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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800440

RESUMEN

To control the spread of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), Saudi Arabia's government imposed a strict lockdown during March-July 2020. As a result, the public was confined to indoors, and most of their daily activities were happening in their indoor places, which might have resulted in lower indoor environment quality. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in household dust (n = 40) collected from different residential districts of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, during the lockdown period. PAHs' levels were two folds higher than the previously reported PAHs in indoor dust from this region. We detected low molecular weight (LMW) with two to four aromatic ring PAHs in all the samples with a significant contribution from Phenanthrene (Phe), present at an average concentration of 1590 ng/g of dust. Although high molecular weight (HMW) (5-6 aromatic ring) PAHs were detected at lower concentrations than LMW PAHs, however, they contributed >90% in the carcinogenic index of PAHs. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of specific PAHs was above the reference dose (RfD) for young children in high-end exposure and the calculated Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) was >1.00 × 10-4 for both Saudi adults and young children. The study highlighted that indoor pollution has increased significantly during lockdown due to the increased indoor activities and inversely affect human health. This study also warrants to conduct more studies involving different chemicals to understand the indoor environment quality during strict lockdown conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Coronavirus , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Niño , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Arabia Saudita/epidemiología
2.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 103: 148-156, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743897

RESUMEN

Indoor air quality (IAQ) directly affects the health of occupants. Household manufacturing equipment (HME) used for hobbies or educational purposes is a new and unexplored source of air pollution. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of particulate and gaseous pollutants produced by a household laser processing equipment (HLPE). Various target materials were tested using a commercial HLPE under various operating conditions of laser power and sheath air flow rate. The mode diameters of the emitted particles gradually decreased as laser power increased, while the particle number concentration (PNC) and particle emission rate (PER) increased. In addition, as the sheath air flow rate quadrupled from 10 to 40 L/min, the mode diameter of the emitted particles decreased by nearly 25%, but the effect on the PNC was insignificant. When the laser induced the target materials at 53 mW, the mode diameters of particles were <150 nm, and PNCs were >2.0 × 104 particles/cm3. Particularly, analyses of sampled aerosols indicated that harmful substances such as sulfur and barium were present in particles emitted from leather. The carcinogenic gaseous pollutants such as acrylonitrile, acetaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, benzene, and C8 aromatics (ethylbenzene) were emitted from all target materials. In an actual indoor environment, the PNC of inhalable ultrafine particles (UFPs) was >5 × 104 particles/cm3 during 30 min of HLPE operation. Our results suggest that more meticulous control methods are needed, including the use of less harmful target materials along with filters or adsorbents that prevent emission of pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gases , Rayos Láser , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
3.
J Environ Radioact ; 232: 106575, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711618

RESUMEN

Long-term radon time series were analyzed in 14 rooms and offices to search factors influencing indoor radon concentration in high-rise buildings. Radon entry to living rooms is determined both by diffusion from building materials and advection from adjoined low-ventilated spaces. Humans affect on seasonal and diurnal radon concentration changes in high-rise buildings by activating ventilation system. Indoor-outdoor temperature difference significantly influence on the air exchange rate under uncontrolled ventilation, which is especially important in new energy efficient buildings.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Vivienda , Humanos , Radón/análisis
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 144836, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770893

RESUMEN

The 2019 Novel Coronavirus SARS-CoV 2 (COVID-191) pandemic has severely impacted global health, safety, economic development and diplomacy. The government of Nepal issued a lockdown order in the Kathmandu Valley for 80 days from 24 March to 11 June 2020. This paper reports associated changes in ambient PM2.5 measured at fixed-site monitors and changes in personal exposure to PM2.5 monitored by APT Minima by four American diplomats who completed monitoring before and during lockdown (24 h for each period per person, 192 person-hours in total). Time activities and use of home air pollution mitigation measures (use of room air cleaners (RACs), sealing of homes) were recorded by standardized diary. We compared PM2.5 exposure level by microenvironment (home (cooking), home (other activities), at work, commuting, other outdoor environment) in terms of averaged PM2.5 concentration and the contribution to cumulative personal exposure (the product of PM2.5 concentration and time spent in each microenvironment). Ambient PM2.5 measured at fixed-sites in the US Embassy and in Phora Durbar were 38.2% and 46.7% lower than during the corresponding period in 2017-2019. The mean concentration of PM2.5 to which US diplomats were exposed was very much lower than the concentrations of ambient levels measured at fixed site monitors in the city both before and during lockdown. Within-person comparisons suggest personal PM2.5 exposure was 50.0% to 76.7% lower during lockdown than before it. Time spent outdoors and cooking at home were large contributors to cumulative personal exposure. Low indoor levels of PM2.5 were achieved at work and home through use of RACs and measures to seal homes against the ingress of polluted air from outside. Our observations indicate the potential reduction in exposure to PM2.5 with large-scale changes to mainly fossil-fuel related emissions sources and through control of indoor environments and activity patterns.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Empleados de Gobierno , Humanos , Nepal , Material Particulado/análisis
5.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(4): 231, 2021 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772656

