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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(6): 325, 2020 May 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32363409

RESUMEN

The recent epidemic of the new SARS-CoV-2 in the northern regions of Italy is putting the organization of the Italian health system under serious attack. The current emergency requires all possible efforts to stem the spread of the virus. In this context, it is clear that we have the urgent need to rely upon etiopathogenetic data, in order to do all possible efforts to block the epidemic. However, observing the trend of the infections in China and the geographic areas of the main outbreaks, it could be hypothesized that air pollution plays a role. In particular, it has been previously demonstrated, in specific populations, a role of particulate matter in worsening clinical presentation of virus infection in airways. Without prejudice to the ascertained virus spread by air droplets or contaminated surfaces, the factors that could have favored its spread remain to be investigated. Moreover, if these observations were to be confirmed, when the health emergency is resolved, it will be mandatory to redesign an economic-productive model in balance with the environment.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
2.
Environ Pollut ; 261: 114465, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32268945

RESUMEN

This paper investigates the correlation between the high level of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) lethality and the atmospheric pollution in Northern Italy. Indeed, Lombardy and Emilia Romagna are Italian regions with both the highest level of virus lethality in the world and one of Europe's most polluted area. Based on this correlation, this paper analyzes the possible link between pollution and the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome and eventually death. We provide evidence that people living in an area with high levels of pollutant are more prone to develop chronic respiratory conditions and suitable to any infective agent. Moreover, a prolonged exposure to air pollution leads to a chronic inflammatory stimulus, even in young and healthy subjects. We conclude that the high level of pollution in Northern Italy should be considered an additional co-factor of the high level of lethality recorded in that area.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/mortalidad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/mortalidad , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/metabolismo , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/mortalidad
3.
West Afr J Med ; 37(2): 152-158, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have linked morbidity and mortality of individuals to exposure to atmospheric gaseous and particulate matter especially fine particles (PM2.5) and coarse particles (PM10).The process of garri (cassava crisps) production (frying with firewood) is associated with production of gaseous and particulate matter which contribute to ambient particulate matter air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of air quality indices on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the garri processing workers in Ogbomoso. METHODOLOGY: A comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 351 garri processing workers in Ogbomoso as subjects and 351 residents of Ogbomoso metropolis as controls that were age, sex and height-matched. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain sociodemographic profiles and respiratory symptoms of participants and document physical examination findings. Particulate matter counter was used for air quality sampling. RESULTS: The mean age of subjects was 41.7 ± 14.9 years and that of controls was 41.6 ± 14.7 years (p =0.960). The two groups were also matched for socioeconomic status, sex and height. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms was higher at 48.4% among the garri workers than the control group which was 29.1% (p<0.001). Cough was the predominant symptom with a prevalence of 29.3% and 10.5% among the subjects and controls respectively. The mean count of PM1.0 in garri processing locations was significantly higher than that recorded in Ogbomoso metropolis; 73.77±42.08 vs 15.04±6.66mg/m3 (p<0.0001). CONCLUSION: Garri processing work is associated with significant increase in ambient air pollution and increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms among the workforce compared to the control population. Effective preventive strategies including education and provision of safety masks may reduce the occupational hazards associated with garri processing factory workers in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Estudios Transversales , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia
4.
Chemosphere ; 250: 126223, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113098

