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2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 717, 2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436848

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has affected millions of people since December 2019. Summarizing the development of COVID-19 and assessing the effects of control measures are very critical to China and other countries. A logistic growth curve model was employed to compare the development of COVID-19 before and after the emergency response took effect. We found that the number of confirmed cases peaked 9-14 days after the first detection of an imported case, but there was a peak lag in the province where the outbreak was concentrated. Results of the growth curves indicated that the fitted cumulative confirmed cases were close to the actual observed cases, and the R2 of all models was above 0.95. The average growth rate decreased by 44.42% nationally and by 32.5% outside Hubei Province. The average growth rate in the 12 high-risk areas decreased by 29.9%. The average growth rate of cumulative confirmed cases decreased by approximately 50% after the emergency response. Areas with frequent population migration have a high risk of outbreak. The emergency response taken by the Chinese government was able to effectively control the COVID-19 outbreak. Our study provides references for other countries and regions to control the COVID-19 outbreak.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , /prevención & control , China , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Urgencias Médicas/epidemiología , Humanos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
3.
Int J Health Serv ; 51(1): 101-106, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076739

RESUMEN

When a new infectious disease emerges as an epidemic or pandemic, strict and appropriate mitigation strategies are critical. Appropriate steps that facilitate defining of cases, carrying out accurate clinical diagnoses, and forming a powerful health surveillance that addresses public health policies and procedures are necessary. Tracking the number of COVID-19 cases over time and flattening the curve is another important element to establish research settings and identify therapeutic components to expedite and develop effective interventions. Addressing the various sections of the society in a philanthropic way is crucial to acquiring the public cooperation that is essential to controlling a disease like COVID-19. In this study, we discuss various strategies and measures adopted by Kerala, an Indian state, to combat the COVID-19 outbreak. Regular and timely updates by government public relations and health departments were used in many of the adopted strategies. The engagement of health information systems, together with the application of decentralized governance and community engagement, has contributed to effective population health management and surveillance of the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , /epidemiología , Gobierno , Gestión de la Información en Salud/normas , Política de Salud , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos
5.
Oncologist ; 26(1): e66-e77, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044007

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The rapid spread of COVID-19 across the globe is forcing surgical oncologists to change their daily practice. We sought to evaluate how breast surgeons are adapting their surgical activity to limit viral spread and spare hospital resources. METHODS: A panel of 12 breast surgeons from the most affected regions of the world convened a virtual meeting on April 7, 2020, to discuss the changes in their local surgical practice during the COVID-19 pandemic. Similarly, a Web-based poll based was created to evaluate changes in surgical practice among breast surgeons from several countries. RESULTS: The virtual meeting showed that distinct countries and regions were experiencing different phases of the pandemic. Surgical priority was given to patients with aggressive disease not candidate for primary systemic therapy, those with progressive disease under neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and patients who have finished neoadjuvant therapy. One hundred breast surgeons filled out the poll. The trend showed reductions in operating room schedules, indications for surgery, and consultations, with an increasingly restrictive approach to elective surgery with worsening of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 emergency should not compromise treatment of a potentially lethal disease such as breast cancer. Our results reveal that physicians are instinctively reluctant to abandon conventional standards of care when possible. However, as the situation deteriorates, alternative strategies of de-escalation are being adopted. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: This study aimed to characterize how the COVID-19 pandemic is affecting breast cancer surgery and which strategies are being adopted to cope with the situation.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de la Mama/terapia , Mastectomía/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/tendencias , Citas y Horarios , Neoplasias de la Mama/patología , /transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/normas , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/tendencias , Femenino , Carga Global de Enfermedades , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/normas , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Asignación de Recursos para la Atención de Salud/tendencias , Humanos , Mastectomía/economía , Mastectomía/normas , Mastectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Terapia Neoadyuvante/estadística & datos numéricos , Quirófanos/economía , Quirófanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Quirófanos/tendencias , Selección de Paciente , Admisión y Programación de Personal/economía , Admisión y Programación de Personal/estadística & datos numéricos , Admisión y Programación de Personal/tendencias , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/economía , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/organización & administración , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/tendencias , Cirujanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Tratamiento
7.
Urology ; 147: 50-56, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32966822

