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1.
J Insect Sci ; 21(2)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686434

RESUMEN

Brown stink bugs, Euschistus servus, are an important early-season pest of field corn in the southeastern United States. Feeding in the early stages of corn development can lead to a number of growth deformities and deficiencies and, ultimately, a reduction in yield. An observational and two experimentally manipulated trials were conducted in 2017 and 2018 to 1) determine optimal timing for assessing brown stink bug damage, 2) assess the level of damage from which yield compensation can occur, and 3) examine the relationship between brown stink bug density and early-season damage and yield. Fields were identified with infestations of brown stink bugs and a damage rating system for early stages of corn was established. Varying rates of brown stink bug densities were introduced using field cages and damage was assessed throughout the season. The density and duration of stink bug infestations were critical factors for damage potential, with each day of active feeding per plant resulting in a loss of ~14 kg/ha in yield. The level of damage in early stages of corn was categorized into easily identifiable groups, with only the most severe damage leading to a reduction in yield. Moderate and minimal feeding damage did not result in yield loss. This study emphasizes the need for early and frequent scouting of corn to determine the risk of damage and yield loss from brown stink bugs. Results from this study can be used to help develop management programs for brown stink bugs in the early vegetative stages of field corn.


Asunto(s)
Biomasa , Hemípteros , Herbivoria , Zea mays , Animales , Femenino , Control de Insectos , Masculino , Plantones
2.
Arch Insect Biochem Physiol ; 106(4): e21772, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719088

RESUMEN

The ß-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2), which binds the biogenic amine octopamine, belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors and significantly regulates many physiological and behavioral processes in insects. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the MsOA2B2 gene in Mythimna separata was cloned, the full-length complementary DNA was 1191 bp and it encoded a 396-amino acid protein (GenBank accession number MN822800). Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction of spatial and temporal expression analysis revealed that the MsOAB2 gene was expressed in all developmental stages of M. separata and was most abundant in egg stages and second and fourth instars compared with other developmental stages, while the expression level during the pupal stage was much lower than that at the other stages. Further analysis with sixth instar M. separata larvae showed that the MsOA2B2 gene was expressed 1.81 times higher in the head than in integument and gut tissues. Dietary ingestion of dsMsOA2B2 significantly reduced the messenger RNA level of MsOA2B2 and decreased mortality following amitraz treatment. This study provides both a pharmacological characterization and the gene expression patterns of OA2B2 in M. separata, facilitating further research for insecticides using MsOA2B2 as a target.


Asunto(s)
Mariposas Nocturnas/genética , Receptores de Amina Biogénica , Animales , Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Genes de Insecto , Control de Insectos , Proteínas de Insectos/química , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Insecticidas/farmacología , Larva/genética , Larva/metabolismo , Mariposas Nocturnas/metabolismo , Filogenia , Pupa/genética , Pupa/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/química , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/genética , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta/metabolismo , Receptores de Amina Biogénica/química , Receptores de Amina Biogénica/efectos de los fármacos , Receptores de Amina Biogénica/genética , Receptores de Amina Biogénica/metabolismo , Toluidinas/farmacología
3.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560361

RESUMEN

Pest management of emerging pests can be challenging because very little fundamental knowledge is available to inform management strategies. One such pest, the red-headed flea beetle Systena frontalis (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is increasingly being identified as a pest of concern in cranberries Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton (Ericales: Ericaceae). To improve our understanding of this pest and to develop more targeted management programs, we conducted field and laboratory studies to characterize the development, seasonal emergence patterns, and density-dependent plant injury. We found that significantly more flea beetle eggs hatched when exposed to sustained cold treatment between 0 and 5°C for 15 wk than at warmer temperatures, and for shorter and longer cold-period durations. The adults emerged sporadically over the summer, were patchily distributed, fed on both fruit and foliage, and preferentially fed on new plant growth. Using soil cores, we found eggs and larvae located relatively deep (>30 cm) in the soil. These patterns indicate that S. frontalis likely overwinters as eggs, and that targeting the larval stage may be the most effective management approach. Despite the cryptic nature of the larvae, continuing to improve our understanding of this life stage will be critical to optimizing control strategies.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos/fisiología , Herbivoria , Control de Insectos , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animales , Escarabajos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Óvulo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Densidad de Población , Vaccinium macrocarpon/crecimiento & desarrollo , Wisconsin
4.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585925