RESUMEN

Air quality in large cities has worsened in recent years as a consequence people's health is directly affected. Among the toxic compounds released to environmental air are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs). Performant methods to analyze these compounds is necessary to enable adequate monitoring of air quality. Thus, this manuscript presents the development of a highly sensitive method to analyze PAHs, nitro-PAHs, and oxy-PAHs collected from ambient air (PM2.5) and the gas phase for a period of one year in the urban area of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. PAHs and their derivatives were extracted by cold fiber solid phase microextraction (CF-SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The proposed method allows simultaneous analysis of 16 PAHs, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs, presenting very good limits of detection and quantification, as well as appropriate precision and recovery. The results obtained for the period of one year allowed different studies. The compounds collected simultaneously from gas and particulate phase showed that total concentration of 16 PAHs were higher in the gas phase than in the particulate. On the other hand, nitro-PAHs and oxy-PAHs presented similar concentration in gas and particulate phases. The potential carcinogenicity of PAHs relative to benzo[a]pyrene showed benzo[a]pyrene equivalents of 0.49 ng m-3. The estimated risk of lifetime lung cancer was 5 × 10-5. Principal component analysis and diagnostic ratio was applied for source distribution indicating that burning of gasoline, diesel and biomass accounted for the PAHs profile in ambient air samples.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Benzo(a)pireno/análisis , Brasil , Respiración de la Célula , Ciudades , Polvo/análisis , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas/métodos , Gasolina/análisis , Humanos , Nitratos/química , Óxidos de Nitrógeno/análisis , Oxígeno/química , Material Particulado/análisis , Microextracción en Fase Sólida
5.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126515, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220684

RESUMEN

Air quality models have been used in health studies to provide spatial and temporal information of various air pollutants. Model resolution is an important factor affecting the accuracy of exposure assessment using model predictions. In this study, the WRF/CMAQ model system was applied to quantitatively estimate the impacts of the model resolution on the predictions of air quality and associated health exposure in Nanjing, China in 2016. Air quality was simulated with a grid resolution of 1, 4, 12, and 36 km respectively. Predictions with 1 or 4 km resolution are slightly better for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and its compositions and predictions with 12 km are slightly better for daily 8-h maximum ozone (O3-8 h). Model resolution does not significantly improve predictions for PM2.5 and O3-8 h in Nanjing, however, the spatial distributions of PM2.5 and O3-8 h are better captured with finer resolutions. Population weighted concentrations (PWCs) of PM2.5 with different model resolutions are similar to the average of observations, but PWCs of O3-8 h with all resolutions are obviously larger than the observations, indicating that the current sites may well represent the population exposure to PM2.5, but under-estimate the exposure to O3. Model resolution results in about 6% in the estimated premature mortality due to exposure to PM2.5 but more than 20% difference in premature mortality due to exposure to O3. Future studies are needed to evaluate the impacts of the resolution on the exposure of PM2.5 compositions in the city scale when PM2.5 composition measurements available at multiple sites.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China , Ciudades , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Predicción , Humanos , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
6.
Nature ; 578(7794): 261-265, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32051602

RESUMEN

Outdoor air pollution adversely affects human health and is estimated to be responsible for five to ten per cent of the total annual premature mortality in the contiguous United States1-3. Combustion emissions from a variety of sources, such as power generation or road traffic, make a large contribution to harmful air pollutants such as ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5)4. Efforts to mitigate air pollution have focused mainly on the relationship between local emission sources and local air quality2. Air quality can also be affected by distant emission sources, however, including emissions from neighbouring federal states5,6. This cross-state exchange of pollution poses additional regulatory challenges. Here we quantify the exchange of air pollution among the contiguous United States, and assess its impact on premature mortality that is linked to increased human exposure to PM2.5 and ozone from seven emission sectors for 2005 to 2018. On average, we find that 41 to 53 per cent of air-quality-related premature mortality resulting from a state's emissions occurs outside that state. We also find variations in the cross-state contributions of different emission sectors and chemical species to premature mortality, and changes in these variations over time. Emissions from electric power generation have the greatest cross-state impacts as a fraction of their total impacts, whereas commercial/residential emissions have the smallest. However, reductions in emissions from electric power generation since 2005 have meant that, by 2018, cross-state premature mortality associated with the commercial/residential sector was twice that associated with power generation. In terms of the chemical species emitted, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emissions caused the most cross-state premature deaths in 2005, but by 2018 primary PM2.5 emissions led to cross-state premature deaths equal to three times those associated with sulfur dioxide emissions. These reported shifts in emission sectors and emission species that contribute to premature mortality may help to guide improvements to air quality in the contiguous United States.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad Prematura , Adulto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
7.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126120, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32062209

