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1.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141900, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579953

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic during 2020-2023 has wrought adverse impacts on coastal and marine environments. This study conducts a comprehensive review of the collateral effects of COVID-19 on these ecosystems through literature review and bibliometric analysis. According to the output and citation analysis of these publications, researchers from the coastal countries in Asia, Europe, and America payed more attentions to this environmental issue than other continents. Specifically, India, China, and USA were the top three countries in the publications, with the proportion of 19.55%, 18.99%, and 12.01%, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly aggravated the plastic and microplastic pollution in coastal and marine environments by explosive production and unproper management of personal protective equipment (PPE). During the pandemic, the estimated mismanaged PPE waste ranged from 16.50 t/yr in Sweden to 250,371.39 t/yr in Indonesia. In addition, the PPE density ranged from 1.13 × 10-5 item/m2 to 2.79 item/m2 in the coastal regions worldwide, showing significant geographical variations. Besides, the emerging contaminants released from PPE into the coastal and marine environments cannot be neglected. The positive influence was that the COVID-19 lockdown worldwide reduced the release of air pollutants (e.g., fine particulate matter, NO2, CO, and SO2) and improved the air quality. The study also analyzed the relationships between sustainable development goals (SDGs) and the publications and revealed the dynamic changes of SDGs in different periods the COVID-19 pandemic. In conclusion, the air was cleaner due to the lockdown, but the coastal and marine contamination of plastic, microplastic, and emerging contaminants got worse during the COVID-19 pandemic. Last but not least, the study proposed four strategies to deal with the coastal and marine pollution caused by COVID-19, which were regular marine monitoring, performance of risk assessment, effective regulation of plastic wastes, and close international cooperation.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Microplásticos , Plásticos , Pandemias , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Contaminación del Aire/análisis
2.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8240, 2024 04 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38589527

RESUMEN

Accurate mortality data are critical for understanding the impact of COVID-19 and learning lessons from crisis responses. But published statistics risk misrepresenting deaths due to limited testing, underreporting, and lack of subnational data, especially in developing countries. Thailand experienced four COVID-19 waves between January 2020 and December 2021, and used a color-coded, province-level system for lockdowns. To account for deaths directly and indirectly caused by COVID-19, this paper uses mixed effects modelling to estimate counterfactual deaths for 2020-2021 and construct a monthly time series of provincial excess mortality. A fixed effects negative binomial and mixed effects Poisson model both substantiate other studies' estimates of excess deaths using subnational data for the first time. Then, panel regression methods are used to characterize the correlations among restrictions, mobility, and excess mortality. The regressions show that mobility reductions modestly curbed mortality immediately upon imposition, suggesting that aversion of non-COVID deaths was a major aspect of the lockdowns' effect in Thailand. However, the estimates are imprecise. An auto-regressive distributed lag model suggests that the effect of lockdowns was through reduced mobility, but the effectiveness appears to have varied over the course of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Tailandia/epidemiología , Afecto , Aprendizaje , Mortalidad
3.
Am J Disaster Med ; 19(1): 15-24, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38597643

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A massive surge in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and deaths occurred in India during March-April 2021, and this was considered as second wave of the pandemic in the country. This study was conducted to find out the perceptions about second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic among Indian adults. METHODS: An online-survey-based cross-sectional study was conducted over 3 weeks from April 21, 2021 to May 11, 2021. Information regarding sociodemographic profile, perceptions about COVID-19 during second wave, perceptions and practices related to COVID-19 vaccination, COVID-19 appropriate behavior, and government's response to the pandemic was collected. Descriptive analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 408 study participants were included. Mean age of the study participants was 29.2 ± 10.4 years. Around 92.6 percent (378) of respondents agreed that COVID-19 in 2021 is different from 2020. Perceived reasons for increased severity and cases were change in virus characteristics; social, religious, and political gatherings; and complacent behavior by people. Three-fourth (311, 76.2 percent) of the study participants agreed that vaccines have a positive role against COVID-19. Majority of the study participants (329, 80.6 percent) concurred that lockdown restrictions help in control of the pandemic. About 60.3 percent (246) of respondents had less trust on government post this pandemic compared to pre-COVID-19 times. CONCLUSION: The public perception about reasons for second wave in India acknowledges both human and virus factors and highlights the importance of shared responsibility between citizens and government for controlling the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
4.
PeerJ ; 12: e17013, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590703