RESUMEN

One of the most important global problems is protecting food from insect pests. The negative effects of synthetic insecticides on human health led to a resurgence of interest in botanical insecticides due to their minimal ecological side effects. Therefore, the insecticidal potential of hexane, acetone, and methanol extracts of Gnidia kraussiana Meisn roots at 1 and 5g/kg, and neem seed oil (NSO), used as standard insecticide, were evaluated. Ovicidal and larvicidal toxicity was tested by treating freshly laid eggs and larvae at different immature stages of Callosobruchus maculatus (F.). Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) (L.) Walp seed damage and weight loss were assessed after a storage period of 4 mo. Repellency effects were detected in choice test using a linear olfactometer. All the fractions were toxic to C. maculatus; however, their bioactivities were inversely correlated with products polarity. Extracts proved to be more toxic than the commercial NSO. The acetone extract was more effective against immature stages of C. maculatus than the methanol extract; eggs, first-, and second-instar larvae being the more susceptible. No cowpea seed damage and weight loss were recorded from the seeds treated with hexane and acetone extracts at the dosage of 5 g/kg, after 4 mo of storage. Extracts evoked stronger repellency effects compared with the tested standard insecticide. According to the above, hexane and acetone extracts are good candidates for incorporation in integrated pest management programs for the control of C. maculatus in stored cowpea seeds.


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Control de Insectos , Malvales/química , Fitoquímicos , Extractos Vegetales , Vigna , Animales , Femenino , Larva , Masculino , Óvulo , Extractos Vegetales/química , Pupa , Semillas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vigna/crecimiento & desarrollo
5.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638986

RESUMEN

Vernonia [Vernonia galamensis (Cass.) Less.] (Asterales: Asteraceae) was examined as a potential trap crop for the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L., Malvales: Malvaceae) arthropod complex. Four rows of vernonia were embedded within a 96-row cotton field. The abundance of true bug pests, true bug predators, and spiders were determined by whole-plant and sweep net sampling procedures during the early, middle, and late phases of the cotton-growing season. The census data showed that the arthropods had a strong preference for the vernonia trap crop throughout the cotton-growing season. The movement of the arthropods from the trap crop into cotton was also measured using the protein immunomarking technique as a mark-capture procedure. The arthropods inhabiting the vernonia trap crop were marked directly in the field with a broadcast spray application of egg albumin (protein) during each phase of the study. In turn, the captured specimens were examined for the presence of the mark by an egg albumin-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Very few marked specimens were captured beyond the vernonia trap crop 1, 3, and 6 d after each marking event. The arthropods' strong attraction and fidelity to vernonia indicate that it could serve as a trap crop for cotton pests and a refuge for natural enemies.


Asunto(s)
Distribución Animal , Control de Insectos/métodos , Insectos/fisiología , Rasgos de la Historia de Vida , Arañas/fisiología , Vernonia , Animales , Arizona , Producción de Cultivos , Gossypium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Vernonia/crecimiento & desarrollo
6.
J Insect Sci ; 21(1)2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480429