RESUMEN

We examined the main effects of ambient particulate matters, as well as whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located within ABO gene would modify the relationship. Data were collected from a family-based study conducted in Northern China. A generalized additive model with a Gaussian link and with each family as a stratum was applied to estimate the percentage change in blood lipid levels following a 10 µg/m3 increase in ambient particulate matter concentrations. Interaction analyses were conducted by including a cross-product term of PM2.5 or PM10 by SNP. Results showed that a 10 µg/m3 increase in Particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm (PM2.5) concentrations corresponded to the highest 0.010% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.018%), 0.018% (95% CI: 0.006%-0.029%), 0.019% (95% CI: 0.010%-0.029%) increase in total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively and 0.005% (95% CI: 0.002%-0.008%) decrease in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C)-to-LDL-C ratio. As for the PM10, similar results were observed. Furthermore, our finding showed an interaction effect of PM10 and rs505922/rs579459 C allele on TG. Specifically, individuals carrying the rs505922 and rs579459 T allele have higher TG concentrations following PM10 exposure, with a 10 µg/m3 increase in PM10 concentrations corresponding to the highest 0.028% and 0.034% increase in TG, respectively. In conclusion, short-term exposures to ambient particulate matters are associated with a higher blood lipid level, which can be modified by ABO polymorphism. The findings may be useful in identifying vulnerable population according to genetic background.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Humanos , Lípidos/análisis , Lípidos/sangre , Persona de Mediana Edad , Material Particulado/análisis , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
8.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126194, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086065

RESUMEN

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitro- (NPAHs) and oxy-derivatives (OPAHs) are of considerable concern due to their toxicity and carcinogenic hazards. Ships are recognized as an important emission source of these compounds. Marine diesel oil (MDO) and heavy fuel oil (HFO) are the two most commonly used fuels. The emission characteristics and toxicities of PM2.5-bound PAHs, NPAHs and OPAHs due to HFO and MDO combustion in atypical ocean-going vessel were investigated. The EF variability of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) varied considerably with the fuel formulation (HFO and MDO) and engine loading (20%-100%). The concentration of ΣPACs was 0.63 mg/kWh for MDO and ranged from 2.14 to 9.80 mg/kWh for HFO. Compared to HFO-20%, the EFs of ΣPAHs, ΣNPAHs and ΣOPAHs from MDO-20% were reduced by 97%, 77% and 73%, respectively. As identified through the coefficient of divergence, the profile of HFO-20% was notably different from those under the other three engine loadings for HFO. In addition, the emissions of ΣPAHs and ΣOPAHs showed a significant correlation with PM2.5, while they were relatively weak for ΣNPAHs. However, the CO and PAC emissions were not highly correlated. Furthermore, the BaPeq-ΣPAHs values were 0.010 mg/g for MDO and ranged from 0.092 mg/g to 0.306 mg/g for HFO, and the reduction ranged from 89% to 97% by substituting MDO for HFO. These data highlight the importance of improving fuel quality in close proximity to port areas and are useful for enhancing relevant databases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Emisiones de Vehículos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Aeronaves , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aceites Combustibles , Gasolina , Océanos y Mares , Material Particulado/análisis , Compuestos Policíclicos , Navíos/estadística & datos numéricos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228535, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32069301