RESUMEN

The present study reports the indoor abundance of inorganic trace gases (NH3, NO2 and SO2) and their corresponding particulates (NH4+, NO3- and SO42-) along with other major ionic species present in the aerosol form (Cl-, F-, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), in the urban households of megacity Delhi (India). Two different households (DH site and MH site) were selected in the city based on the variation in the land use patterns of the locations in which they were situated. Trace gases followed the order NH3 > SO2 > NO2 at both the sites with NH3 contributing about 90% and 85% to the total Nr species at DH and MH sites, respectively. NH3 showed maximum indoor concentrations during monsoon season whereas NO2 and SO2 were higher during winter season. The gas to particle conversion of the inorganic trace gases was studied by calculating their oxidation ratios which followed the order SOR > NOR > NHR, indicating that SO2 showed more oxidative conversion to SO42- as compared to NO2 and NH3 in the indoor setup. The chemical composition of the particulates revealed that Ca2+ and SO42- were the most abundant cation and anion, respectively, among the measured ionic species at both sites and the concentrations of all the major ions were higher for the industrial MH site as compared to the residential DH site. Source apportionment using principal component analysis and mass ratios showed that indoor activities such as cooking, cleaning along with others such as biomass burning and dust resuspension were responsible for the indoor composition of particulates at DH site whereas outdoor influences such as coal burning and industrial emissions from local sources were prominent at MH site due to its industrialized surroundings. For naturally ventilated households (such as the present study), it was observed that the emissions generated indoors as well as the characteristic outdoor influences seem to influence the overall indoor air composition and quality.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Ciudades , Carbón Mineral , Polvo , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Gases , India , Material Particulado/análisis , Especies de Nitrógeno Reactivo , Estaciones del Año
6.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(3): 491-500, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647083

RESUMEN

The objective of this analysis was to examine and compare quantitative metrics of observed dampness and mold, including visible mold and moisture damage, and fungal and bacterial microbiomes. In-home visits were conducted at age 7 for children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Trained study staff evaluated the primary residence and measured total areas of visible moisture and mold damage in the home. Floor dust was collected and archived. Archived dust samples collected from each home (n = 178) were extracted and analyzed using bacterial (16S rRNA gene) and fungal (internal transcribed spacer region) sequencing. Fungi were also divided into moisture requirement categories of xerophiles, mesophiles, and hydrophiles. Data analyses used Spearman's correlation, Kruskal-Wallis, Permanova, DESeq, and negative binomial regression models. Comparing high moisture or mold damage to no damage, five fungal species and two bacterial species had higher concentrations (absolute abundance) and six fungal species and three bacterial species had lower concentrations. Hydrophilic and mesophilic fungi showed significant dose-related increases with increasing moisture damage and mold damage, respectively. When comparing alpha or beta diversity of fungi and bacteria across mold and moisture damage levels, no significant associations or differences were found. Mold and moisture damage did not affect diversity of fungal and bacterial microbiomes. Instead, both kinds of damage were associated with changes in species composition of both bacterial and fungal microbiomes, indicating that fungal and bacterial communities in the home might be influenced by one another as well as by mold or moisture in the home.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Microbiota , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Bacterias/genética , Niño , Polvo/análisis , Hongos/genética , Vivienda , Humanos , ARN Ribosómico 16S
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535545

RESUMEN

As part of a nationwide survey of thoron (220Rn) in Japan, the indoor 220Rn gas concentrations in 940 dwellings were measured throughout one year, from 1993 to 1996, using a passive type 222Rn-220Rn discriminative monitor. The monitor was placed in a bedroom or a living room in each house for four successive three-month periods. The mean annual indoor 220Rn concentration was estimated from the four measurements in each house. The arithmetic mean, the median and the geometric mean for indoor 220Rn concentrations in 899 dwellings were 20.1, 9.6 and 10.0 Bq m-3, respectively. The 220Rn concentrations exhibited a log-normal distribution. It was found that the 220Rn concentrations were dependent on the nature of the materials used for wall construction and also on the distance of measurement from the wall. Significant seasonal variations in the 220Rn concentration were not observed. It would seem that the nature of the wall material contributed to the increased indoor 220Rn concentrations.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Vivienda , Japón , Radón/análisis , Hijas del Radón/análisis
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33540910