RESUMEN

The interest in using byproducts from agro-food industries as a rearing substrate for insects is increasing rapidly. We investigated the influence of byproducts of vegetal origin (okara-a byproduct of soy milk production, maize distillers with solubles, brewer's grains), used as rearing diet for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL), on the following parameters: biomass production, substrate reduction (SR), nutritional profile and in vitro digestibility, and larval gut microbiota. Hen diet was used as a control substrate. The highest larval biomass was collected on maize distillers, whereas the highest SR was observed on okara. The rearing substrate affected ash, ether extract, and chitin larval content. The BSFL reared on okara were characterized by a lower lauric acid content (17.6% of total fatty acids). Diets also influenced in vitro crude protein digestibility (%) for monogastrics, with the highest values for BSFL reared on maize distillers (87.8), intermediate for brewer's grains and okara BSFL, and the lowest for hen BSFL (82.7). The nutritive value for ruminants showed a lower Net Energy for lactation for BSFL reared on hen diet than okara and dried maize distillers BSFL. The different byproducts showed an influence on the larval gut microbiota, with a major bacterial complexity observed on larvae fed with the hen diet. The neutral detergent fiber concentration of dietary substrate was negatively correlated with Firmicutes and Actinobacteria relative abundance. Insects valorized byproducts converting them into high-value larval biomass to be used for feed production. The results evidenced the effects of the tested byproducts on the measured parameters, underling the chemical composition importance on the final insect meal quality.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Digestión , Dípteros/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético , Entomología/métodos , Control de Insectos/métodos , Agricultura , Animales , Biomasa , Dieta , Dípteros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dípteros/microbiología , Residuos Industriales/análisis , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/microbiología , Larva/fisiología , Microbiota
7.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 66: 101-119, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417819

RESUMEN

Thrips (Thysanoptera) are small insects that can cause huge problems in agriculture, horticulture, and forestry through feeding and the transmission of plant viruses. They produce a rich chemical diversity of pheromones and allomones and also respond to a broad range of semiochemicals from plants. These semiochemicals offer many opportunities to develop new approaches to pest management. Aggregation pheromones and plant-derived semiochemicals are already available in commercial products. We review these semiochemicals and consider how we can move away from using them mainly for monitoring to using them for control. We still know very little about the behavioral responses of thrips to semiochemicals, and we show that research in this area is needed to improve the use of semiochemicals in pest management. We also propose that thrips should be used as a model system for semiochemically mediated behaviors of small insects that have limited ability to fly upwind.


Asunto(s)
Control de Insectos , Feromonas , Thysanoptera , Animales
8.
Annu Rev Entomol ; 66: 121-140, 2021 01 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417820

RESUMEN

Insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are used in sprayable formulations or produced in transgenic crops as the most successful alternatives to synthetic pesticides. The most relevant threat to sustainability of Bt insecticidal proteins (toxins) is the evolution of resistance in target pests. To date, high-level resistance to Bt sprays has been limited to one species in the field and another in commercial greenhouses. In contrast, there are currently seven lepidopteran and one coleopteran species that have evolved practical resistance to transgenic plants producing insecticidal Bt proteins. In this article, we present a review of the current knowledge on mechanisms of resistance to Bt toxins, with emphasis on key resistance genes and field-evolved resistance, to support improvement of Bt technology and its sustainability.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Insectos/genética , Alelos , Animales , Control de Insectos , Resistencia a los Insecticidas/genética
10.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2021. (WHO/UCN/GMP/2021.01).
en Inglés | WHO IRIS | ID: who-339609
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 207: 111307, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931968

RESUMEN

Spray application is considered to be the most common method of insecticide use in apple orchard, while trunk injection has often be used in labor-intensive areas. Here, a comparison of both methods in aphid control efficiency and non-target effects was conducted. We evaluated the effects of thiamethoxam by either spray or injection on apple aphid Aphis citricola, and examined the temporal dynamic of thiamethoxam in leaves by using residue analysis. Results showed that thiamethoxam had a remarkable suppression effect on Aphis citricola, and both application methods had obvious control efficiency with the highest value above 90%. The control effect of spray method on Aphis citricola reached the maximum at 7 days after application, while that of injection method reached the maximum at 14 days after application. Moreover, the control effect of injection after 14 days and that of spray after 7 days were not significant, suggesting the spray method had a higher quick-acting effect than the injection method, and the two methods had a similar persistence effect. The population dynamics of non-target insects (ladybugs, parasitoid wasps and predatory bugs) showed basically the same as that of blank controlled. The control effect evaluation of thiamethoxam on Aphis citricola suggest that injection treatment was more effective in protecting natural enemies than spray treatment, and thiamethoxam didn't interfere with natural enemies to control Aphis citricola with both two application methods.