RESUMEN

National-scale empirical models for air pollution can include hundreds of geographic variables. The impact of model parsimony (i.e., how model performance differs for a large versus small number of covariates) has not been systematically explored. We aim to (1) build annual-average integrated empirical geographic (IEG) regression models for the contiguous U.S. for six criteria pollutants during 1979-2015; (2) explore systematically the impact on model performance of the number of variables selected for inclusion in a model; and (3) provide publicly available model predictions. We compute annual-average concentrations from regulatory monitoring data for PM10, PM2.5, NO2, SO2, CO, and ozone at all monitoring sites for 1979-2015. We also use ~350 geographic characteristics at each location including measures of traffic, land use, land cover, and satellite-based estimates of air pollution. We then develop IEG models, employing universal kriging and summary factors estimated by partial least squares (PLS) of geographic variables. For all pollutants and years, we compare three approaches for choosing variables to include in the PLS model: (1) no variables, (2) a limited number of variables selected from the full set by forward selection, and (3) all variables. We evaluate model performance using 10-fold cross-validation (CV) using conventional and spatially-clustered test data. Models using 3 to 30 variables selected from the full set generally have the best performance across all pollutants and years (median R2 conventional [clustered] CV: 0.66 [0.47]) compared to models with no (0.37 [0]) or all variables (0.64 [0.27]). Concentration estimates for all Census Blocks reveal generally decreasing concentrations over several decades with local heterogeneity. Our findings suggest that national prediction models can be built by empirically selecting only a small number of important variables to provide robust concentration estimates. Model estimates are freely available online.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Estadísticos , Contaminación del Aire/historia , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/historia , Geografía , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Análisis de Regresión , Análisis Espacial , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Factores de Tiempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125913, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31962222

RESUMEN

Emerging epidemiologic studies suggested that particulate matter (PM) was a risk factor for the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies were conducted to examine whether PM was associated with cause-specific deaths in the CKD progression. This study aimed to estimate the association between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and a spectrum of deaths among CKD patients. We took leverage of the Elderly Health Service cohort (n = 66,820), a large Hong Kong elderly cohort followed up till 2010. A total of 902 CKD incident patients in the cohort were identified during the follow-up period. We estimated yearly PM2.5 at the residential address for each CKD patient based on a satellite-based spatiotemporal model. We used Cox proportional hazards models with attained age as the underlying timescale to assess the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and cause-specific mortality among CKD patients. A total of 496 patients died during the follow-up, where 147 died from cardiovascular disease, 61 from respiratory disease and 154 from renal failure. The mortality hazard ratio (HR) per interquartile-range increase in PM2.5 (4.0 µg/m3) was 1.97 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34 to 2.91) for ischemic heart disease (IHD) among CKD patients, and was 1.42 (95%CI: 1.05 to 1.93) for CKD among those patients concomitantly with hypertension. Associations were not of statistical significance between PM2.5 and mortality hazard ratios of all-cause, stroke, and pneumonia among CKD patients. Our findings suggest that long-term exposure to PM2.5 may contribute to the CKD progression into ischemic heart diseases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Material Particulado/química , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/mortalidad , Anciano , Contaminación del Aire/efectos adversos , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Causas de Muerte , Estudios de Cohortes , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Material Particulado/análisis , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Insuficiencia Renal Crónica/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Respiratorias/inducido químicamente , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
11.
Chemosphere ; 247: 125918, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31978659

RESUMEN

Atmospheric particulate matters have a crucial impact on climate change, visibility and human health. In this study, a detailed characteristic of summertime PM1 was real-time measured in south suburb of Beijing from 16th August to 16th September 2018. Averaged PM1 concentration of 24.1 ± 18.0 µg m-3 was observed, consisting of OM (50.8%), SO42- (16.0%), BC (13.2%), NO3- (10.2%), NH4+ (9.2%), and Cl- (0.6%). There was an accumulation mode with a peak diameter of ∼500 nm for all the species (except BC), and OM was additionally characterized by a smaller mode of <100 nm. Elemental analysis of OM showed that the diurnal variations of H/C, O/C, N/C, and S/C were correlated to the photochemical and aqueous-phase process. Four organic factors including one hydrocarbon-like (HOA) and three oxygenated (LO-OOA, SV-OOA and MO-OOA) organic aerosol factors were identified by positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis. The contributions of these factors varied with PM1 concentration and their average values were 31%, 30%, 14%, and 25%, respectively. Contribution of HOA was RH-independent but decreased with the increasing PM1 concentration, while OOA factors were a combined result of RH and Ox (=O3+NO2), revealing the important role of photochemical and aqueous-phase process in OA evolution. The contribution of SV-OOA with the highest S/C increased significantly with RH, indicating a certain number of S-containing organics. Our results also showed that secondary OA was the dominant species, as well as increased with the pollution level, implicating VOCs and NOx should be controlled to relieve the secondary OA pollution.