RESUMEN

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in China in December 2019, with the World Health Organization declaring a state of emergency in January 2020. Worldwide implementation of lockdown measures to slow the spread of the virus led to reduced physical activity, disrupted eating habits, mental health issues, and sleep disturbances, which increased the risk of lifestyle-related diseases such as metabolic syndrome (MetS). During the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers, especially intensive care workers, experienced longer working hours and burnout, which further increased the risk of lifestyle-related diseases. Accordingly, it is important to identify individuals at a risk of new-onset MetS during a pandemic, which could direct preventive interventions. This study aimed to assess the heterogeneous impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the incidence of new-onset MetS based on the conditional average treatment effect (CATE) and to identify at-risk populations. Methods: This study analyzed health checkup data obtained from Okayama University Shikata Campus workers using paired baseline and follow-up years. Baseline data encompassed 2017 to 2019, with respective follow-up data from 2018 to 2020. Furthermore, as the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan began in January 2020, workers who underwent follow-up health checkups in 2018 to 2019 and 2020 were considered as "unexposed" and "exposed," respectively. As the Shikata campus has several departments, comparisons among departments were made. The primary outcome was new-onset MetS at follow-up. Predictor variables included baseline health checkup results, sex, age, and department (administrative, research, medical, or intensive care department). X-learner was used to calculate the CATE. Results: This study included 3,572 eligible individuals (unexposed, n = 2,181; exposed, n = 1,391). Among them, 1,544 (70.8%) and 866 (62.3%) participants in the unexposed and exposed groups, respectively, were females. The mean age (±standard deviation) of the unexposed and exposed groups was 48.2 ± 8.2 and 47.8 ± 8.3 years, respectively. The COVID-19 pandemic increased the average probability of new-onset MetS by 4.4% in the overall population. According to the department, the intensive care department showed the highest CATE, with a 15.4% increase. Moreover, there was large heterogeneity according to the department. The high-CATE group was characterized by older age, urinary protein, elevated liver enzymes, higher triglyceride levels, and a history of hyperlipidemia treatment. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic increased the incidence of new-onset MetS, with this effect showing heterogeneity at a single Japanese campus. Regarding specific populations, workers in the intensive care department showed an increased risk of new-onset MetS. At-risk populations require specific preventive interventions in case the current COVID-19 pandemic persists or a new pandemic occurs.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Síndrome Metabólico , Femenino , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , COVID-19/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Pandemias , Japón/epidemiología , Incidencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
5.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 74(3): 456-458, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591277

RESUMEN

Objectives: To study the impact of coronavirus disease-2019 on Expanded Programme on Immunisation in a rural setting. METHODS: The descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in five union councils of District Dir Lower, in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. Data was collected from March to August 2020, which was a period of lockdowns in the wake of the coronavirus disease-2019, and then from March to August 2021. The sample comprised children aged <2 years. Data was analysed using SPSS 25. RESULTS: Of the 330 children, 210(63.6%) were boys, and 120(36.4%) were girls, and all 330(100%) were located in rural areas. First-phase data showed that the maximum coverage rate of immunisation was 258(78.2%) noted in OPV1(Oral Polio Vaccine) Penta1(Pentavalent vaccine), PCV10-1 (Pneumococcal pneumonia) and Rota 1(Rota Vaccine), and the least vaccination rate was 68.2% for Measle-1. In the second phase, 23% incline was noted in Measles-2 vaccination, followed by 16.3% in OPV2, Penta 2, PCV10-2 and Rota 2, 16% in Measles-1, 14% in OPV-3, Penta-3, PCV10-3, Rota-3 and IPV, 11.5% in OPV-1, Penta-1, PCV10-1, and Rota-1, and 10.6% in OPV-0 and BCG-0. CONCLUSIONS: Immunisation programme was affected by lockdowns during the active phase of the coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Sarampión , Poliomielitis , Masculino , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Estudios Transversales , Poliomielitis/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Vacunación , Inmunización , Vacuna Antipolio Oral , Programas de Inmunización
6.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 75(1): 83-91, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38587136

