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1.
RECIIS (Online) ; 14(1): 12-17, jan.-mar. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1087170

RESUMEN

Esta nota de conjuntura avalia o processo decorrente da I Conferência Nacional de Comunicação (Confecom), tendo em vista o marco de dez anos de sua realização. O autor argumenta que o principal resultado da Conferência foi abrir espaço para o Estado brasileiro superar a ausência de um sistema regulatório e de regras que redesenhassem o sistema de comunicação brasileiro. Ao decidir não ocupar este espaço aberto, o governo federal perdeu a última oportunidade que se abriu para estabelecer uma nova dinâmica para o setor. São analisadas também as modificações no cenário político e econômico desde a realização da Conferência. O autor conclui que, embora os apontamentos dados pela Confecom em relação à convergência tecnológica não respondam a especificidades do momento atual, poderiam, se tivessem sido efetivados, ter preparado o país para enfrentar os desafios novos e conter a força política e econômica dos atores do setor.


This conjuncture note assesses the process resulting from the I Conferência Nacional de Comunicação ­ Confecom (I Communication National Conference), in view of the ten-year mark of its realization. The author argues that the main result of the Conference was to open space for the Brazilian State to overcome the absence of a regulatory system and rules that could redesign the Brazilian communication system. In deciding not to occupy this open space, the Federal Government missed the last opportunity that opened up to establish a new dynamic for the sector. Changes in the political and economic scenario since the Conference were also analyzed. The author concludes that, although the outcomes of the Confecom regarding technological convergence do not respond to specificities of the present moment, they could, if they had been implemented, have prepared the country to face the new challenges and contain the political and economic strength of the sector players.


Esta nota de coyuntura evalúa el proceso resultante de la I Conferência Nacional de Comunicação ­ Confecom (I Conferencia Nacional de Comunicación), en vista de los diez años de su realización. El autor argumenta que el principal resultado de la Conferencia fue abrir un espacio para que el Estado brasileño supere la ausencia de un sistema regulatorio y reglas que rediseñarían el sistema de comunicación brasileño. Al decidir no ocupar este espacio abierto, el Gobierno Federal perdió la última oportunidad que se abrió para establecer una nueva dinámica para el sector. También se analizaron los cambios en el escenario político y económico desde la Conferencia. El autor concluye que, aunque las respuestas dadas por la Confecom con respecto a la convergencia tecnológica no respondan a especificidades del momento actual, si hubieran sido implementadas, podrían haber preparado al país para enfrentar los nuevos desafíos y contener la fuerza política y económica de los actores del sector.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Política Pública , Brasil , Comunicación , Congresos como Asunto , Sociedad Civil , Control Social Formal , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Administración de las Tecnologías de la Información
7.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0227808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023260

RESUMEN

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones have been used by disaster relief organizations in the United States since 2005. However, their place in the disaster response ecosystem-the standardization, utility, ethical, and legal challenges of drone use-remains largely unstudied. This case series describes how UAVs were used by two teams of responders for damage assessment purposes during the 2017 southeastern US Hurricanes Harvey and Irma. Data streams ranged from social media, direct observation, participant-observation and semi-directed interviews. Qualitative analysis was performed for thematic content derived from field observation and from post-hoc interviews. Outcomes of the qualitative analysis emphasize the barriers to deploying drones in the disaster context, their tactical implementation, programmatic integration, and ethical and legal challenges. These observations lay the groundwork for both future research on the utilization of drones and the prudent and ethical implementation of programs that employ drones in post-disaster settings.


Asunto(s)
Aeronaves , Tormentas Ciclónicas , Desastres , Ecosistema , Florida , Tecnología de Sensores Remotos , Control Social Formal , Texas
8.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228701, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097422

RESUMEN

Singapore's Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) national strategic action plan includes inappropriate use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals as a specific priority. Although the use of antibiotics and other drugs are monitored by regulatory bodies, food fish farmers are allowed to buy and administer antimicrobials without a veterinary prescription. We conducted a qualitative study of Singaporean food fish farmers to understand patterns and determinants of antibiotic use, their knowledge of antibiotic resistance, as well as perceptions of on-farm infection prevention and control measures. During the interview, participants were asked about their farming processes, farm infrastructure, antibiotic use and any disease prevention measures. Thematic analysis of participants' interviews showed that antibiotic for growth promotion and infection prevention was uncommon among local food fish farmers. The following three main themes influenced participants' decisions to use antibiotics in their practice: 1) individual factors, 2) local regulatory factors as well as 3) market-related factors. Individual factors included their personal experience and knowledge both with antibiotics as well as with alternate options. In terms of local regulatory factors, we found that regular oversight was a strong deterrent in antibiotic use. Last, at the market level, the relatively high price of antibiotics in Singapore coupled with stiff competition was a strong disincentive for participants to use antibiotics in their farming practice. These factors were also influential in their relationships with local regulatory bodies as well as their counterparts. Although industries differ significantly across countries, lessons learnt from Singapore's food fish farming demonstrate the importance of an environment where multi-dimensional factors come together to discourage the irrational use of antibiotics in food animal production. In addition, our results allow greater insight into food fish farmers' perspectives on infection control and form a basis from which further research work can be undertaken.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/uso terapéutico , Acuicultura/estadística & datos numéricos , Probióticos/uso terapéutico , Investigación Cualitativa , Singapur , Control Social Formal
9.
Accid Anal Prev ; 136: 105430, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927451