Asunto(s)
Aerosoles/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Beijing , Hidrocarburos/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 90, 2020 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31902018

RESUMEN

Owing to the rise in population, lifestyle changes, high traffic rates in urban areas and environmental pollution, respiratory diseases have become much more prevalent on both regional and urban scales. Respiratory diseases affect over 300 million people worldwide and are thus among the major threats to humans' general well-being. The identification of underlying factors and the specification of accompanying risk areas for the temporal exacerbation of respiratory diseases are effective steps in managing the damage caused by such disorders. Here, we demonstrate a strategy for modelling the risk zone of respiratory diseases temporally, using a location-based social network (LBSN) and an artificial neural network (ANN). The main contribution of this paper is to consider the environmental and infrastructural factors and identify their relationships with the geographical locations of respiratory attacks. The study also utilizes Telegram, which is the most popular and conventional social media platform, in order to observe temporal changes in the location of respiratory attacks in Iran, in the form of a developed Telegram bot known as @respiratoryassociation. The relations between the factors behind and the location of respiratory attacks are determined using a multilayer perceptron (MLP) ANN. All the required data have been collected on a daily basis over a 5-year period from December 2013 to December 2018 in Tehran, Iran. The results indicated air pollution, especially pollution from carbon monoxide (CO) and suspended particulate matter (PM) as the most decisive factors. Following air pollution, the amount of exposure to the polluted area was determined as the second most decisive factor, which in turn increased as a result of escalations in traffic jams. Land use was determined as the third most decisive factor. Furthermore, the results revealed that the ANN performed satisfactorily, implying that the model can be used to examine the spatio-temporal behaviour of the time series of respiratory diseases with respect to environmental and infrastructural factors.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monóxido de Carbono , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Irán , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Material Particulado/análisis , Prevalencia
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(2): 116, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31942665

RESUMEN

Serious air pollution motivates governments to take control measures. However, specific emission reduction effects of various temporary emission reduction policies are difficult to evaluate. During the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation meeting in Beijing in 2014, the Chinese government implemented a number of emergency emission control measures in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area to maintain the air quality in this region. This gave us an opportunity to quantify the effectiveness of the emission reduction measures separately and identify the efficient policy combinations for the reduction of major pollutants. In this study, we evaluated the impacts of specific emission reduction measures on the concentrations of two major air pollutants (PM2.5 and O3) under eight policy scenarios using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem). Comparing these scenarios, we found that the control policies against the primary PM2.5 emission achieved the most significant results. Meanwhile, all the emission control measures raised the ozone concentrations in different degrees, which might be partly attributed to the changes of PM2.5 concentration and the ratio of NOx and VOCs caused by the emission control measures. Our results suggest that, in VOC-sensitive areas like Beijing, emergency control measures focusing on primary PM2.5 emission could lead to significant PM2.5 reduction and relatively small ozone increase, and should be considered as a priority policy. Joint emission control at the regional scale is also important especially under unfavorable meteorological conditions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Política Ambiental , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Asia , Beijing , China , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Ozono/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis
14.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125767, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927371