RESUMEN

Background: Due to the spread of COVID-19 infections around the world, in early 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced a global pandemic, i.e. an epidemic of particularly large dimensions affecting countries and entire continents. Long-term stay at home and self-isolation may have significantly impacted lifestyle, diet, food choices and access to food, as well as physical activity in the entire population, including students. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the impact of social isolation caused by the coronavirus pandemic on changes in diet, lifestyle and body mass index in a group of students, so that we would be better prepared for future new viral infections with characteristics similar to Covid-19. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in 2021 using a cross-sectional online survey (using the CAWI technique). The survey was addressed to students of universities in Poland who were over 18 years of age. After excluding forms completed incorrectly or with incorrect data, the final analysis of the results included the responses of 196 respondents. Statistical analyzes were performed in STATISTICA 13.3. Statistical significance was assumed at the level of p ≤ 0.05. Results: The study involved 136 women and 60 men with an average age of 23. The majority of respondents were residents of cities with over 500,000 inhabitants (50%), were students of 1st degree (45%) in medical/natural sciences (36%). The largest percentage of respondents (above 70%), before the pandemic and during isolation, had normal body weight, according to the BMI. There were significant statistical differences between gender and changes during COVID-19 pandemic in sleeping (p=0.013), physical activity (p=0.028), as well as the consumption of tea (p=0.047), milk and dairy products (p=0.041), alcohol (p=0.001) and red meat (p=0.003), vegetables (p=0.049), sweets (p=0.029) and fast food (p=0.004). Conclusions: Due to the fact that the impact of the coronavirus pandemic on the diet and lifestyle has been demonstrated, it is very important that the recommendations of public health organizations spread the message about rational nutrition and physical activity in the event of new viral infections among young people, including students.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Joven , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Pandemias , Estudios Transversales , SARS-CoV-2 , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Dieta , Ejercicio Físico , Estudiantes
7.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582747

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older people with frailty are at risk of harm from immobility or isolation, yet data about how COVID-19 lockdowns affected them are limited. Falls and fractures are easily measurable adverse outcomes correlated with frailty. We investigated whether English hospital admission rates for falls and fractures varied from the expected trajectory during the COVID-19 pandemic, and how these varied by frailty status. METHODS: NHS England Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care data were analysed for observed versus predicted outcome rates for 24 January 2020 to 31 December 2021. An auto-regressive integrated moving average time-series model was trained using falls and fracture incidence data from 2013 to 2018 and validated using data from 2019. Models included national and age-, sex- and region-stratified forecasts. Outcome measures were hospital admissions for falls, fractures, and falls and fractures combined. Frailty was defined using the Hospital Frailty Risk Score. RESULTS: 144,148,915 pre-pandemic hospital admissions were compared with 42,267,318 admissions after pandemic onset. For the whole population, falls and fracture rates were below predicted for the first period of national lockdown, followed by a rapid return to rates close to predicted. Thereafter, rates followed expected trends. For people living with frailty, however, falls and fractures increased above expected rates during periods of national lockdown and remained elevated throughout the study period. Effects of frailty were independent of age. CONCLUSIONS: People living with frailty experienced increased fall and fracture rates above expected during and following periods of national lockdown. These remained persistently elevated throughout the study period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Fracturas Óseas , Fragilidad , Humanos , Anciano , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Anciano Frágil , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Fracturas Óseas/diagnóstico , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Hospitales
8.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300877, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38578794

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has continually changed, making it difficult to predict. Our study aimed to evaluate epidemiological changes and clinical outcomes of ARIs in pediatric patients in the post-lockdown period. METHODS: A single-center retrospective cross-sectional study was performed in one of the largest pediatric emergency departments in Lithuania during two cold seasons-from October 1, 2021, to April 30, 2022 (Season I) and in the same period in 2022-2023 (Season II). Patients under 18 years of age who had been tested for COVID-19 were enrolled in the study. Additional data about other respiratory pathogens in the study group (specifically influenza A/B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and group A Streptococcus (GAS)), were included. RESULTS: During both seasons of our study, 19,366 children were screened for COVID-19. Positive tests for COVID-19 decreased from 14.5% in Season I to 5.9% in Season II, while at the same time, the rates of other infections increased significantly: influenza from 17.5% to 27.1%, RSV from 8.8% to 27.6%, and GAS from 8.4% to 44%, respectively. In Season II, COVID-19 infection presented in fewer admissions to pediatric intensive care (0.8% vs. 3.7%, p<0.01) and there were no deaths, while influenza presented in a higher proportion of hospitalizations (10.5% vs. 6.1%, p<0.01) and there was one death. The proportion of RSV hospitalizations also increased in Season II (34.6% vs. 44.0%, p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The early post-lockdown period saw a decline of COVID-19 and re-emergence of influenza, RSV and GAS infections in children. In Season II, COVID-19 cases became milder contrary to influenza. RSV infection contributed significantly to hospitalizations for respiratory infections in children in both seasons, particularly in Season II. Coinfections were not associated with a more severe course of the disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Gripe Humana , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano , Infecciones del Sistema Respiratorio , Humanos , Niño , Adolescente , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Virus Sincitial Respiratorio/epidemiología , Hospitalización , Estaciones del Año
9.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 154: 3539, 2024 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38579330