Asunto(s)
Áfidos/efectos de los fármacos , Control de Insectos/métodos , Insecticidas/administración & dosificación , Malus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Tiametoxam/administración & dosificación , Animales , Áfidos/crecimiento & desarrollo , China , Insectos/efectos de los fármacos , Insectos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Insecticidas/farmacología , Hojas de la Planta/efectos de los fármacos , Dinámica Poblacional , Tiametoxam/farmacología
12.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 202-207, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32656993

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is an invasive, polyphagous vinegar fly pest that is primarily controlled by calendar-based broad-spectrum insecticide programs. Nonchemical management tactics are urgently needed to reestablish IPM within affected berry and cherry cropping systems. Composting is a post-harvest crop sanitation strategy that could potentially be used to manage D. suzukii infestation of fruit wastes. RESULTS: This study found that D. suzukii emergence decreased exponentially with an increasing proportion of chicken manure, with emergence reduced by 95% in compost treatments containing 25% chicken manure. Furthermore, Drosophila melanogaster (Meigen) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) demonstrated a response similar to D. suzukii in the field. CONCLUSION: Integrating this control tactic into existing D. suzukii management programs may help to reduce the need for insecticide applications for D. suzukii as well as provide improved management of other Drosophila spp. in post-harvest systems.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Drosophila , Animales , Drosophila melanogaster , Ecosistema , Frutas , Control de Insectos
13.
Pest Manag Sci ; 77(1): 389-396, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738015

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Automated aerosol puffers releasing behaviorally active volatile organic compounds can deter insect pests in crops. During 2016, we tested the efficacy of aerosol puffer arrays emitting 1-octen-3-ol at reducing Drosophila suzukii oviposition in fall-bearing raspberries in Western New York State. During 2017, we compared the performance of aerosol puffers with a passive diffusion release method (vial dispensers), as well as puffer timing and placement within the field. RESULTS: During 2016, we found that octenol application in the field via aerosol puffer systems resulted in a 20% decrease in D. suzukii oviposition compared to control plots. During 2017, we found that aerosol puffers releasing octenol were 42-55% more effective than vial dispensers at deterring oviposition. We also found that a discontinuous application of octenol during dawn and dusk was sufficient to deter D. suzukii oviposition equivalent to continuous applications throughout the day. Although we observed no differences in infestation depending on puffer placement, low fly populations at the time of the trial may have affected the data. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that automated aerosol puffer systems may reduce D. suzukii infestation to a greater extent than vial dispensers. If adopted, a discontinuous puffer release schedule may protect both economic and ecological interests by reducing the amount of material required to achieve efficacy. Further research on puffer placement is needed to determine whether perimeter applications are effective in larger scale field research and in combination with attractants as part of a push-pull management system.


Asunto(s)
Oviposición , Tetraodontiformes , Aerosoles , Animales , Drosophila , Femenino , Control de Insectos , New York , Octanoles
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242787, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33382712

RESUMEN

Red cotton bugs [Dysdercus spp. (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae] are among the most destructive pests of cotton and many other crops. Red cotton bugs (RCBs hereafter) damage cotton plants by sucking sap and deteriorate lint by staining. The incidence of RCBs causes boll injury along the field margins neighboring with various peripheral areas. The adjacent habitat/crops strongly mediate the population dynamics of RCBs. However, limited is known about the impact of adjacent habitat on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality. This two-year field study evaluated the impact of adjacent habitat (okra, unpaved road, water channel and Eucalyptus trees) on population dynamics of RCBs and lint quality of cotton. The RCBs were sampled weekly from margins to 4 meter inside the cotton field. The RCBs' populations were monitored and plucked cotton bolls were examined for internal damage. The highest incidence of RCBs was recorded for cotton field adjacent to okra and water channel. Similarly, the highest number of damaged bolls were observed for the field side neighboring with okra and water channel. Furthermore, the highest number of unopened bolls were recorded for okra and water channel sides with higher percentage of yellowish lint. Field sides bordering with Eucalyptus trees and unpaved road had lower RCBs incidence and lint staining. Nonetheless, RCBs incidence was higher at field margins compared to field center indicating that population was strongly affected by adjacent habitat. It is concluded that sowing okra and weedy water channels adjacent to cotton would support RCBs population and subsequent lint staining. Therefore, water channels must be kept weed-free and okra should not be sown adjacent to cotton. Nonetheless, detailed studies are needed to compute monetary damages caused by cotton pests to the crop. Furthermore, effective management strategies must be developed to manage RCBs in cotton to avoid lint-staining problem.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Gossypium , Heterópteros/fisiología , Animales , Productos Agrícolas , Gossypium/crecimiento & desarrollo , Control de Insectos , Dinámica Poblacional
15.
J Insect Sci ; 20(6)2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367729