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To test for an association between surgical delay and overall survival (OS) for patients with T2 renal masses. Many health care systems are balancing resources to manage the current COVID-19 pandemic, which may result in surgical delay for patients with large renal masses. METHODS: Using Cox proportional hazard models, we analyzed data from the National Cancer Database for patients undergoing extirpative surgery for clinical T2N0M0 renal masses between 2004 and 2015. Study outcomes were to assess for an association between surgical delay with OS and pathologic stage. RESULTS: We identified 11,848 patients who underwent extirpative surgery for clinical T2 renal masses. Compared with patients undergoing surgery within 2 months of diagnosis, we found worse OS for patients with a surgical delay of 3-4 months (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.00-1.25) or 5-6 months (HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.19-1.91). Considering only healthy patients with Charlson Comorbidity Index = 0, worse OS was associated with surgical delay of 5-6 months (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.21-2.34, P= .002) but not 3-4 months (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.93-1.26, P = 309). Pathologic stage (pT or pN) was not associated with surgical delay. CONCLUSION: Prolonged surgical delay (5-6 months) for patients with T2 renal tumors appears to have a negative impact on OS while shorter surgical delay (3-4 months) was not associated with worse OS in healthy patients. The data presented in this study may help patients and providers to weigh the risk of surgical delay versus the risk of iatrogenic SARS-CoV-2 exposure during resurgent waves of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Neoplasias Renales/mortalidad , Nefrectomía/estadística & datos numéricos , Tiempo de Tratamiento/estadística & datos numéricos , Anciano , /transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Bases de Datos Factuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estimación de Kaplan-Meier , Neoplasias Renales/patología , Neoplasias Renales/cirugía , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad/tendencias , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Nefrectomía/normas , Nefrectomía/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Puerto Rico/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo de Tratamiento/tendencias , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Urology ; 147: 43-49, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010292

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To quantify and characterize the burden of urological patients admitted to emergency department (ED) in Lombardy during Italian COVID-19 outbreak, comparing it to a reference population from 2019. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all consecutive admissions to ED from 1 January to 9 April in both 2019 and 2020. According to the ED discharge ICD-9-CM code, patients were grouped in urological and respiratory patients. We evaluated the type of access (self-presented/ambulance), discharge priority code, ED discharge (hospitalization, home), need for urological consultation or urgent surgery. RESULTS: The number of urological diagnoses in ED was inversely associated to COVID-19 diagnoses (95% confidence interval -0.41/-0.19; Beta = -0.8; P < .0001). The average access per day was significantly lower after 10 March 2020 (1.5 ± 1.1 vs 6.5 ± 2.6; P < .0001), compared to reference period. From 11 March 2020, the inappropriate admissions to ED were reduced (10/45 vs 96/195; P = .001). Consequently, the patients admitted were generally more demanding, requiring a higher rate of urgent surgeries (4/45 vs 4/195; P = .02). This reflected in an increase of the hospitalization rate from 12.7% to 17.8% (Beta = 0.88; P < .0001) during 2020. CONCLUSION: Urological admissions to ED during lockdown differed from the same period of 2019 both qualitatively and quantitatively. The spectrum of patients seems to be relatively more critical, often requiring an urgent management. These patients may represent a challenge due to the difficult circumstances caused by the pandemic.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Tratamiento de Urgencia/tendencias , Pandemias/prevención & control , Enfermedades Urológicas/terapia , Centros Médicos Académicos/normas , Centros Médicos Académicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros Médicos Académicos/tendencias , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , /transmisión , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Tratamiento de Urgencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Admisión del Paciente/normas , Admisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Admisión del Paciente/tendencias , Alta del Paciente/normas , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Alta del Paciente/tendencias , Derivación y Consulta/estadística & datos numéricos , Derivación y Consulta/tendencias , Estudios Retrospectivos , Centros de Atención Terciaria/normas , Centros de Atención Terciaria/estadística & datos numéricos , Centros de Atención Terciaria/tendencias , Enfermedades Urológicas/diagnóstico , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/tendencias
9.
Health Commun ; 36(1): 6-14, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33225745

