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1.
Adv Parasitol ; 105: 111-124, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530392

RESUMEN

Poverty magnifies limitations resulting from traditional biases and environmental risks in endemic areas. Any approach towards disease control needs to recognise that socially embedded vulnerabilities can be as powerful as externally imposed infections. Important for RNAS was networking across borders, not just on schistosomiasis but on the whole spectrum of endemic helminthiases, and this bore fruit in the form of the expansion of RNAS into the 'Regional Network on Asian Schistosomiasis and other Helminth Zoonoses (RNAS+)', which focuses on technical standardization, supporting the growth of research capacity and the further development of networking. Administration is lean and largely virtual with the focus on connecting members via the Internet, providing databases and administrative back-up. The strategy emphasizes ways and means to alleviate the spectre of disease and poverty from the endemic areas through boosting research on target diseases and supporting collaboration between basic and operational research on the one hand and control/elimination activities on the other. RNAS+ also benefits from continuing input from outside research institutions in areas outside Southeast Asia. This paper is aiming to identify the priority actions to close the gap between researcher and policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Helmintiasis/prevención & control , Investigación/tendencias , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Animales , Asia Sudoriental , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional
2.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 15-19, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274016

RESUMEN

Protection of healthcare workers (HCWs) from biological hazards in the workplace has the added benefit of contributing to the quality of patient care and patient safety. Vaccinated HCWs act as a barrier against the spread of infections and maintain essential healthcare delivery during outbreaks. In Italy, specific recommendations for vaccination of HCWs are issued by the Ministry of Health within the framework of the National Immunization Prevention Plan. These recommendations provide advice regarding HCW vaccination for hepatitis B, influenza, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, varicella and tuberculosis. This paper summarizes the current literature on vaccine-preventable diseases and vaccination among Italian HCWs.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Infección Hospitalaria/prevención & control , Personal de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Infección Hospitalaria/epidemiología , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Salud Laboral , Vacunación/psicología , Vacunación/normas
3.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(3): 549-560, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31036234

RESUMEN

Migration and forced displacement are at record levels in today's geopolitical environment; ensuring the health of migrating populations and the health security of asylum and receiving countries is critically important. Overseas screening, treatment, and vaccination during planned migration to the United States represents one successful model. These strategies have improved tuberculosis detection and treatment, reducing rates in the United States; decreased transmission and importation of vaccine-preventable diseases; prevented morbidity and mortality from parasitic diseases among refugees; and saved health costs. We describe the work of CDC's Division of Global Migration and Quarantine and partners in developing and implementing these strategies.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Tamizaje Masivo/normas , Práctica de Salud Pública/normas , Refugiados , Vacunación/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
4.
Health Secur ; 17(2): 117-123, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009258

RESUMEN

Hospital infection disease preparedness gaps were brought to the forefront during the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The ability of US hospitals to rapidly identify, isolate, and manage patients with potentially high-consequence pathogens is a critical component to health security. Since the EVD cases in Dallas, Texas, the continuity of hospital preparedness has been questionable. While certain hospitals were designated as EVD treatment facilities, the readiness of most American hospitals remains unknown. A gap analysis of a hospital system in Phoenix, Arizona, underscores the challenges of maintaining infectious disease preparedness in the existing US healthcare system.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Control de Infecciones/organización & administración , Sistemas Multiinstitucionales/normas , Arizona , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Brotes de Enfermedades/economía , Instituciones de Salud/normas , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/prevención & control , Hospitales , Humanos , Sistemas Multiinstitucionales/organización & administración , Aislamiento de Pacientes , Equipo de Protección Personal/provisión & distribución , Personal de Hospital/educación , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Prev Vet Med ; 167: 128-136, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027714

RESUMEN

Brazil is the fourth largest producer and exporter of pork in the world, but has never reported yet the occurrence of some economically important diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) and porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED). Most of the swine farms in Brazil are characterized by intensive production being part of large integrated companies, where biosecurity practices help to prevent the introduction and spread of disease-causing infectious agents. The assessment of biosecurity in farms is not straightforward because of the large number of practices that constitute an on-farm biosecurity program. It is therefore necessary to combine the measurement of several parameters in order to characterize the level of biosecurity on a given farm. Thus, the objective of the study was to develop a biosecurity score to estimate the biosecurity level (theta or θ) in swine farms using the item response theory (IRT) and explore the relationship between the scores and independent variables. The IRT is a latent trait method extensively used in other fields, and offers the advantage to quantify the latent trait, here the biosecurity level, and to identify the practices that discriminate the farms avoiding the use of extensive questionnaires and redundant questions. In this study, 604 farms were evaluated in the main swine production regions of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thirty-five practices were considered in order to quantify the biosecurity level on a given farm. After a recursive process 14 practices were selected to compose the biosecurity score to estimate the biosecurity level (θ). The variables identified with greater capacity of distinguishing the farms as to their biosecurity level were if the farm has 'feed bin outside of the barn limit (external feed loading)', has 'perimetral fence around the farm or barn', and if 'transit of trucks inside the farm is prohibited'. The biosecurity level was associated with some independent variables, e.g. the farm operation type, the integrated company and some owner characteristics. In addition, the results demonstrated that biosecurity practices related to management (internal biosecurity) are adopted with higher frequency compared to segregation and sanitation practices (external biosecurity). The IRT model proved useful and valid to estimate the biosecurity level in swine farms. Moreover, the biosecurity score described here has a relatively low number of items, which makes the application of this tool easier and faster compared to other previously described biosecurity assessment.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/prevención & control , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Granjas , Factores de Riesgo , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/epidemiología
6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 133(4): 739-753, 2019 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913173

