos/química , Bencimidazoles/química , Carbamatos/química , Compuestos de Manganeso/química , Nanopartículas/química , Óxidos/química
19.
Food Chem ; 350: 129250, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607412

RESUMEN

Nowadays, polypropylene is one of the most common polymers used in the food packaging industry due to its good functionality and relatively low cost. Nevertheless, usage of plastic disposable packaging can be a generator of plastic pollution having negative environmental effects. A feasible solution for this issue would be to recycle. The polypropylene samples were submitted to two processes, forced contamination, and recycling, and they were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatograph-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. 45 different volatile compounds were identified and 9 of them presented distinct odoriferous activities. Among them, two important markers were detected: diethyl phthalate (probably coming from the catalyst of PP polymerization, intentionally added substance (IAS)), and glycerine (a marker of non-intentionally added substances (NIAS)).


Asunto(s)
Embalaje de Alimentos/métodos , Odorantes/análisis , Polipropilenos/química , Reciclaje , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/análisis , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis
20.
Food Chem ; 350: 129260, 2021 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33618093

RESUMEN

Oligomers, are, in general, unknown components of the polymer. These oligomers can migrate from the polymer into the food and become a non-intentionally added substance to the food. In this work, ion mobility time-of-flight mass spectrometry has been used to identify oligomers migrating from kitchenware. The structure elucidation of oligomers from polyamide 6 and polyamide 66 was achieved through the analysis of accurate m/z values of adducts and collision cross section values of precursor ions together with high-energy fragmentation patterns. Additionally, a method to extract oligomers from sunflower oil, cooked beans, soup and whole milk has been developed. Extraction recoveries ranged from 87 to 102% and limits of detection were from 0.03 to 0.11 mg/kg. It was observed that the migration from kitchenware to real food was below the specified migration limit of 5 mg/kg. However, this limit was exceeded for food simulants, which therefore overestimated the oligomer migration.


Asunto(s)
Caprolactama/análogos & derivados , Contaminación de Alimentos/análisis , Espectrometría de Movilidad Iónica/métodos , Polimerizacion , Polímeros/química , Animales , Caprolactama/química , Leche/química
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