RESUMEN

Wide-spread misinformation about the COVID-19 pandemic has presented challenges for communicating public health recommendations. Should campaigns to promote protective behaviors focus on debunking misinformation or targeting behavior-specific beliefs? To address this question, we examine whether belief in COVID-19 misinformation is directly associated with two behaviors (face mask wearing and social distancing), and whether behavior-specific beliefs can account for this association and better predict behavior, consistent with behavior-change theory. We conducted a nationally representative two-wave survey of U.S. adults from 5/26/20-6/12/20 (n = 1074) and 7/15/20-7/21//20 (n = 889; follow-up response 83%). Scales were developed and validated for COVID-19 related misinformation beliefs, social distancing and face mask wearing, and beliefs about the consequences of both behaviors. Cross-lagged panel linear regression models assessed relationships among the variables. While belief in misinformation was negatively associated with both face mask wearing (B = -.27, SE =.06) and social-distancing behaviors (B = -.46, SE =.08) measured at the same time, misinformation did not predict concurrent or lagged behavior when the behavior-specific beliefs were incorporated in the models. Beliefs about behavioral outcomes accounted for face mask wearing and social distancing, both cross-sectionally (B =.43, SE =.05; B =.63, SE =.09) and lagged over time (B =.20, SE = 04; B =.30, SE =.08). In conclusion, belief in COVID-19-related misinformation is less relevant to protective behaviors, but beliefs about the consequences of these behaviors are important predictors. With regard to misinformation, we recommend health campaigns aimed at promoting protective behaviors emphasize the benefits of these behaviors, rather than debunking unrelated false claims.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Comunicación en Salud/normas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Máscaras/normas , Adulto , /psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Salud Pública , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
10.
J Urol ; 205(1): 241-247, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716742

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Resumption of elective urology cases postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic requires a systematic approach to case prioritization, which may be based on detailed cross-specialty questionnaires, specialty specific published expert opinion or by individual (operating) surgeon review. We evaluated whether each of these systems effectively stratifies cases and for agreement between approaches in order to inform departmental policy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated triage of elective cases postponed within our department due to the COVID-19 pandemic (March 9, 2020 to May 22, 2020) using questionnaire based surgical prioritization (American College of Surgeons Medically Necessary, Time Sensitive Procedures [MeNTS] instrument), consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization (based on published urological recommendations) and individual surgeon based surgical prioritization scoring (developed and managed within our department). Lower scores represented greater urgency. MeNTS scores were compared across consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization and individual surgeon based surgical prioritization scores. RESULTS: A total of 204 cases were evaluated. Median MeNTS score was 50 (IQR 44, 55), and mean consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization and individual surgeon based surgical prioritization scores were 2.6±0.6 and 2.2±0.8, respectively. Median MeNTS scores were 52 (46.5, 57.5), 50 (44.5, 54.5) and 48 (43.5, 54) for individual surgeon based surgical prioritization priority 1, 2 and 3 cases (p=0.129), and 55 (51.5, 57), 47.5 (42, 56) and 49 (44, 54) for consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization priority scores 1, 2, and 3 (p=0.002). There was none to slight agreement between consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization and individual surgeon based surgical prioritization scores (Kappa 0.131, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Questionnaire based, expert opinion based and individual surgeon based approaches to case prioritization result in significantly different case prioritization. Questionnaire based surgical prioritization did not meaningfully stratify urological cases, and consensus/expert opinion based surgical prioritization and individual surgeon based surgical prioritization frequently disagreed. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these systems should be considered in future disaster planning scenarios.


Asunto(s)
/prevención & control , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Electivos/normas , Enfermedades Urológicas/cirugía , Procedimientos Quirúrgicos Urológicos/normas , Urología/normas , Adulto , Anciano , /transmisión , Toma de Decisiones Clínicas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Consenso , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias/prevención & control , Selección de Paciente , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Medición de Riesgo/normas , Factores de Tiempo , Triaje/normas , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
12.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e044197, 2020 12 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376182

RESUMEN

AIM: To explore indigenous communities' responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences for maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care in the Peruvian Amazon. METHODS: Mamás del Río is a community-based, MNH programme with comprehensive supervision covering monthly meetings with community health workers (CHW), community leaders and health facilities. With the onset of the lockdown, supervisors made telephone calls to discuss measures against COVID-19, governmental support, CHW activities in communities and provision of MNH care and COVID-19 preparedness at facilities. As part of the programme's ongoing mixed methods evaluation, we analysed written summaries of supervisor calls collected during the first 2 months of Peru's lockdown. RESULTS: Between March and May 2020, supervisors held two rounds of calls with CHWs and leaders of 68 communities and staff from 17 facilities. Most communities banned entry of foreigners, but about half tolerated residents travelling to regional towns for trade and social support. While social events were forbidden, strict home isolation was only practised in a third of communities as conflicting with daily routine. By the end of April, first clusters of suspected cases were reported in communities. COVID-19 test kits, training and medical face masks were not available in most rural facilities. Six out of seven facilities suspended routine antenatal and postnatal consultations while two-thirds of CHWs resumed home visits to pregnant women and newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Home isolation was hardly feasible in the rural Amazon context and community isolation was undermined by lack of external supplies and social support. With sustained community transmission, promotion of basic hygiene and mask use becomes essential. To avoid devastating effects on MNH, routine services at facilities need to be urgently re-established alongside COVID-19 preparedness plans. Community-based MNH programmes could offset detrimental indirect effects of the pandemic and provide an opportunity for local COVID-19 prevention and containment.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Salud del Lactante , Salud Materna , Adulto , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/normas , Transmisión de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Necesidades y Demandas de Servicios de Salud , Servicios de Salud del Indígena/tendencias , Humanos , Salud del Lactante/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud del Lactante/tendencias , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud Materna/tendencias , Perú/epidemiología , Embarazo , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/métodos
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 5(12)2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33355265

