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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 63(3): 350-357, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32769321

RESUMEN

Declared as a pandemic by WHO on March 11, 2020, COVID-19 has brought about a dramatic change in the working of different laboratories across the country. Diagnostic laboratories testing different types of samples play a vital role in the treatment management. Irrespective of their size, each laboratory has to follow strict biosafety guidelines. Different sections of the laboratory receive samples that are variably infectious. Each sample needs to undergo a proper and well-designed processing system so that the personnel involved are not infected and also their close contacts. It takes a huge effort so as to limit the risk of exposure of the working staff during the collection, processing, reporting or dispatching of biohazard samples. Guidelines help in preventing the laboratory staff and healthcare workers from contracting the disease which has a known human to human route of transmission and high rate of mortality. A well-knit approach is the need of the hour to combat this fast spreading disease. We anticipate that the guidelines described in this article will be useful for continuing safe work practices by all the laboratories in the country.


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Exposición Profesional/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Betacoronavirus , Desinfección/métodos , Guías como Asunto , Sustancias Peligrosas , Personal de Salud/normas , Humanos , Laboratorios/normas , Patólogos/normas , Administración de Residuos/métodos
2.
Viruses ; 12(7)2020 07 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646015

RESUMEN

Standard precautions to minimize the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission implies that infected cell cultures and clinical specimens may undergo some sort of inactivation to reduce or abolish infectivity. We evaluated three heat inactivation protocols (56 °C-30 min, 60 °C-60 min and 92 °C-15 min) on SARS-CoV-2 using (i) infected cell culture supernatant, (ii) virus-spiked human sera (iii) and nasopharyngeal samples according to the recommendations of the European norm NF EN 14476-A2. Regardless of the protocol and the type of samples, a 4 Log10 TCID50 reduction was observed. However, samples containing viral loads > 6 Log10 TCID50 were still infectious after 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min, although infectivity was < 10 TCID50. The protocols 56 °C-30 min and 60 °C-60 min had little influence on the RNA copies detection, whereas 92 °C-15 min drastically reduced the limit of detection, which suggests that this protocol should be avoided for inactivation ahead of molecular diagnostics. Lastly, 56 °C-30 min treatment of serum specimens had a negligible influence on the results of IgG detection using a commercial ELISA test, whereas a drastic decrease in neutralizing titers was observed.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Pruebas Serológicas/métodos , Inactivación de Virus , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Ensayo de Inmunoadsorción Enzimática , Calor , Humanos , Pruebas de Neutralización , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Pruebas Serológicas/normas
3.
J Gen Intern Med ; 35(9): 2732-2737, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661930

RESUMEN

Hospitalists are well poised to serve in key leadership roles and in frontline care in particular when facing a pandemic such as the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection. Much of the disaster planning in hospitals around the country addresses overcrowded emergency departments and decompressing these locations; however, in the case of COVID-19, intensive care units, emergency departments, and medical wards ran the risk of being overwhelmed by a large influx of patients needing high-level medical care. In a matter of days, our Division of Hospital Medicine, in partnership with our hospital, health system, and academic institution, was able to modify and deploy existing disaster plans to quickly care for an influx of medically complex patients. We describe a scaled approach to managing hospitalist clinical operations during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Creación de Capacidad/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Planificación en Desastres/métodos , Médicos Hospitalarios , Hospitales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Creación de Capacidad/tendencias , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/tendencias , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Planificación en Desastres/tendencias , Médicos Hospitalarios/tendencias , Hospitales/tendencias , Humanos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología
4.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S48-S51, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592837

RESUMEN

COVID-19 poses a great challenge to clinical and diagnostic services around the world. The need of biosafety practices can never be emphasised more than under current circumstances. The four pillars of biosafety namely, leadership, standard operating procedures, personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls must be employed for effective and safe practices in the clinical setting in general and laboratory settings in particular. Risk assessment must be carried out before meeting up the diagnostic challenge for COVID-19 and essential biorisk management measures are required to be taken. In our resource-poor settings, we need to adapt safe but cost-effective and improvised solutions to ensure safe handling of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients in the laboratories. The correct use of PPE and their suitable alternatives are available for selection and use. Disinfection of the lab areas and safe disposal of the clinical samples from such patients is also of paramount importance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Laboratorios/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S48-S51, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-609380

RESUMEN

COVID-19 poses a great challenge to clinical and diagnostic services around the world. The need of biosafety practices can never be emphasised more than under current circumstances. The four pillars of biosafety namely, leadership, standard operating procedures, personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls must be employed for effective and safe practices in the clinical setting in general and laboratory settings in particular. Risk assessment must be carried out before meeting up the diagnostic challenge for COVID-19 and essential biorisk management measures are required to be taken. In our resource-poor settings, we need to adapt safe but cost-effective and improvised solutions to ensure safe handling of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients in the laboratories. The correct use of PPE and their suitable alternatives are available for selection and use. Disinfection of the lab areas and safe disposal of the clinical samples from such patients is also of paramount importance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Laboratorios/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo
6.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1675-1680, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-542896