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, increasingly strict restrictions were imposed on the activities of the Swiss population, with a peak from 21 March to 27 April 2020. Changes in trauma patterns during the pandemic and the lockdown have been described in various studies around the world, and highlight some particularly exposed groups of people. The objective of this study was to assess changes in trauma-related presentations to the emergency department (ED) during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, as compared to the same period in the previous year, with a particular focus on vulnerable populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All trauma-related admissions to our ED in the first half of 2019 and 2020 were included. Patient demographics, trauma mechanism, affected body region, injury severity and discharge type were extracted from our hospital information system. Trauma subpopulations, such as interpersonal violence, self-inflicted trauma, geriatric trauma and sports-related trauma were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 5839 ED presentations were included in our study, of which 39.9% were female. Median age was 40 years (interquartile range: 27-60). In comparison to 2019, there was a 15.5% decrease in trauma-related ED presentations in the first half of 2020. This decrease was particularly marked in the 2-month March/April period, with a drop of 36.8%. In 2020, there was a reduction in injuries caused by falls of less than 3 metres or by mechanical force. There was a marked decrease in sports-related trauma and an increase in injuries related to pedal cycles. Geriatric trauma, self-harm and assault-related injuries remained stable. CONCLUSION: This study described changes in trauma patterns and highlighted populations at risk of trauma during the pandemic in Switzerland in the context of previous international studies.These results may contribute to resource management in a future pandemic.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Centros Traumatológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Anciano , Adulto , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Suiza/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital
10.
Disaster Med Public Health Prep ; 18: e68, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38618875

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a globally devastating psychosocial impact. A detailed understanding of the mental health implications of this worldwide crisis is critical for successful mitigation of and preparation for future pandemics. Using a large international sample, we investigated in the present study the relationship between multiple COVID-19 parameters (both disease characteristics and government responses) and the incidence of the suicide crisis syndrome (SCS), an acute negative affect state associated with near-term suicidal behavior. METHODS: Data were collected from 5528 adults across 10 different countries in an anonymous web-based survey between June 2020 and January 2021. RESULTS: Individuals scoring above the SCS cut-off lived in countries with higher peak daily cases and deaths during the first wave of the pandemic. Additionally, the longer participants had been exposed to markers of pandemic severity (eg, lockdowns), the more likely they were to screen positive for the SCS. Findings reflected both country-to-country comparisons and individual variation within the pooled sample. CONCLUSION: Both the pandemic itself and the government interventions utilized to contain the spread appear to be associated with suicide risk. Public policy should include efforts to mitigate the mental health impact of current and future global disasters.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Suicidio , Adulto , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Pandemias , Gobierno , Síndrome
11.
Environ Monit Assess ; 196(5): 453, 2024 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38619639

RESUMEN

This study seeks to investigate the impact of COVID-19 lockdown measures on air quality in the city of Mashhad employing two strategies. We initiated our research using basic statistical methods such as paired sample t-tests to compare hourly PM2.5 data in two scenarios: before and during quarantine, and pre- and post-lockdown. This initial analysis provided a broad understanding of potential changes in air quality. Notably, a low reduction of 2.40% in PM2.5 was recorded when compared to air quality prior to the lockdown period. This finding highlights the wide range of factors that impact the levels of particulate matter in urban settings, with the transportation sector often being widely recognized as one of the principal causes of this issue. Nevertheless, throughout the period after the quarantine, a remarkable decrease in air quality was observed characterized by distinct seasonal patterns, in contrast to previous years. This finding demonstrates a significant correlation between changes in human mobility patterns and their influence on the air quality of urban areas. It also emphasizes the need to use air pollution modeling as a fundamental tool to evaluate and understand these linkages to support long-term plans for reducing air pollution. To obtain a more quantitative understanding, we then employed cutting-edge machine learning methods, such as random forest and long short-term memory algorithms, to accurately determine the effect of the lockdown on PM2.5 levels. Our models' results demonstrated remarkable efficacy in assessing the pollutant concentration in Mashhad during lockdown measures. The test set yielded an R-squared value of 0.82 for the long short-term memory network model, whereas the random forest model showed a calculated cross-validation R-squared of 0.78. The required computational cost for training the LSTM and the RF models across all data was 25 min and 3 s, respectively. In summary, through the integration of statistical methods and machine learning, this research attempts to provide a comprehensive understanding of the impact of human interventions on air quality dynamics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Aprendizaje Automático , Material Particulado
12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1323490, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605871