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To generate rankings of 35 countries from all continents (except Africa) on performance against COVID-19. DESIGN: International time series, cross-sectional analysis. SELECTED COUNTRIES: Countries having 5500 or more cases (collectively including 85% of the world's cases) as of 16 April 2020 and that had reached 135 days into their pandemic by 30 July. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The initial severity and late-pandemic performance of countries can reasonably be ranked by COVID-19 cases or deaths per million population. For guiding policy and informing public accountability during the pandemic, we propose mid-pandemic performance rankings based on doubling time in days of the total number of cases and deaths in a country. Rank orderings then follow. RESULTS: At day 25 into a country's pandemic, cross-country performance variation was modest: in most countries, cumulative deaths doubled in fewer than 5 days. By day 65, and even more so by day 135, great cross-country variation emerged. By day 135, 9 of the 10 top-performing countries on deaths were European, although they were initially hard hit by the pandemic. Thus, rankings change rapidly enough to point to the value of a dynamic indicator. Five countries-Brazil, Mexico, India, Indonesia and Israel-were among the seven poorest performers at day 135 on both cases and deaths. Doubling times for cases and for deaths are positively correlated, but differ sufficiently to point to the value of both indicators. CONCLUSIONS: Readily available data support transparently generated rankings of countries' performance against COVID-19 based on doubling times of cases and deaths. It is premature to judge the value of these rankings in practice, but the potential and early experience suggest they might help facilitate identification of good policies and inform judgements on national leadership.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Países Desarrollados/clasificación , Pandemias/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Humanos
16.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1919, 2020 Dec 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33334334

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Emergency risk communication is a critical component in emergency planning and response. It has been recognised as significant for planning for and responding to public health emergencies. While there is a growing body of guidelines and frameworks on emergency risk communication, it remains a relatively new field. There has also been limited attention on how emergency risk communication is being performed in public health organisations, such as acute hospitals, and what the associated challenges are. This article seeks to examine the perception of crisis and emergency risk communication in an acute hospital in response to COVID-19 pandemic in Singapore and to identify its associated enablers and barriers. METHODS: A 13-item Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication (CERC) Survey, based on the US Centers for Disease and Control (CDC) CERC framework, was developed and administered to hospital staff during February 24-28, 2020. The survey also included an open-ended question to solicit feedback on areas of CERC in need of improvement. Chi-square test was used for analysis of survey data. Thematic analysis was performed on qualitative feedback. RESULTS: Of the 1154 participants who responded to the survey, most (94.1%) reported that regular hospital updates on COVID-19 were understandable and actionable. Many (92.5%) stated that accurate, concise and timely information helped to keep them safe. A majority (92.3%) of them were clear about the hospital's response to the COVID-19 situation, and 79.4% of the respondents reported that the hospital had been able to understand their challenges and address their concerns. Sociodemographic characteristics, such as occupation, age, marital status, work experience, gender, and staff's primary work location influenced the responses to hospital CERC. Local leaders within the hospital would need support to better communicate and translate hospital updates in response to COVID-19 to actionable plans for their staff. Better communication in executing resource utilization plans, expressing more empathy and care for their staff, and enhancing communication channels, such as through the use of secure text messaging rather than emails would be important. CONCLUSION: CERC is relevant and important in the hospital setting to managing COVID-19 and should be considered concurrently with hospital emergency response domains.