RESUMEN

In this paper, we examine the relationship between traffic enforcement (in the form of roadside breath testing for alcohol) and traffic outcomes (alcohol-related traffic crashes) to identify an optimal point of traffic enforcement. In Western Australia (WA), Police are authorised to stop any driver and measure their blood alcohol concentration via a sample of their breath. Using a metric employed by Ferris et al. (2013) and a methodology analogous to that utilised by Cameron (2013), we model the relationship between alcohol related traffic crashes and the saturation of breath testing in WA from January 2008 to April 2018. Our analysis suggests that given the saturation of breath testing in 2018 (1.2 tests per licenced driver), a 10 % increase in breath testing would be associated with a decline of 0.34 alcohol related traffic crashes (ARTC) per 100,000 drivers per month, equating to six fewer crashes per month, state-wide. In addition, using 'willingness to pay' and human capital cost metrics to approximate the social costs of ARTC, we employ a cost-benefit analysis to estimate the point at which the social costs of ARTC equal the economic costs of breath tests. Our analysis suggests that an increase in the number of tests to 143 % of all licensed WA drivers (an increase of 450,000 breath tests from the 2017/18 financial year) would be anticipated to save the state AUD$13.3 million annually in the human capital costs of ARTC. Our findings suggest that a further increase in breath tests to 154% of all licensed WA drivers (an increase of 650,000 breath tests from 2017/18) may save the state AUD$31.0 million annually in willingness to pay costs. The analytics below present a novel combination of methods to approximate the relative economic merits of increases in traffic enforcement. Furthermore, the findings outlined here have practical applications for operational policing, while providing an analytical perspective for policy makers faced with making recommendations regarding the volume and saturation of breath tests.


Asunto(s)
Accidentes de Tránsito/prevención & control , Nivel de Alcohol en Sangre , Pruebas Respiratorias , Conducir bajo la Influencia/prevención & control , Control Social Formal/métodos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Conducir bajo la Influencia/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Policia/economía , Australia Occidental
11.
J Homosex ; 67(2): 174-188, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30346908

RESUMEN

The film ratings system employed by the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) has been criticized by LGBTQ critics who claim the system discriminates by holding queer content to a higher ratings standard than content in other films. The MPAA argues the constituency for its ratings system is parents in traditional families who may find queer themes inappropriate for their children. Paradoxically, a number of organizations serving adolescents identifying as LGBTQ or as questioning their sexualities have created lists of recommended films, many of whose MPAA ratings make them virtually off-limits to teens unless their parents approve. Cyberspace is also populated with lists of films recommended for teens regardless of their sexuality and gender identity. This article compares ratings distributions for lists of films recommended for queer teens and those recommended for mainstream teens and finds evidence of negative impact on access by queer teens to potentially helpful film content.


Asunto(s)
Películas Cinematográficas/normas , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Control Social Formal , Estados Unidos
12.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109839, 2020 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670240

RESUMEN

The impact of marine litter, particularly plastic waste, is widely acknowledged as a growing global concern. Marine litter is an understudied issue in the Regional Organisation for Protection of the Marine Environment (ROPME) Sea Area where rapid economic growth has already placed considerable stress on infrastructure and coastal ecosystems. This paper outlines some of the drivers for waste generation in region and reviews the available literature to summarise the current state of knowledge on the environmental fate, behaviour and impact of marine litter within the ROPME Sea Area. While data is limited, those studies conducted demonstrate marine litter is posing a clear and growing threat to the environmental and socioeconomic prosperity of the ROPME Sea Area. The development of regional and national marine litter reduction plans are clearly a priority to focus and coordinate activity across multiple stakeholders. Discussion of the potential environmental impacts arising as a result of marine litter are presented together with a roadmap for establishing and implementing a ROPME Sea Area Marine Litter and Single-Use Plastic Action Plan.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos/métodos , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , Plásticos/análisis , Residuos/análisis , Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ecosistema , Ambiente , Océano Índico , Control Social Formal
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122369, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732415