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global pandemic. It is unclear to radiotherapy practitioners how to carry out radiotherapy during the epidemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After the outbreak of COVID-19, our Institute established measures for the prevention and control of COVID-19, and continues to treat patients according to these measures. The Radiotherapy Department has been divided into a clean zone and a semi-contaminated zone, and corresponding personal protective equipment is used in these zones. The temperature of patients and their escorts, and history of fever are assessed daily. Special procedures are performed during radiotherapy setup and intracavitary brachytherapy. RESULTS: Over a period of 2 months, 655 patients were treated in the Department. Sixteen patients with fever were identified and no patient undergoing radiotherapy or medical staff have been infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our protective measures were found to be effective and can be used as a reference in places where COVID-19 situations are not markedly serious.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Servicio de Radiología en Hospital/organización & administración , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Beijing , Niño , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Desinfección , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Fiebre/etiología , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas , Equipos de Seguridad , Evaluación de Síntomas , Termometría
7.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 70(Suppl 3)(5): S48-S51, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515375

RESUMEN

COVID-19 poses a great challenge to clinical and diagnostic services around the world. The need of biosafety practices can never be emphasised more than under current circumstances. The four pillars of biosafety namely, leadership, standard operating procedures, personal protective equipment (PPE) and engineering controls must be employed for effective and safe practices in the clinical setting in general and laboratory settings in particular. Risk assessment must be carried out before meeting up the diagnostic challenge for COVID-19 and essential biorisk management measures are required to be taken. In our resource-poor settings, we need to adapt safe but cost-effective and improvised solutions to ensure safe handling of clinical samples from COVID-19 patients in the laboratories. The correct use of PPE and their suitable alternatives are available for selection and use. Disinfection of the lab areas and safe disposal of the clinical samples from such patients is also of paramount importance.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/normas , Laboratorios/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Medición de Riesgo
8.
Cytometry A ; 97(7): 674-680, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488957

RESUMEN

In response to the recent COVID-19 pandemic, many laboratories are involved in research supporting SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development and clinical trials. Flow cytometry laboratories will be responsible for a large part of this effort by sorting unfixed antigen-specific lymphocytes. Therefore, it is critical and timely that we have an understanding of risk assessment and established procedures of infectious cell sorting. Here we present procedures covering the biosafety aspects of sorting unfixed SARS-CoV-2-infected cells and other infectious agents of similar risk level. These procedures follow the ISAC Biosafety Committee guidelines and were recently approved by the National Institutes of Health Institutional Biosafety Committee for sorting SARS-CoV-2-infected cells. © 2020 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Citometría de Flujo/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Humanos , Laboratorios/normas , Personal de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Medición de Riesgo
9.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521706

RESUMEN

Clinical samples collected in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), patients are commonly manipulated in biosafety level 2 laboratories for molecular diagnostic purposes. Here, we tested French norm NF-EN-14476+A2 derived from European standard EN-14885 to assess the risk of manipulating infectious viruses prior to RNA extraction. SARS-CoV-2 cell-culture supernatant and nasopharyngeal samples (virus-spiked samples and clinical samples collected in COVID-19 patients) were used to measure the reduction of infectivity after 10 minute contact with lysis buffer containing various detergents and chaotropic agents. A total of thirteen protocols were evaluated. Two commercially available formulations showed the ability to reduce infectivity by at least 6 log 10, whereas others proved less effective.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Inactivación de Virus/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Técnicas de Cultivo de Célula/métodos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/normas , Humanos , Nasofaringe/virología , Pandemias , ARN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos , Células Vero , Carga Viral/métodos
10.
mSphere ; 5(3)2020 06 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32581071

RESUMEN

The contamination of patients' surroundings by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remains understudied. We sampled the surroundings and the air of six negative-pressure non-intensive care unit (non-ICU) rooms in a designated isolation ward in Chengdu, China, that were occupied by 13 laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients who had returned from overseas travel, including 2 asymptomatic patients. A total of 44 of 112 (39.3%) surface samples were positive for SARS-CoV-2 as detected by real-time PCR, suggesting extensive contamination, although all of the air samples were negative. In particular, in a single room occupied by an asymptomatic patient, four sites were SARS-CoV-2 positive, highlighting that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients do contaminate their surroundings and impose risks for others with close contact. Placement of COVID-19 patients in rooms with negative pressure may bring a false feeling of safety, and the importance of rigorous environment cleaning should be emphasized.IMPORTANCE Although it has been well recognized that the virus SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, can be acquired by exposure to fomites, surprisingly, the contamination of patients' surroundings by SARS-CoV-2 is largely unknown, as there have been few studies. We performed an environmental sampling study for 13 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients and found extensive contamination of patients' surroundings. In particular, we found that asymptomatic COVID-19 patients contaminated their surroundings and therefore imposed risks for other people. Environment cleaning should be emphasized in negative-pressure rooms. The findings may be useful to guide infection control practice to protect health care workers.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Microbiología Ambiental , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Ambiente , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/patología
11.
In Vivo ; 34(3 Suppl): 1675-1680, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503828