RESUMEN

Introduction: The different strategies used worldwide to curb the COVID-19 pandemic between 2020 and 2021 had a negative psychosocial impact, which was disproportionately higher for socially and economically vulnerable groups. This article seeks to identify the psychosocial impact of the confinement period during the COVID-19 pandemic for the Colombian population by identifying profiles that predict the levels of different mental health indicators (feelings of fear, positive emotions or feelings during free time, and work impact) and based on them, characterize the risk factors and protection that allows us to propose guidelines for prevention or recovery from future health emergencies. Methods: This is an observational, cross-sectional, retrospective ex post facto study. Multistage cluster probabilistic sampling and binary logistic regression analysis were used to predict extreme levels of various mental health indicators based on psychosocial indicators of the COVID-19 confinement period and to identify risk and protection factors. Results: A relationship was established between the combination of some of the different psychosocial factors evaluated (this combination being the predictive profile identified) with each of the three main variables: feeling of fear (n = 8,247; R = 0.32; p = 0.00; Poverall = 62.4%; 𝜔overall = 0.25; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00), positive emotions or feelings during free time (n = 6,853; R = 0.25; p = 0.00; Poverall = 59.1%; 𝜔overall = 0.18; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00) and labour impact (n = 4,573; R = 0.47; p = 0.63; Poverall = 70.4%; 𝜔overall = 0.41; 1-𝛽overall = 1.00), with social vulnerability determined by sociodemographic factors that were common in all profiles (sex, age, ethnicity and socioeconomic level) and conditions associated with job insecurity (unemployed, loss of health insurance and significant changes to job's requirements) and place of residence (city). Conclusion: For future health emergencies, it is necessary to (i) mitigate the socio-employment impact from emergency containment measures in a scaled and differentiated manner at the local level, (ii) propose prevention and recovery actions through psychosocial and mental health care accessible to the entire population, especially vulnerable groups, (iii) Design and implement work, educational and recreational adaptation programs that can be integrated into confinement processes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/psicología , Colombia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Urgencias Médicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 24(1): 395, 2024 Apr 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of anxiety is high among international medical sciences students and it increased even more during the COVID-19 pandemic due to different restrictions and social isolation. Successful sociocultural adjustment and social support could be important factors in overcoming those challenges, however, there is a lack of studies which would investigate the role of those factors among inter- national medical students. This study aimed to assess the role of sociocultural adjustment and social support as predictors for international medical students' anxiety during COVID-19. METHODS: Two measurements were conducted via self-reported questionnaires which consisted of three scales - SCAS, MSPSS and GAD-7. In total, 82 international medical students participated in both measurements in this longitudinal study. RESULTS: The findings indicated that 37% of international students had symptoms of moderate or severe anxiety during their first year of studies at university. In the second year, during the COVID-19 pandemic and an official lockdown, 35% of international students had symptoms of moderate or severe anxiety. In addition, this study showed that gender and sociocultural adjustment did not play a role as predictors of students' anxiety during the second year of studies. However, this study revealed that social support provided by family during the first year of studies, as well as having friends or family members who had been ill with COVID-19 predicted higher levels of anxiety at second measurement, while sociocultural adjustment was an even stronger predictor of anxiety in the second year of studies of international medical students. CONCLUSIONS: This knowledge can help to better understand how international medical students felt during the COVID-19 pandemic and what role the above- mentioned factors played in the students' anxiety. As the anxiety level is quite high among international medical students, universities and mental health service providers should take it into consideration and help them to overcome those challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Apoyo Social , Universidades
14.
Age Ageing ; 53(4)2024 Apr 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38600849