RESUMEN

In this study, in situ observations were conducted for six criteria air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) at 23 sites in western China for 1 year. Subsequently, the detailed Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) results for the pollutants were determined. The WRF-Chem model provided a clear perspective on the spatiotemporal distribution of air pollutants. High pollutant concentrations were mainly observed over highly populated mega-city regions, such as Sichuan and Guanzhong basins, whereas low concentration levels were observed over the Tibetan Plateau (TP). The TP also showed an increased concentration of O3. Seasonally, all six pollutants except O3 exhibited high concentration values during winter and low values during summer. O3 concentrations exhibited an opposite seasonal variation in low-altitude regions. Unlike other pollutants that exhibited gradually decreasing concentrations with an increase in altitude, O3 concentrations revealed an increasing trend. Furthermore, NO2 concentrations gradually increased in the upper atmosphere possibly due to lighting and stratospheric transmission. Atmospheric pollution is closely related to emissions and meteorological variations in western China. Meteorological conditions in the summer are conducive to pollutant dispersion and wet scavenging; however, unfavourable weather conditions (high pressure as well as a low planetary boundary layer height and precipitation level) in the winter can further worsen air pollution. Atmospheric pollutants from various emission sectors generally exhibited varying monthly profiles. In six typical cities, pollutants were positively correlated with multiple emission sources except for industrial emissions. Further sensitivity simulations indicated that eliminating residential emissions resulted in the largest decrease (up to 70%) in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. The most significant reductions in the concentrations of SO2 and NO2 were achieved by eliminating industrial and transportation emissions, respectively. The outcomes of this study could be helpful for future studies on pollution formation mechanisms as well as environmental and health risk assessments in western China.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Atmósfera , China , Ciudades , Clima , Meteorología , Material Particulado/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Emisiones de Vehículos , Tiempo (Meteorología)
15.
Chemosphere ; 246: 125826, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918112

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The emerging cases of childhood scarlet fever (SF) and worsening air pollution problems in Chinese cities suggests a potential linkage between them. However, few studies had explored this association in a large childhood population. METHODS: We conducted a time-series analysis using the daily count of SF and the daily concentrations of particulate matters with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 (PM2.5) and 10 (PM10), as well as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in Hangzhou, China from 2014 to 2018. Distributed lag nonlinear models were used to estimate the lag effects of PM2.5, PM10 and NO2 for a maximum lag of 10 days, which were quantified using relative risk (RR) comparing the adjusted risks at the 2.5th (extremely low effect) and 97.5th (extremely high effect) percentiles of concentration of the three air pollutants to that at the median. Stratified RRs by sex were also reported. RESULTS: Using the median concentration as reference, for extremely high effect, the RR was the highest on lag days 5, 6, and 3 for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 respectively. While on lag day 0, the RR of PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 were 1.04 (95%CI: 0.90-1.20), 1.07 (95%CI: 0.92-1.24), and 1.08 (95%CI: 0.92-1.26) respectively, the RRs increased constantly and cumulatively to the maximum values of 1.88 (95%CI: 1.33-2.66), 1.82 (95%CI: 1.29-2.55), and 2.19 (95%CI: 1.47-3.27) for PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 respectively on lag day 10. Subgroup analyses showed that females appeared to be more vulnerable to the three pollutants than males. CONCLUSION: Our study provides evidence that PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 exert delayed effects on SF infection.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Escarlatina/epidemiología , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Niño , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Riesgo
16.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125196, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31896208

RESUMEN

Lanzhou, an ex-heavily polluted city, was awarded "The Award for Today's Transformative Step" in 2015 World Climate Conference at Paris for its great efforts on air quality improvement since 2012. However, the health benefits from this improvement remain unclear. Therefore, we collected time-series data covering deaths, weather variables and air pollutants during the two periods (2004-2009, 2014-2017) and fitted single-pollutant models using the generalized additive models to evaluate the change of mortality risks associated with air pollutants in Lanzhou. Results showed that the annual average concentrations of respirable particulate matter (PM10) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) dropped by 19.28% and 66.29%, while the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) increased by 16.61% in 2014-2017 compared to 2004-2009. During the period 2004-2009, we found a 10-µg/m3 increase in PM10 (lag 2), SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 0-5) were associated with mortality increments of 0.12% (95% CI: 0.01, 0.22), 0.86% (95% CI: 0.42, 1.31) and 1.29% (95% CI: 0.70, 1.90), respectively. During the period 2014-2017, the association between PM10 and daily deaths was not significant, but we observed a 10-µg/m3 increase in SO2 (lag 0-5) and NO2 (lag 4) were related to mortality increments of 4.23% (95% CI: 1.82, 6.70) and 0.85% (95% CI: 0.19, 1.52), respectively. From 2004-2009 to 2014-2017, we observed markedly decline of mortality risk due to PM10, but not SO2 or NO2. In conclusion, the mortality risk of PM10 in Lanzhou has declined obviously after the substantially improved air quality due to the enforcement of air pollution controlling policies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , China/epidemiología , Clima , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Dióxido de Azufre/análisis , Tiempo (Meteorología)
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135538, 2020 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759725