RESUMEN

Vaccines administered to women during pregnancy can provide protection against serious infectious diseases for the mother, for the newborn, or both. Maternal immunization boosts the concentration of maternal antibodies that can be transferred across the placenta to directly protect infants too young to be immunized. In addition, indirect protection through prevention of maternal infection and through breast milk antibodies can be achieved through maternal immunization. In general, inactivated vaccines are considered safe for pregnant women and their fetuses, whereas live vaccines are avoided owing to the theoretical potential risk to the fetus. However, the risks and benefits of vaccination must be carefully weighed and whenever possible, protection to the mother and her infant should be prioritized. Influenza and tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccines are routinely recommended for all pregnant women in the United States. Seasonal inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women in any trimester of pregnancy, mainly to protect the mother, but there is growing evidence that infants benefit from passive antibody protection against influenza complications. The Tdap vaccine is recommended during the third trimester of each pregnancy to provide optimal protection to infants who are at particularly high risk of pertussis complications and mortality in the first 3 months of life. The effects of maternal immunization on the prevention of maternal and infant disease have been demonstrated in observational and prospective studies of influenza and pertussis disease in the United States and worldwide. Maternal immunization has the potential to improve the health of mothers and young infants and therefore, other diseases of relevance during this period are now targets of active research and vaccine development, including group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus. Similarly, several vaccines can be administered during pregnancy in special circumstances, when maternal health, travel, or other special situations arise. This article reviews the current recommendations for vaccination of women during pregnancy.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Inmunización/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Atención Prenatal/normas , Vacunas de Productos Inactivados/administración & dosificación , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Femenino , Edad Gestacional , Humanos , Esquemas de Inmunización , Recién Nacido , Salud Materna , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal/métodos , Estados Unidos
9.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30767035

RESUMEN

In Germany, the Standing Committee on Vaccination (STIKO) develops recommendations on vaccinations and other measures of specific prophylaxis against communicable diseases. Myths, wrong assumptions, and conspiracy theories are able to disturb the implementation of vaccination recommendations. Evidence and transparency of recommendations are needed to rationalize the discussion.In November 2011, STIKO adopted a new standard operating procedure (SOP) for the development of evidence-based vaccination recommendations. Following guidance provided by the SOP, a number of new vaccination recommendations have been developed since 2011. Furthermore, existing recommendations were revised or extended accordingly. This article provides an overview on the methodology of the SOP, describes experiences made so far, and characterizes future challenges.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Vacunación Masiva/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto/normas , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Alemania , Humanos
10.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(1): 26-34, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30390380

RESUMEN

During the last decade, the concept of One Health has become the international standard for zoonotic disease control. This call for transdisciplinary collaboration between professionals in human, animal and environmental health has produced several successes in zoonotic disease control, surveillance and research. Despite the lack of a clear definition, a shared agenda or institutional governance, One Health has proven to be a fruitful idea. Due to its ambiguity, the One Health concept functions as a boundary object: by leaving room for interpretation to fit different purposes, it facilitates cooperation. In many cases, this results in the promotion of health of humans, animals and the environment. However, there are also situations in which this mutual benefit of a One Health approach is not that evident, for instance, when healthy animals are culled to protect public health. Although such a strategy could well be part of a One Health approach, it is hard to understand how this contributes to the health of concerning animals. Consequently, these practices often lead to public debate. This raises questions on how we should understand the One Health concept in zoonotic disease control. Is it really about equally improving the health of humans, animals and the environment and is this even possible? Or is it ultimately just public health that counts? In cases of conflict between different values, the lack of a universal definition of the One Health concept contributes to this complexity. Although boundary objects have many positive aspects, in the context of One Health and zoonotic disease control, this conception seems to conceal underlying normative differences. To address moral dilemmas related to a One Health approach in zoonotic disease control, it is important to reflect on moral status and the meaning of health for humans, animals and the environment.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Salud Única/ética , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/economía , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Humanos , Condición Moral
11.
Australas J Ageing ; 38(1): 60-63, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30537166