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now a global pandemic. It is unclear to radiotherapy practitioners how to carry out radiotherapy during the epidemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After the outbreak of COVID-19, our Institute established measures for the prevention and control of COVID-19, and continues to treat patients according to these measures. The Radiotherapy Department has been divided into a clean zone and a semi-contaminated zone, and corresponding personal protective equipment is used in these zones. The temperature of patients and their escorts, and history of fever are assessed daily. Special procedures are performed during radiotherapy setup and intracavitary brachytherapy. RESULTS: Over a period of 2 months, 655 patients were treated in the Department. Sixteen patients with fever were identified and no patient undergoing radiotherapy or medical staff have been infected with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Our protective measures were found to be effective and can be used as a reference in places where COVID-19 situations are not markedly serious.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Servicio de Radiología en Hospital/organización & administración , Radioterapia/métodos , Adulto , Beijing , Niño , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Desinfección , Contaminación de Equipos/prevención & control , Fiebre/etiología , Personal de Salud/educación , Humanos , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Paciente a Profesional/prevención & control , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa de Profesional a Paciente/prevención & control , Neoplasias/radioterapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Utilización de Procedimientos y Técnicas , Equipos de Seguridad , Evaluación de Síntomas , Termometría
12.
Health Secur ; 18(3): 232-236, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522074

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the pathogen that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was first detected in Wuhan, China. Recent studies have updated the epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 continuously. In China, diagnostic tests and laboratory tests of specimens from persons under investigation are usually performed in a biosafety level 2 environment. Laboratory staff may be at greater risk of exposure due to a higher concentration and invasiveness of emerging pathogens. Current infection prevention strategies are based on lessons learned from severe acute respiratory syndrome, expert judgments, and related regulations. This article summarizes biosafety prevention and control measures performed in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 testing activities and provides practical suggestions for laboratory staff to avoid laboratory-acquired infections in dealing with public health emergencies.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/métodos , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/sangre , Infección de Laboratorio/prevención & control , Equipo de Protección Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/sangre , Betacoronavirus , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Desinfección/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Laboratorios/organización & administración , Masculino , Salud Laboral , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Manejo de Especímenes/métodos
14.
Ann Fam Med ; 18(3): 259-261, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-257952

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly progressing global pandemic against which nations are struggling for containment. Singapore is known to have promptly instituted aggressive public health and containment measures. A key pillar sustaining this is the response of its primary health care network. It is important for health care systems worldwide to recognize the value of a strong coordinated response to this crisis from a primary health perspective. There are best practices for early isolation and containment of suspect cases while protecting health care workers and limiting cross infections that are transferable across nations. We describe our framework for how our primary care clinics respond to this pandemic in the hope others may find solutions to their unique needs. Moving forward, there is a pressing need for more studies to enhance our understanding of the response of primary care during these public health crises.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Singapur/epidemiología
15.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-245500

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Laboratorios , Personal de Laboratorio
18.
Ann Fam Med ; 18(3): 259-261, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32393562

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a rapidly progressing global pandemic against which nations are struggling for containment. Singapore is known to have promptly instituted aggressive public health and containment measures. A key pillar sustaining this is the response of its primary health care network. It is important for health care systems worldwide to recognize the value of a strong coordinated response to this crisis from a primary health perspective. There are best practices for early isolation and containment of suspect cases while protecting health care workers and limiting cross infections that are transferable across nations. We describe our framework for how our primary care clinics respond to this pandemic in the hope others may find solutions to their unique needs. Moving forward, there is a pressing need for more studies to enhance our understanding of the response of primary care during these public health crises.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Redes Comunitarias/organización & administración , Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Humanos , Control de Infecciones/métodos , Singapur/epidemiología
19.
Clin Chem Lab Med ; 58(7): 1053-1062, 2020 06 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32396137

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is the third coronavirus outbreak that has emerged in the past 20 years, after severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). One important aspect, highlighted by many global health organizations, is that this novel coronavirus outbreak may be especially hazardous to healthcare personnel, including laboratory professionals. Therefore, the aim of this document, prepared by the COVID-19 taskforce of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC), is to provide a set of recommendations, adapted from official documents of international and national health agencies, on biosafety measures for routine clinical chemistry laboratories that operate at biosafety levels 1 (BSL-1; work with agents posing minimal threat to laboratory workers) and 2 (BSL-2; work with agents associated with human disease which pose moderate hazard). We believe that the interim measures proposed in this document for best practice will help minimazing the risk of developing COVID-19 while working in clinical laboratories.


Asunto(s)
Contención de Riesgos Biológicos/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Servicios de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Humanos , Laboratorios , Personal de Laboratorio
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