Asunto(s)
/terapia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Sistemas de Comunicación entre Servicios de Urgencia/normas , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/organización & administración , Tratamiento de Urgencia/normas , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Humanos , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Singapur , Estados Unidos
18.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11402-11408, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215462

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to explore the best follow-up management strategy for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) during the novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) epidemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients undergoing PD who were followed up during the NCP epidemic by our hospital were enrolled in this study. Because of the need to control the epidemic, a follow-up system was established during the epidemic period, with WeChat, QQ, and the telephone as the main methods of communication. Outpatient and emergency follow-ups were carried out to ensure the safety of dialysis and the prevention and control of the epidemic. The follow-up strategy included response measures related to the epidemic situation, prevention of peritonitis related to PD, water and salt control, exercise guidance, and psychological care. According to the patient's condition, the appointment system was implemented, with one consulting room and one process for each patient. The emergency patients were isolated in accordance with the epidemic situation. RESULTS: Since January 2020, among the 580 patients undergoing PD who were followed up in our department and their families, none had NCP infection. During the epidemic period, the standard hemoglobin level and the inpatient rate decreased. Complications related to PD, such as peritonitis, cardiovascular complications caused by volume overload, and pulmonary infection, did not significantly increase, and the withdrawal rate and mortality rate decreased compared with those in the same period last year. CONCLUSIONS: The patient follow-up strategy during the epidemic period had a significant positive effect on preventing and controlling the epidemic. Furthermore, during the epidemic period, encouraging patients and caregivers to pay attention to protection at home, avoid going out, strengthen self-management, and other measures were beneficial to the control of kidney disease itself, which is worth promoting. The close relationship between doctors and patients during the epidemic had a positive effect on the occurrence of complications related to patients undergoing PD.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Posteriores/métodos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Hemodiálisis en el Domicilio/normas , Fallo Renal Crónico/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Diálisis Peritoneal/normas , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuidados Posteriores/normas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Cuidadores/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Hemodiálisis en el Domicilio/efectos adversos , Hemodiálisis en el Domicilio/psicología , Humanos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Diálisis Peritoneal/efectos adversos , Diálisis Peritoneal/psicología , Peritonitis/epidemiología , Peritonitis/etiología , Relaciones Médico-Paciente , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Derivación y Consulta/normas , Automanejo/psicología , Telemedicina/normas , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11432-11439, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215466

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Soap has been used by humankind since ancient times and was probably already known to the Sumerians. It is a fatty acid salt obtained from the reaction of a strong base with a fatty substance of animal (tallow) or plant origin (oil). This reaction is called saponification. Syndets, on the other hand, are much more recent and have been in use for about a century. In the case of liquid syndets, they are mainly alkyl sulphates and their derivatives alkyl ether sulphates while isethionates and sarcosinates are more commonly found in solid syndets. Synthetic soaps and detergents are surfactants and, as such, they have detergent properties. The way soap works accounts for its antimicrobial properties. Thanks to its amphiphilic structure, it is able to interact with the lipid membranes of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) and inactivate them. In this coronavirus pandemic period, health authorities worldwide recommend hand washing with soap and water. We therefore wanted to provide a summary of the chemical characteristics and applications of soaps, on the one hand, and synthetic detergents, on the other. Soap is not the only product used for hand hygiene and, given the current situation, alternatives are complex and varied.


Asunto(s)
Antiinfecciosos/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Detergentes/farmacología , Desinfección de las Manos/métodos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Jabones/farmacología , Antiinfecciosos/química , Antiinfecciosos/normas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Detergentes/química , Detergentes/normas , Desinfección de las Manos/normas , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/virología , Jabones/química , Jabones/normas
20.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11445-11454, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33215472

RESUMEN

In Italy, SARS-CoV-2 outbreak registered a high transmission and disease rates. During the acute phase, oncologists provided to re-organize services and prioritize treatments, in order to limit viral spread and to protect cancer patients. The progressive reduction of the number of infections has prompted Italian government to gradually loosen the national confinement measures and to start the "Second phase" of measures to contain the pandemic. The issue on how to organize cancer care during this post-acute SARS-CoV-2 phase appears crucial and a reassessment of healthcare services is needed requiring new models of care for oncological patients. In order to address major challenges in cancer setting during post-acute SARS-CoV-2 phase, this work offers multidimensional solutions aimed to provide a new way to take care of cancer patients.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Oncología Médica/organización & administración , Modelos Organizacionales , Neoplasias/terapia , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico/normas , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Servicios de Atención a Domicilio Provisto por Hospital/organización & administración , Servicios de Atención a Domicilio Provisto por Hospital/normas , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Oncología Médica/normas , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Triaje/organización & administración , Triaje/normas
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