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study was to assess the impact to human health of air pollutants, through the integration of different technics: data statistics (spatial and temporal trends), population attributable fraction using AIRQ+ model developed by the WHO, and burden of disease using Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs). The levels of SO2, NO, NO2, O3, H2S, benzene, PM10, PM2.5, CO, benzo(a)pyrene and metals, obtained between 2005 and 2017 from the air quality monitoring network across Camp de Tarragona County, were temporally and spatially determined. Health impacts were evaluated using the AIRQ+ model. Finally, the burden of disease was assessed through the calculation of Years of Lost life (YLL) and Years Lost due to Disability (YLD). In general terms, air quality was good according to European quality standards, but it did not fulfil the WHO guidelines, especially for O3, PM10 and PM2.5. Several decreasing (NO, NO2, SO2, PM10 and benzene) and an increasing (O3) temporal trend were found. Correlation between unemployment rate and air pollutant levels was found, pointing that the economic crisis (2008-2014) was a factor influencing the air pollutant levels. Reduction of air pollutant levels (PM2.5) to WHO guidelines in the Camp de Tarragona County would decrease the adult mortality between 23 and 297 cases per year, which means between 0.5 and 7% of all mortality in the area. In this County, for lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, stroke, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to levels of PM2.5 above the WHO threshold limits, DAYLs were 240 years. This means around 80 DALYs for 100,000 persons every year -between 2005 and 2017. Population attributable fraction (PAF) and burden of disease (DALYs) methodologies are suitable tools for regional and national policymakers, who must take decisions to prevent and to control air pollution and to analyse the cost-effectiveness of interventions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Costo de Enfermedad , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Femenino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiología , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/epidemiología , Material Particulado/análisis , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/epidemiología , España/epidemiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 703: 135523, 2020 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767293

RESUMEN

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancers are among the leading causes of mortality worldwide. Many environmental factors have been linked to COPD and TBL cancers. This study examined the associations of cumulative environmental quality indices with COPD mortality and TBL cancers mortality, respectively. Environmental Quality Index (EQI) was constructed to represent cumulative environmental quality for the overall environment and 5 major environmental domains (e.g., air, water, built). Associations of each EQI indices with COPD mortality and TBL cancers mortality, across 3109 counties in the 48 contiguous states of the US, were examined using simultaneous autoregressive (SAR) models. Stratified analyses were conducted in females versus males and according to rural-urban continuum codes (RUCC) to assess the heterogeneity across the overall population. Overall poor environmental quality was associated with a percent difference (PD) of 0.75 [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.46, 1.05] in COPD mortality and an PD of 1.22 (95% CI, 0.97, 1.46) in TBL cancers mortality. PDs were higher in females than in males for both COPD and TBL cancers. The built domain had the largest effect on COPD mortality (PD, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.58, 1.12) while the air domain had the largest effect on TBL cancers mortality (PD, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.31, 1.76). The EQI-mortality associations varied among different RUCCs, but no consistent trend was found. This result suggests that poor environmental quality, particularly poor air quality and built environment quality may increase the mortality risk for COPD and that for TBL cancers. Females appear to be more susceptible to the effect of cumulative environmental quality. Our findings highlight the importance of improving overall and domain-specific cumulative environmental quality in reducing COPD and TBL cancer mortalities in the United States.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedad Pulmonar Obstructiva Crónica/mortalidad , Neoplasias del Sistema Respiratorio/mortalidad , Neoplasias de los Bronquios/mortalidad , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Neoplasias de la Tráquea/mortalidad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
19.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113434, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672350