RESUMEN

One of the requirements of EU-BSS (European Basic Safety Standards) is the design and implementation of a National Radon Action Plan in the member states. This should define, as accurately as possible, areas of risk for the presence of radon gas (222Rn) in homes and workplaces. The concept used by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN), the body responsible for nuclear safety and radiation protection in Spain, to identify "radon priority areas" is that of radon potential. This paper establishes a different methodology from that used by the CSN, using the same study variables (indoor radon measurements, gamma radiation exposure data, and geological information) to prepare a radon potential map that improves the definition of the areas potentially exposed to radon in Spain. The main advantage of this methodology is that by using simple data processing the definition of these areas is improved. In addition, the application of this methodology can improve the delimitation of radon priority areas and can be applied within the cartographic system used by the European Commission-Joint Research Center (EC-JRC) in the representation of different environmental parameters.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Monitoreo de Radiación , Protección Radiológica , Radón , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Radón/análisis , España
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573028

RESUMEN

Radon is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless noble gas, causally related with the onset of lung cancer. We aimed to describe the distribution of radon exposure in the municipality of Manizales, Colombia, in order to estimate the population's exposure and establish the percentage of dwellings that surpass reference levels. A cross-sectional study representing all geographical areas was carried out by measuring indoor radon concentrations. Participants answered a short questionnaire. Alpha-track type radon detectors were installed in all residences for six months. The detectors were subsequently processed at the Galician Radon Laboratory, an accredited laboratory at the University of Santiago de Compostela. A total of 202 homes were measured. Seventy-seven percent of the sampled houses were three stories high, their median age was 30 years, and half were inhabited by three people or fewer. For most dwellings, the building materials of walls and flooring were brick and covered cement, respectively. Results showed a geometric mean of radon concentration of 8.5 Bq/m3 and a maximum value of 50 Bq/m3. No statistically significant differences were found either between the geometric mean of the dwelling's site, the height at which detectors were placed inside the home, or the wall and flooring materials, or between mean 222Rn concentrations in rural and urban areas. No dwelling surpassed the 222Rn reference level established by the WHO. This study shows that residential radon levels in Manizales, Colombia, seem to be low, though a more in-depth approach should be carried out. Despite these results, it is essential to create a national radon program and establish a radon concentration reference level for Colombia in line with international recommendations.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Monitoreo de Radiación , Radón , Adulto , Contaminantes Radiactivos del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Ciudades , Colombia , Estudios Transversales , Vivienda , Humanos , Proyectos Piloto , Radón/análisis
10.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129952, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33601210

RESUMEN

There is a considerable connection between indoor and outdoor environments. However, few studies have explored their intrinsic relationship until now. This study conducted morphologic observation, heavy metal monitoring and isotopes analysis in indoor and outdoor dust, as well as the atmospheric particulates in Hefei. Morphologic analysis demonstrated atmospheric particulates were affected by fly ash and construction, road dust mainly came from automobile exhaust and indoor dust particles were interfered by multiple sources, including the secondary reaction of fly ash. Chemical speciation analysis of heavy metals showed the exchange of heavy metals between atmospheric particulates and indoor dust was dominated by non-residual metals, while the exchange between road dust and indoor dust tended to rely on residual metals. The assessment results of heavy metals in particulates showed that indoor carcinogenic risks were greater than outdoor for children, however, for adults, outdoor carcinogenic risks were greater than indoor. Stable isotopes analysis indicated carbon in the dust outside buildings was derived from flying dust, and atmospheric particulates might derive from vehicle exhaust, or partly from natural gas. While sulfur in atmospheric particulates was derived mainly from coal combustion. The release from indoor activities, especially natural gas exhaust emitted from cooking had a certain impact on atmospheric particulates.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Metales Pesados , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Niño , Ciudades , Carbón Mineral , Polvo/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo
11.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116701, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621737