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal studies found heightened feelings of loneliness in older people in spring 2020 compared to times before the pandemic. However, longer-term effects are more disputed. We, therefore, investigated changes in loneliness in older people throughout the first 21 months of the COVID-19 pandemic in Switzerland and examined the association between the stringency of COVID-19 measures and feelings of loneliness. METHODS: We assessed loneliness (3-item University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) loneliness scale) in a nationally representative longitudinal observational online survey. Older people (65-79 years) were surveyed between March 2020 and December 2021. Proportions of people feeling lonely (UCLA loneliness scale >6) were compared in two stringent phases ('lockdown', Oxford University stringency index ≥55) and two less restricted phases. Additionally, we explored the situation of potentially more susceptible subgroups (living alone, women, chronic and mental diseases, low educational level and low income). RESULTS: Phases with stringent measures were associated with higher levels of loneliness in older people. People living alone, women, people with noncommunicable or mental disease diagnoses and lower income show consistently higher levels of loneliness. However, the differences are not accentuated in phases with more stringent measures. We found little differences between subgroups with varying educational levels. CONCLUSIONS: Even in a country with relatively less stringent COVID-19 measures like Switzerland, an increase in the proportion of older people that feel lonely could be found during phases with more stringent COVID-19 measures. Lockdown phases should, therefore, be accompanied by evidence-based interventions to relieve loneliness to avoid adverse short- and long-term consequences.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Pandemias , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estudios Longitudinales
15.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0300194, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38568954

RESUMEN

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the scientific literature related to SARS-COV-2 has been growing dramatically. These literary items encompass a varied set of topics, ranging from vaccination to protective equipment efficacy as well as lockdown policy evaluations. As a result, the development of automatic methods that allow an in-depth exploration of this growing literature has become a relevant issue, both to identify the topical trends of COVID-related research and to zoom-in on its sub-themes. This work proposes a novel methodology, called LDA2Net, which combines topic modelling and network analysis, to investigate topics under their surface. More specifically, LDA2Net exploits the frequencies of consecutive words pairs (i.e. bigram) to build those network structures underlying the hidden topics extracted from large volumes of text by Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA). Results are promising and suggest that the topic model efficacy is magnified by the network-based representation. In particular, such enrichment is noticeable when it comes to displaying and exploring the topics at different levels of granularity.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Publicaciones
16.
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0296301, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38564649

RESUMEN

Apart from the morbidity and mortality, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased the predisposition of households in Nigeria to forgone care, thereby increasing their vulnerability to adverse health consequences. Since there is no previous study in Nigeria on the evolution of pandemic-related forgone care and its drivers, our study assess the evolution of the problem using descriptive and nationally representative panel data analyses. We found about a 30% prevalence of forgone care during the lockdown, which declined progressively afterwards, dropping by 69.50 percentage points between April 2020 and April 2022. This decline produced a surge in households needing care from about 35.00% in the early pandemic to greater than 50%, beginning in early 2021. The forgone care was primarily due to financial hindrances, movement restrictions, and supply-side disruptions. Household socioeconomic factors such as income loss had 2.74 [95%CI: 1.45-5.17] times higher odds of forgone care, job loss, food insecurity, and poverty were 87% (OR: 1.87 [95%CI: 1.25-2.79]), 60% (OR: 1.60 [95%CI: 1.12-2.31]) and 76% (OR: 1.76 [95%CI: 1.12-2.75]) more likely to predispose households to forgone care, respectively. Also, geographical location, such as the South-South zone, induced 1.98 [95%CI: 1.09-3.58] times higher odds of forgone care than North-Central. A married female household head increased the odds by 6.07 [95%CI: 1.72-21.47] times compared with an unmarried female head. However, having a married household head, social assistance, and North-East or North-West zone compared with North-Central increased the chance of accessing care by 69% (OR 0.31 [95%CI: 0.16-0.59]), 59%,(OR 0.41 [95%CI: 0.21-0.77]), 72% (OR 0.28 [95%CI: 0.15-0.53]) and 64% (OR 0.36 [95%CI: 0.20-0.65]), respectively. Non-communicable diseases, disability, old age, large household size and rural-urban location did not affect the forgone care. Our study highlights the need to strengthen Nigeria's health system, create policies to promote healthcare accessibility and prepare the country for future pandemic challenges.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Humanos , Femenino , Nigeria/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Composición Familiar
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 24(1): 422, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38570839