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To identify the perceived barriers to the implementation of the Australian national guidelines on influenza outbreak management with Sydney Local Health District (SLHD) residential aged care facility (RACF) staff. METHODS: All SLHD RACFs were invited to participate in a telephone interview. The questionnaire collected information about demographic characteristics and participants' level of agreement with statements regarding perceived barriers to implementing the national guidelines for influenza outbreak management. RESULTS: Twenty-eight of 61 RACFs (46%) participated in the study. The three most common barriers identified were as follows: scepticism towards staff influenza vaccination (n = 13, 46%); the effort required to read the national guidelines (n = 11, 39%); and lack of infrastructure to physically separate residents during an outbreak (n = 10, 36%). CONCLUSIONS: We recommend implementing and evaluating programmes which address misconceptions about influenza vaccination amongst RACF staff. Further, all RACF staff, including care staff, should receive targeted education on the role of infection control in influenza outbreak management.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Brotes de Enfermedades , Personal de Salud/normas , Hogares para Ancianos/normas , Gripe Humana/terapia , Casas de Salud/normas , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Adhesión a Directriz , Encuestas de Atención de la Salud , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud/educación , Personal de Salud/psicología , Humanos , Vacunas contra la Influenza/administración & dosificación , Gripe Humana/epidemiología , Gripe Humana/transmisión , Gripe Humana/virología , Capacitación en Servicio/normas , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Aislamiento de Pacientes/normas , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto
12.
Biosystems ; 175: 47-56, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30521859

RESUMEN

Schistosomiasis, the most common water-borne infection worldwide, continues to pose a serious public health challenge in developing nations and to travellers who visit these endemic regions. We apply optimal control on a temperature dependent schistosomiasis model. Our optimal control aims to minimize the pre-patent and patent human population at minimal costs. Our analysis and results throughout the paper highlight the impact of optimal control shaping the future patterns of the disease. Our results show that optimal control can significantly reduce the schistosomiasis burden in the community and in some instance by more than three-fold. In addition, our results show that with low costs the optimal strategy will be carried out at or close to its maximum strength for a sufficiently long period of time, so as minimize the exposure and infection. With high costs, however, the control have to be implemented with reduced or even minimum, strength, to achieve an optimal balance between the costs and effects of control. Our findings suggest that optimal control theory can be useful on minimizing the infected host and vector. The study and its findings can provide a useful framework for designing cost-effective control for schistosomiasis.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Modelos Teóricos , Schistosoma/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis/prevención & control , Temperatura Ambiental , Animales , Humanos , Caracoles , Sudáfrica/epidemiología
13.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 72(4): 203-210, 2019 Jul 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30584198

RESUMEN

Although rabies still kills many people, the global eradication of human rabies is considered to be feasible. Progress towards eradication may differ among regions with differing socio-economic statuses; therefore, states that successfully eradicate this disease must be vigilant for rabies re-emergence. Here, we discuss challenges that remain concerning current rabies prevention measures and risk assessment results concerning possible rabies introduction and spread in rabies-free Japan. We summarize the preventative measures undertaken by representative rabies-free countries and regions. Our risk assessment results show that the risk of rabies reintroduction under current circumstances is very low, and that subsequent spread of the disease would be minimal because of quite low value of basic reproduction number. Similar assessments conducted in other rabies-free areas also showed limited risks of introduction. The majority of rabies-free countries maintain their rabies-free status through strict import quarantine of carnivorous animals, efficient surveillance of animal rabies including wildlife, quick emergency responses, and raising public awareness of the disease. To maintain the current rabies-free status in Japan, we strongly recommend maintaining the current quarantine system and reinforcing stakeholder compliance for those involved in international movement of dogs. Moreover, sustainable surveillance systems targeting wildlife are indispensable.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Rabia/prevención & control , Animales , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/legislación & jurisprudencia , Erradicación de la Enfermedad/normas , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Cuarentena/legislación & jurisprudencia , Cuarentena/normas , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/transmisión , Medición de Riesgo , Vacunación/veterinaria
14.
Parasite ; 25: 54, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444486