RESUMEN

Since humans spend more than 90% of their time in indoor environments, indoor exposure can be an important non-dietary pathway to hazardous organic contaminants. It is thus important to characterize the chemical composition of indoor dust to assess the total contaminant exposure and estimate human health risks. The aim of this investigation was to perform a comprehensive chemical characterization of indoor dust. First, the robustness of an adopted extraction method using ultrasonication was evaluated for 85 target compounds. Thereafter, a workflow combining target analysis, suspect screening analysis (SSA) and nontarget analysis (NTA) was applied to dust samples from different indoor environments. Chemical analysis was performed using both gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Although suppressing matrix effects were prominent, target analysis enabled the quantification of organophosphate/brominated flame retardants (OPFRs/BFRs), liquid crystal monomers (LCMs), toluene diisocyanate, bisphenols, pesticides and tributyl citrate. The SSA confirmed the presence of OPFRs but also enabled the detection of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and phthalates/parabens. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis and scaled mass defect plots in the NTA workflow confirmed the presence of the above mentioned compounds, as well as detect other contaminants such as tetrabromobisphenol A, triclocarban, diclofenac and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, which were further confirmed using pure standards.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Retardadores de Llama , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Polvo , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análisis
12.
Environ Pollut ; 276: 116763, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33631689

RESUMEN

Epidemiological research on the adverse health outcomes due to PM2.5 exposure frequently relies on measurements from regulatory air quality monitors to provide ambient exposure estimates, whereas personal PM2.5 exposure may deviate from ambient concentrations due to outdoor infiltration and contributions from indoor sources. Research in quantifying infiltration factors (Finf), the fraction of outdoor PM2.5 that infiltrates indoors, has been historically limited in space and time due to the high costs of monitor deployment and maintenance. Recently, the growth of openly accessible, citizen-based PM2.5 measurements provides an unprecedented opportunity to characterize Finf at large spatiotemporal scales. In this analysis, 91 consumer-grade PurpleAir indoor/outdoor monitor pairs were identified in California (41 residential houses and 50 public/commercial buildings) during a 20-month period with around 650000 h of paired PM2.5 measurements. An empirical method was developed based on local polynomial regression to estimate site-specific Finf. The estimated site-specific Finf had a mean of 0.26 (25th, 75th percentiles: [0.15, 0.34]) with a mean bootstrap standard deviation of 0.04. The Finf estimates were toward the lower end of those reported previously. A threshold of ambient PM2.5 concentration, approximately 30 µg/m3, below which indoor sources contributed substantially to personal exposures, was also identified. The quantified relationship between indoor source contributions and ambient PM2.5 concentrations could serve as a metric of exposure errors when using outdoor monitors as an exposure proxy (without considering indoor-generated PM2.5), which may be of interest to epidemiological research. The proposed method can be generalized to larger geographical areas to better quantify PM2.5 outdoor infiltration and personal exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145390, 2021 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33545480

RESUMEN

This study investigated the indoor air quality (IAQ) during humid season in an old badminton hall, to explore the IAQ characteristics of natural ventilated sports buildings for public use. The indoor air parameters (temperature, relative humidity and air velocity) and indoor air pollutants (CO2, TVOC, PM2.5 and PM10) were measured. A subjective approach was carried out through questionnaire survey. 185 valid questionnaires were recovered, and 68.7% of the participants had exercised. Results show that the indoor air qualities obtained through objective and subjective approaches were obviously different. Indoor PM, TVOC and CO2 concentrations were normal, but 37.3% of the participants complained about the building materials' smell and 73.5% of the participants reported obvious sweaty odor. Physical activity might reduce a person's sensitivity to the environment. The participants generally felt warm and hot because of the high relative humidity. Post-exercise participants felt significantly hotter than those who did not exercise, and were generally more receptive to IAQ. The method of Fanger was employed to narrow the gap between subjective and objective approaches with a modified parameter, and to furtherly estimate the ventilation. The present study demonstrates the necessity to combine two approaches together to assess the IAQ in sports buildings.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Deportes de Raqueta , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Ventilación
14.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116627, 2021 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33582633