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic presented a myriad of challenges for the health workforce around the world due to its escalating demand on service delivery. A motivated health workforce is critical to effectual emergency response and in some settings, incentivizing health workers motivates them and ensures continuity in the provision of health services. We describe health workforce experiences with incentives and dis-incentives during the COVID-19 response in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Senegal, Nigeria, and Uganda. METHODS: This is a multi-country qualitative research study involving four African countries namely: DRC, Nigeria, Senegal, and Uganda which assessed the workplace incentives instituted in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Key informant interviews (n = 60) were conducted with staff at ministries of health, policy makers and health workers. Interviews were virtual using the telephone or Zoom. They were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Themes were identified and quotes were used to support findings. RESULTS: Health worker incentives included (i) financial rewards in the form of allowances and salary increments. These motivated health workers, sustaining the health system and the health workers' efforts during the COVID-19 response across the four countries. (ii) Non-financial incentives related to COVID-19 management such as provision of medicines/supplies, on the job trainings, medical care for health workers, social welfare including meals, transportation and housing, recognition, health insurance, psychosocial support, and supervision. Improvised determination and distribution of both financial and non-financial incentives were common across the countries. Dis-incentives included the lack of personal protective equipment, lack of transportation to health facilities during lockdown, long working hours, harassment by security forces and perceived unfairness in access to and inadequacy of financial incentives. CONCLUSION: Although important for worker motivation, financial and non-financial incentives generated some dis-incentives because of the perceived unfairness in their provision. Financial and non-financial incentives deployed during health emergencies should preferably be pre-determined, equitably and transparently provided because when arbitrarily applied, these same financial and non-financial incentives can potentially become dis-incentives. Moreover, financial incentives are useful only as far as they are administered together with non-financial incentives such as supportive and well-resourced work environments. The potential negative impacts of interventions such as service delivery re-organization and lockdown within already weakened systems need to be anticipated and due precautions exercised to reduce dis-incentives during emergencies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Motivación , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , Fuerza Laboral en Salud , Nigeria/epidemiología , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Senegal , Uganda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Urgencias Médicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
18.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 22(1): 49-57, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38573144

RESUMEN

Our aim is to explore the possible emergence of traumatic symptoms and the identity-related repercussions of the restrictions on elderly, who entered into nursing homes during the Covid-19 health crisis in France. Twenty-five subjects institutionalised before the health crisis and twenty-six subjects institutionalised during the periods of lockdown into nursing homes completed scales assessing anxiety-depressive symptomatology, traumatic symptoms and identity. Anxiety and depression symptoms were similar between the groups. The institutionalised group showed a significantly higher prevalence of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria D and E on the Post traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist version DSM-5 (PCL-5) during lockdown. Entry into an institution during the health crisis would have favored the emergence of traumatic symptoms in the participants. Consideration of the ethical issues raised by this study could make it possible to offer more individualised support to elderly during their transition to a new home.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Humanos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Casas de Salud , Instituciones de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermería , Ansiedad/epidemiología
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 926: 171951, 2024 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38537836

RESUMEN

A remarkable progress has been made toward the air quality improvements over the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) of China from 2017 to 2020. In this study, for the first time, the emission reductions of regional control measures together with the COVID-19 pandemic were considered simultaneously into the development of the GBA's emission inventories for the years of 2017 and 2020. Based on these collective emission inventories, the impacts of control measures, meteorological variations together with temporary COVID-19 lockdowns on the five major air quality index pollutants (SO2, NO2, PM2.5, PM10, and O3, excluding CO) were evaluated using the WRF-CMAQ and SMAT-CE model attainment assessment tool over the GBA region. Our results revealed that control measures in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region affected significantly the GBA, resulting in pollutant reductions ranging from 48 % to 64 %. In contrast, control measures in Hong Kong and Macao contributed to pollutant reductions up to 10 %. In PRD emission sectors, stationary combustion, on-road, industrial processes and dust sectors stand out as the primary contributors to overall air quality improvements. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic during period I (Jan 23-Feb 23) led to a reduction of NO2 concentration by 7.4 %, resulting in a negative contribution (disbenefit) for O3 with an increase by 2.4 %. Our findings highlight the significance of PRD control measures for the air quality improvements over the GBA, emphasizing the necessity of implementing more refined and feasible manageable joint prevention and control policies.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Contaminantes Ambientales , Humanos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/prevención & control , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Material Particulado/análisis , Mejoramiento de la Calidad , Dióxido de Nitrógeno , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo del Ambiente/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , China/epidemiología
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