RESUMEN

The suitable feeding strategy considering both substrate preference (enrichment stage) and flexible regulation (PHA accumulation stage) were investigated, respectively, based on intracellular polymers synthesis peculiarities of the three types of cultures (M-Ac, M-Pr and M-Bu), which were enriched correspondingly using acetic type, propionic type and butyric type substrate. Compared to M-Ac and M-Bu cultures, maximum PHA content (PHAm) of M-Pr exhibited the most stable responses to varying fractions of propionic acid (fPr) of the substrate. The substrate composed of acetic acid and propionic acid (Mix-AP) demonstrated higher efficiency in regulation of polymer composition than that composed of butyric acid and propionic acid (Mix-BP). For the whole process of three-stage MC PHA production, propionic acid-dominated acidification products should be used for the long-term enrichment of PHA producers, and acidification products mainly composed of propionic and acetic acid are preferred considering the regulation of polymer composition in PHA accumulation stage.


Asunto(s)
Microbiota , Polihidroxialcanoatos , Ácido Acético , Reactores Biológicos , Control Social Formal
15.
Georgian Med News ; (295): 171-177, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804222

RESUMEN

In modern conditions, the use and protection of water is an extremely complex problem. The environmental situation of water resources is relevant for all water basins in Ukraine, since most of the surface and groundwater in Ukraine are polluted. The aim of the research was to study the regulatory normatively-legal base of sanitary, ecolocal, water and urban planning legislation in the field of sanitary protection of water objects and establishing its compliance with the requirements of the European Union Directives with the development of measures to resolve issues of concern. Ukraine's international obligations are enshrined in more than 40 global and regional international acts relating to the sanitary protection and use of water resources.The main requirements of the EU Directive (2008/56/EC, 98/83/EC, 2008/105/EC, 2003/35/EC, 2003/4/EC, 2001/42/EC, 2011/92/EC) are already taken into account new laws in force and domestic regulatory documents. However, the regulatory framework of the legislation of Ukraine in the field of sanitary protection of water objects needs to be improved in terms of focusing on new mechanisms of economic regulation, decentralization of power, the introduction of effective monitoring of the ecological status of the Black and Azov Seas, and the implementation of the requirements of the EU Directives: 2006/7/ЄС, 2007/60/ЄС 91/271/ЄЕС, 91/676/ЄЕС and Regulation No648/2004. In order to improve the sanitary-epidemiological state of water resources in Ukraine, their rational use and protection, it is proposed to carry out: an effective state and legal policy in the field of sanitary protection of waters, focused on: the effective implementation of water, environmental, urban planning legislation of Ukraine; optimal coordination of architectural and planning, water-ecological, sanitary-epidemiological aspects and social interests; priority of drinking water supply and water protection measures; implementation of international treaties with a view to the proper legal, sanitary and epidemiological regime of transboundary water objects; implementation of European standards for the quantitative and qualitative status of waters; the formation of an ecological, sanitary and epidemiological worldview among the population.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Higiene , Contaminación del Agua , Unión Europea , Control Social Formal , Ucrania , Contaminación del Agua/prevención & control , Abastecimiento de Agua
16.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226710, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31887158

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The general purpose for ethics consultations is to deliberate on issues on medical and scientific research and act towards the safeguard of the patient's rights and dignity. With the implementation of European Union (EU) Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials and cost and time-optimization, the nature of consultations and the bodies they are carried out might be to some extent affected. Accordingly, we sought to gain an updated perspective on the current role and current practices of ethics consultations nationwide in both clinical and research settings. METHODS: The study was carried forth by a three-step mixed-method approach: i) review of policies/regulations for ethics committee (EC) nationwide; ii) a structured survey on ethics consultation activity completed by each EC during 2016; iii) incorporated into the third part, a qualitative assessment with a selected sample of 8 key-informants for a semi-structured interview, discussing EC history, the ethics consultation function, and the professional experience of consultants. RESULTS: Review of the policies/regulations promoted by ECs showed that 72,6% (n = 69) of all the ECs (N = 95) being actually capable of providing ethics consultation service by policy. 71 ECs (74.7%) responded to the survey on ethics consultation requests; among them, 48 (67.6%) provided ethics consultations of which 23 (23/48) actually received requests for this service in the year 2016. Many ECs did not have a structured database in place to provide precise figures of requests received in the last year nor of their contents. CONCLUSION: To date, ethics consultation in clinical and research practice is largely underappreciated and not well understood by users. The consultants themselves lack a comprehensive vision of work carried out in their field, and bioethics training programs to keep them updated. Despite clinical ethics consultation services should not necessarily be mandatory, following the recent EU Regulation on clinical trials, institutional ethics consultation bodies should be re-evaluated.