RESUMEN

Concentrations of airborne metal-rich particles are typically higher on subway platforms and in subway tunnels than in ambient air. The subway concourse is an area of direct air exchange with both platforms and the outside environment, but few researchers have measured the concentrations and composition of fine particles on subway concourses. We characterized the concentrations and composition of fine particles on six subway concourses in Nanjing, China in both summer and winter. We used a respiration rate-adjusted microenvironment exposure model to estimate the contribution of a 6-h work period to daily mean exposure to fine particulate matter of subway workers and compared the estimate with those for general indoor and outdoor workers. We found that particle concentrations were typically higher on the station concourses than in ambient air. The most abundant elements composing the particles were Fe, S, Ca, Si, and K in both subway concourses and reference ambient air, but their contents varied greatly between indoor and outdoor air. The indoor/outdoor ratios of Fe, Cu, and Mn were highest, and subway workers were disproportionately exposed to these three metals. The mean daily exposure dose to Fe was 44.8 µg for subway workers, approximately five times the exposure dose of indoor and outdoor workers. Daily exposure doses of Cu, Mn, V, Sr, As, Co, Sn, and Cr were also higher for subway workers. The quality of indoor air at subway stations is therefore of occupational health concern and strategies should be formulated to reduce worker exposure.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Vías Férreas , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 772: 145412, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581534

RESUMEN

To obtain emission factors and cooking-related chemical signatures, a monitoring campaign was carried out in a modern kitchen where different dishes of the Latin cuisine were prepared. Particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were continuously measured. Passive tubes for carbonyls and a high volume PM10 sampler were simultaneously used. PM10 filters were analysed for organic and elemental carbon and for multiple organic compounds, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The toxic potential of PM10 was evaluated using a bioluminescence inhibition bioassay. Acrolein was never detected, while formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels were comparable to those in the background air. The protection limit for TVOCs was always exceeded. Fine particles comprised more than 86% of the PM10 mass concentrations. PM10 emission rates ranged from 124 to 369 µg min-1. Relatively low PAH concentrations were obtained. PM10 encompassed alcohols, acids, plasticisers, alkyl esters, sterols, sugars, polyols, glyceridic compounds, phenolics, among others. Total concentrations were 1.9-5.3 times higher during cooking than in the background air but, for some compounds, differences of tens or hundreds of times were registered. PM10 from grilled pork was found to contribute to non-negligible cancer risks and to be very toxic, while samples from other dishes were categorised as toxic.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Culinaria , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19064-19078, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394430

RESUMEN

Pollutant gas emissions from animal barns affect indoor air quality, the health and well-being of farmers, and the surrounding environment. This study was carried out in four sheep barns (SB) in Bursa, an important region for animal husbandry operations. Concentrations of NH3, CO2, H2S, and CH4 were measured in four sheep barns by monitoring throughout 24 h in 1 year. Pollutant gas emissions from barns were also calculated and modeled. The average pollutant gas emissions obtained in this study were 5 kg day-1 barn-1 for NH3, and 18 kg day-1 barn-1 for CH4. The average NH3 and CH4 emissions from each barn were 2.1 and 2.7 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB1; 9.4 and 12.9 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB2; 4.0 and 3.6 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB3; and 4.5 21 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB4, respectively. There are statistically significant differences between daytime and nighttime for pollutant gas emissions. Pollutant gas emissions in the monitored barns are generally higher in summer than in other seasons. Models for estimating NH3, and CH4 emissions were developed using measured temperature and relative humidity values in the barns. These models can only be used in the Bursa region. The results of this study were compared with other studies under similar conditions in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Amoníaco/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Metano/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Ovinos
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33451100

RESUMEN

Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking with unclean fuels and indoor smoking has become a significant contributor to global mortality and morbidity, especially in low- and middle-income countries such as Nigeria. Growing evidence suggests that exposure to HAP disproportionately affects mothers and children and can increase risks of adverse birth outcomes. We aimed to quantify the association between HAP and adverse birth outcomes of stillbirth, preterm births, and low birth weight while controlling for geographic variability. This study is based on a cross-sectional survey of 127,545 birth records from 41,821 individual women collected as part of the 2018 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) covering 2013-2018. We developed Bayesian structured additive regression models based on Bayesian splines for adverse birth outcomes. Our model includes the mother's level and household characteristics while correcting for spatial effects and multiple births per mother. Model parameters and inferences were based on a fully Bayesian approach via Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulations. We observe that unclean fuel is the primary source of cooking for 89.3% of the 41,821 surveyed women in the 2018 NDHS. Of all pregnancies, 14.9% resulted in at least one adverse birth outcome; 14.3% resulted in stillbirth, 7.3% resulted in an underweight birth, and 1% resulted in premature birth. We found that the risk of stillbirth is significantly higher for mothers using unclean cooking fuel. However, exposure to unclean fuel was not significantly associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. Mothers who attained at least primary education had reduced risk of stillbirth, while the risk of stillbirth increased with the increasing age of the mother. Mothers living in the Northern states had a significantly higher risk of adverse births outcomes in 2018. Our results show that decreasing national levels of adverse birth outcomes depends on working toward addressing the disparities between states.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Nacimiento Prematuro , Contaminación del Aire Interior/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Teorema de Bayes , Niño , Culinaria , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Nigeria/epidemiología , Embarazo , Nacimiento Prematuro/epidemiología
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467564