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little information exists on interaction effects between air pollution and influenza vaccination on allergic respiratory diseases. We conducted a large population-based study to evaluate the interaction effects between influenza vaccination and long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on allergic respiratory diseases in children and adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was investigated during 2012-2013 in 94 schools from Seven Northeastern Cities (SNEC) in China. Questionnaires surveys were obtained from 56 137 children and adolescents aged 2-17 years. Influenza vaccination was defined as receipt of the influenza vaccine. We estimated air pollutants exposure [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters ≤1 µm (PM1), ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) and ≤10 µm (PM10)] using machine learning methods. We employed two-level generalized linear mix effects model to examine interactive effects between influenza vaccination and air pollution exposure on allergic respiratory diseases (asthma, asthma-related symptoms and allergic rhinitis), after controlling for important covariates. RESULTS: We found statistically significant interactions between influenza vaccination and air pollutants on allergic respiratory diseases and related symptoms (doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze, wheeze, persistent phlegm and allergic rhinitis). The adjusted ORs for doctor-diagnosed asthma, current wheeze and allergic rhinitis among the unvaccinated group per interquartile range (IQR) increase in PM1 and PM2.5 were significantly higher than the corresponding ORs among the vaccinated group [For PM1, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.89 (95%CI: 1.57-2.27) vs 1.65 (95%CI: 1.36-2.00); current wheeze: OR: 1.50 (95%CI: 1.22-1.85) vs 1.10 (95%CI: 0.89-1.37); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.38 (95%CI: 1.15-1.66) vs 1.21 (95%CI: 1.00-1.46). For PM2.5, doctor-diagnosed asthma: OR: 1.81 (95%CI: 1.52-2.14) vs 1.57 (95%CI: 1.32-1.88); current wheeze: OR: 1.46 (95%CI: 1.21-1.76) vs 1.11 (95%CI: 0.91-1.35); allergic rhinitis: OR: 1.35 (95%CI: 1.14-1.60) vs 1.19 (95%CI: 1.00-1.42)]. The similar patterns were observed for wheeze and persistent phlegm. The corresponding p values for interactions were less than 0.05, respectively. We assessed the risks of PM1-related and PM2.5-related current wheeze were decreased by 26.67% (95%CI: 1.04%-45.66%) and 23.97% (95%CI: 0.21%-42.08%) respectively, which was attributable to influenza vaccination (both p for efficiency <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Influenza vaccination may play an important role in mitigating the detrimental effects of long-term exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood allergic respiratory diseases. Policy targeted at increasing influenza vaccination may yield co-benefits in terms of reduced allergic respiratory diseases.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades Respiratorias/epidemiología , Adolescente , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Asma/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , China , Ciudades , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/epidemiología , Gripe Humana , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Material Particulado/análisis , Trastornos Respiratorios , Ruidos Respiratorios , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Vacunación
20.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113422, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31672364

RESUMEN

Evidence suggests that residential greenness may be protective of high blood pressure, but there is scarcity of evidence on the associations between greenness around schools and blood pressure among children. We aimed to investigate this association in China. Our study included 9354 children from 62 schools in the Seven Northeastern Cities Study. Greenness around each child's school was measured by NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and SAVI (Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index). Particulate matter ≤ 1 µm (PM1) concentrations were estimated by spatiotemporal models and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were collected from air monitoring stations. Associations between greenness and blood pressure were determined by generalized linear and logistic mixed-effect models. Mediation by air pollution was assessed using mediation analysis. Higher greenness was consistently associated with lower blood pressure. An increase of 0.1 in NDVI corresponded to a reduction in SBP of 1.39 mmHg (95% CI: 1.86, -0.93) and lower odds of hypertension (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.69, 0.82). Stronger associations were observed in children with higher BMI. Ambient PM1 and NO2 mediated 33.0% and 10.9% of the association between greenness and SBP, respectively. In summary, greater greenness near schools had a beneficial effect on blood pressure, particularly in overweight or obese children in China. The associations might be partially mediated by air pollution. These results might have implications for policy makers to incorporate more green space for both aesthetic and health benefits.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales/estadística & datos numéricos , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Desarrollo Sostenible , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/estadística & datos numéricos , Presión Sanguínea , Niño , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Dióxido de Nitrógeno/análisis , Obesidad , Material Particulado/análisis , Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas
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