Asunto(s)
Comités de Ética/organización & administración , Consultoría Ética , Ética Médica , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/ética , Ensayos Clínicos como Asunto/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consultoría Ética/legislación & jurisprudencia , Consultoría Ética/tendencias , Unión Europea , Humanos , Italia , Políticas , Derivación y Consulta/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derivación y Consulta/normas , Derivación y Consulta/tendencias , Control Social Formal
17.
Ophthalmologe ; 116(12): 1177-1183, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776661

RESUMEN

Fireworks-related eye injuries occur all over the world whenever fireworks are available for the public. The two prospective registers from Finland over 20 years and from the Netherlands over 10 years have tracked the effect of regulations, awareness, and safety campaigns. The incidence of fireworks-related injuries in these two countries has been reduced to about one half during the last 10 years through addressing the number of hours allowed for private fireworks, the use of safety glasses, awareness campaigns, and stricter regulations on fireworks available for purchase. Although the total number of injuries has decreased, the average severity of eye injuries in the Netherlands seems to have increased due to higher content of gunpowder in fireworks. Boys and young men are mainly affected as well as bystanders who account for more than half of fireworks-related eye injuries. More work on safety of fireworks is still needed through regulating private consumer use of fireworks, a challenge that lies ahead for ophthalmologic organizations worldwide, including the European Society of Ophthalmology (SOE), the International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) and national societies. But every eye saved from severe injury is worth the effort.


Asunto(s)
Traumatismos por Explosión , Lesiones Oculares , Control Social Formal , Adolescente , Traumatismos por Explosión/epidemiología , Traumatismos por Explosión/prevención & control , Niño , Explosiones , Lesiones Oculares/epidemiología , Lesiones Oculares/prevención & control , Finlandia , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Países Bajos , Adulto Joven
18.
Science ; 366(6469): 1071-1072, 2019 11 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31780542
19.
Expert Rev Med Devices ; 16(11): 913-922, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657961

RESUMEN

Introduction: Biomedical-engineering (BME) plays a major role in modern medicine. Many BME-based assets have been brought to clinical translation in the twentieth century, but translation currently stagnates. Here, we compare the impact of past and present scientific, economic and societal climates on the translation of BME-based assets, in order to provide the BME-community with incentives to address current stagnation.Areas covered: In the twentieth century, W.J. Kolff brought kidney dialysis, the total artificial heart, artificial vision and limbs to clinical application. This success raises the question whether Kolff and other past giants of clinical translation had special mind-sets, or whether their problem selection, their training, or governmental and regulatory control played roles. Retrospective analysis divides the impact of BME-based assets to clinical application into three periods: 1900-1970: rapid translation from bench-to-bedside, 1970-1990: new diseases and increased governmental control, and the current translational crisis from 1990 onward.Expert opinion: Academic and societal changes can be discerned that are concurrent with BME's translational success: mono-disciplinary versus multi-disciplinary training, academic reward systems based on individual achievements versus team achievements with strong leadership, increased governmental and regulatory control, and industrial involvement. From this, recommendations can be derived for accelerating clinical translation of BME-assets.


Asunto(s)
Ingeniería Biomédica , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional , Gobierno , Humanos , Liderazgo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Control Social Formal , Investigación en Medicina Traslacional/educación
20.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 20(1): 536, 2019 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664894

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Analysis of high-throughput multi-'omics interactions across the hierarchy of expression has wide interest in making inferences with regard to biological function and biomarker discovery. Expression levels across different scales are determined by robust synthesis, regulation and degradation processes, and hence transcript (mRNA) measurements made by microarray/RNA-Seq only show modest correlation with corresponding protein levels. RESULTS: In this work we are interested in quantitative modelling of correlation across such gene products. Building on recent work, we develop computational models spanning transcript, translation and protein levels at different stages of the H. sapiens cell cycle. We enhance this analysis by incorporating 25+ sequence-derived features which are likely determinants of cellular protein concentration and quantitatively select for relevant features, producing a vast dataset with thousands of genes. We reveal insights into the complex interplay between expression levels across time, using machine learning methods to highlight outliers with respect to such models as proteins associated with post-translationally regulated modes of action. CONCLUSIONS: We uncover quantitative separation between modified and degraded proteins that have roles in cell cycle regulation, chromatin remodelling and protein catabolism according to Gene Ontology; and highlight the opportunities for providing biological insights in future model systems.


Asunto(s)
División Celular , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica/métodos , Genómica , Humanos , Biosíntesis de Proteínas , Proteínas/genética , Control Social Formal
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