RESUMEN

The formaldehyde (FA) embalming method, the world's most common protocol for the fixation of cadavers, has been consistently used in medical universities in Myanmar. This study was designed to examine the indoor FA concentrations in anatomy dissection rooms, an exposed site, and lecture theater, an unexposed control site, and to access personal exposure levels of FA and clinical symptoms of medical students and instructors. In total, 208 second year medical students (1/2019 batch) and 18 instructors from Department of Anatomy, University of Medicine 1, participated. Thirteen dissection sessions were investigated from February 2019 to January 2020. Diffusive sampling devices were used as air samplers and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for measurement of FA. Average indoor FA concentration of four dissection rooms was 0.43 (0.09-1.22) ppm and all dissection rooms showed indoor concentrations above the occupational exposure limits and short-term exposure limit for general population. Personal FA exposure values were higher than indoor FA concentrations and the instructors (0.68, 0.04-2.11 ppm) had higher exposure than the students (0.44, 0.06-1.72 ppm). Unpleasant odor, eye and nose irritations and inability to concentrate were frequently reported FA-related symptoms, and the students were found to have significantly higher risks (p < 0.05) of having these symptoms during the dissection sessions than during lecture.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Exposición Profesional , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Disección , Formaldehído/efectos adversos , Formaldehído/análisis , Humanos , Laboratorios , Mianmar , Hipersensibilidad Respiratoria
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 145304, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513497

RESUMEN

Indoor air pollution has significant adverse health impacts, but its spatiotemporal variations and source contributions are not well quantified. In this study, we used low-cost sensors to measure PM2.5 concentrations in a typical apartment in Beijing. The measurements were conducted at 15 indoor sites and one outdoor site on 1-minute temporal resolution (convert to 10-minute averages for data analysis) from March 14 to 24, 2020. Based on these highly spatially-and temporally-resolved data, we characterized spatiotemporal variations and source contributions of indoor PM2.5 in this apartment. It was found that indoor particulate matter predominantly originates from outdoor infiltration and cooking emissions with the latter contributing more fine particles. Indoor PM2.5 concentrations were found to be correlated with ambient levels but were generally lower than those outdoors with an average I/O of 0.85. The predominant indoor source was cooking, leading to occasional high spikes. The variations observed in most rooms lagged behind those measured outdoors and in the studied kitchen. Differences between rooms were found to depend on pathway distances from sources. On average, outdoor sources contributed 36% of indoor PM2.5, varying extensively over time and among rooms. From observed PM2.5 concentrations at the indoor sites, source strengths, and pathway distances, a multivariate regression model was developed to predict spatiotemporal variations of PM2.5. The model explains 79% of the observed variation and can be used to dynamically simulate PM2.5 concentrations at any site indoors. The model's simplicity suggests the potential for regional-scale application for indoor air quality modeling.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Beijing , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Tamaño de la Partícula , Material Particulado/análisis
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 770: 144571, 2021 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33515873

RESUMEN

Concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs), which are used in various plastic products, were analyzed in house dust samples collected from three Korean cities (Suwon, n = 23; Jeonju, n = 20; Kunsan, n = 42). OPFRs, including tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), were detected in 95%-100% of the samples analyzed, suggesting the widespread use of these compounds in Korea. The levels of TCEP, TCPP, and TDCPP in Suwon, Jeonju, and Kunsan ranged from the limit of quantitation to 46,000, 28,000, and 2400 ng/g, respectively. The concentrations of all OPFRs were significantly higher in house dust samples from Suwon than from Jeonju and Kunsan; this is likely due to the increased use of these compounds in Suwon, which may be associated with the number, volume, and variety of household products in homes. In Korean homes, the estimated daily intake (EDI) of OPFRs through house dust ingestion was lower than the guideline values; however, the EDI of OPFRs for toddlers was 30-fold greater than for adults, suggesting a limited risk to human health. This is the first comprehensive study of the occurrence and distribution of OPFRs in house dust in Korea.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire Interior , Retardadores de Llama , Adulto , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Retardadores de Llama/análisis , Humanos , Organofosfatos/análisis , Compuestos Organofosforados/análisis , República de Corea
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