RESUMEN

Since 2004, the national schistosomiasis control strategy in China has shifted from the morbidity control strategy (conventional strategy) to an integrated strategy (new strategy). We investigated the effectiveness of the new strategy and compared it against the conventional strategy. We retrieved from electronic databases the literature regarding the new strategy published from 2000 to 2017. The effect of the new or conventional strategy on infection by Schistosoma japonicum of humans and snails (Oncomelania hupensis) was evaluated with pooled log relative risk (logRR). A total of only eight eligible publications were included in the final meta-analysis. The results showed that implementation of the new strategy reduced the infection risk by 3-4 times relative to the conventional strategy. More specifically, the conventional strategy caused a reduction in both human (logRR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.12-0.99) and snail infections (logRR = 0.34, 95% CI: -0.69-1.37), while the new strategy also significantly reduced both human (logRR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) and snail infections (logRR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.06-2.15). In contrast to the conventional strategy, the new strategy appeared more effective to control both human (logRR difference = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.78-1.86) and snail infections (logRR difference = 1.53, 95% CI: 0.76-2.31). Our data demonstrate that the new integrated strategy is highly effective to control the transmission of S. japonicum in China, and this strategy is recommended for schistosomiasis elimination in other affected regions across the world, with adaptation to local conditions.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Schistosoma japonicum/aislamiento & purificación , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/epidemiología , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/transmisión , Caracoles/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Bases de Datos Factuales , Humanos , Ríos/parasitología , Schistosoma japonicum/efectos de los fármacos , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/parasitología , Esquistosomiasis Japónica/prevención & control
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30360472

RESUMEN

In the EU/EEA, subgroups of international migrants have an increased prevalence of certain infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to examine migrants' acceptability, value placed on outcomes, and accessibility of infectious disease interventions. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative reviews adhering to the PRISMA reporting guidelines. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DARE, and CDSR, and assessed review quality using AMSTAR. We conducted a framework analysis based on the Health Beliefs Model, which was used to organize our preliminary findings with respect to the beliefs that underlie preventive health behavior, including knowledge of risk factors, perceived susceptibility, severity and barriers, and cues to action. We assessed confidence in findings using an adapted GRADE CERQual tool. We included 11 qualitative systematic reviews from 2111 articles. In these studies, migrants report several facilitators to public health interventions. Acceptability depended on migrants' relationship with healthcare practitioners, knowledge of the disease, and degree of disease-related stigma. Facilitators to public health interventions relevant for migrant populations may provide clues for implementation. Trust, cultural sensitivity, and communication skills also have implications for linkage to care and public health practitioner education. Recommendations from practitioners continue to play a key role in the acceptance of infectious disease interventions.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/psicología , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Migrantes/psicología , Canadá , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 18(1): 413, 2018 Aug 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134861

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Malaria transmission is both seasonal and heterogeneous, and mathematical models that seek to predict the effects of possible intervention strategies should accurately capture realistic seasonality of vector abundance, seasonal dynamics of within-host effects, and heterogeneity of exposure, which may also vary seasonally. METHODS: Prevalence, incidence, asexual parasite and gametocyte densities, and infectiousness measurements from eight study sites in sub-Saharan Africa were used to calibrate an individual-based model with innate and adaptive immunity. Data from the Garki Project was used to fit exposure rates and parasite densities with month-resolution. A model capturing Garki seasonality and seasonal heterogeneity of exposure was used as a framework for characterizing the infectious reservoir of malaria, testing optimal timing of indoor residual spraying, and comparing four possible mass drug campaign implementations for malaria control. RESULTS: Seasonality as observed in Garki sites is neither sinusoidal nor box-like, and substantial heterogeneity in exposure arises from dry-season biting. Individuals with dry-season exposure likely account for the bulk of the infectious reservoir during the dry season even when they are a minority in the overall population. Spray campaigns offer the most benefit in prevalence reduction when implemented just prior to peak vector abundance, which may occur as late as a couple months into the wet season, and targeting spraying to homes of individuals with dry-season exposure can be particularly effective. Expanding seasonal malaria chemoprevention programs to cover older children is predicted to increase the number of cases averted per treatment and is therefore recommended for settings of seasonal and intense transmission. CONCLUSIONS: Accounting for heterogeneity and seasonality in malaria transmission is critical for understanding transmission dynamics and predicting optimal timing and targeting of control and elimination interventions.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Enfermedades Transmisibles/transmisión , Malaria/prevención & control , Malaria/transmisión , Modelos Teóricos , Estaciones del Año , África del Sur del Sahara/epidemiología , Animales , Quimioprevención , Niño , Preescolar , Vectores de Enfermedades , Humanos , Incidencia , Malaria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Tiempo
20.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46252

RESUMEN

Site do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil, lança o Boletim Epidemiológico de hepatites virais 2018. Nele estão contidas informações atualizadas até 2017 sobre os casos de hepatites virais no Brasil, detalhadas segundo variáveis selecionadas, por região e por Unidade da Federação.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis Viral Humana/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Planes Nacionales de Desarrollo/políticas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas
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