RESUMEN

Due to changes in pest management practices, farmers' reports of severe feeding injury to cranberries, Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton Ericales: Ericaceae, caused by the cranberry toad-bug, Phylloscelis rubra Ball, have increased in recent years in New Jersey (United States). Currently, however, limited information is available on the effects of P. rubra feeding or density of individuals needed to cause injury to cranberry vines and fruit. In 2015‒2017, we conducted studies to characterize injury to cranberry at a range of P. rubra densities by using cages in a screen-house and field, to establish a correlation between P. rubra density and crop injury in an open field experiment, and to measure the effects of P. rubra injury on the nutritional content (i.e., amounts of macro- and microelements) of cranberry vines. Phylloscelis rubra feeding on cranberry vines produced typical injury symptoms at relatively low densities (i.e., 2 individuals per vine in field cages or <10 individuals per sweep net sample in open fields), which included discolored (yellowish or reddish) or dead (brown) vines. This vine injury could lead to reductions in fruit mass and total fruit number. However, P. rubra injury to cranberry vines did not alter their nutritional composition. In general, this study highlights the ability of P. rubra to cause substantial injury to cranberry vines even when population densities were relatively low, which could result in declines in fruit production (quality and quantity). Therefore, infestations by P. rubra in cranberries must be considered when making pest management decisions in regions where this insect is present.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Animales , Control de Insectos , New Jersey , Control de Plagas
16.
J Insect Sci ; 20(6)2020 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33367730

RESUMEN

Oviposition-related genes have remained a consistent focus of insect molecular biology. Previous research has gradually clarified our mechanistic understanding of oviposition-related genes, including those related to oviposition-gland-related genes, oogenesis-related genes, oviposition-site-selection-related genes, and genes related to ovulation and hatching. Moreover, some of this research has revealed how the expression of single oviposition-related genes affects the expression of related genes, and more importantly, how individual node genes function to link the expression of upstream and downstream genes. However, the research to date is not sufficient to completely explain the overall interactions among the genes of the insect oviposition system. Through a literature review of a large number of studies, this review provides references for future research on oviposition-related genes in insects and the use of RNAi or CRISPR/Cas9 technology to verify the functions of oviposition-related genes and to prevent and control harmful insects.


Asunto(s)
Insectos/genética , Oviposición/genética , Animales , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Proteínas del Huevo/genética , Femenino , Expresión Génica , Genes de Insecto , Control de Insectos/métodos , Oogénesis/genética , Interferencia de ARN , Receptores de Superficie Celular/genética , Vitelogeninas/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0239742, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021997

RESUMEN

The yellow-legged hornet, Vespa velutina nigrithorax (Hymenoptera: Vespidae, Lepeletier 1836), is native to Southeast Asia and has been unintentionally introduced in France. The species is spreading in many areas of the world. The European Union has classified V. velutina as a species of concern because the hornet significantly affects beekeeping activities, mostly by preying honeybees (Apis mellifera) at beehive entrances. No current control method is simultaneously eco-friendly and effective. Here, we aimed to develop a greener technique for destroying V. velutina nests, inspired by a defense behavior used by the eastern honeybee (Apis cerana), the "heat ball". In the laboratory, we tested how V. velutina of different sexes, castes, and developmental stages responded to different heat exposure systems employing a range of temperature levels. Overall, the time of death decreased as temperature increased. Hornets died faster when the temperature was gradually increased than when it was instantaneously increased; larvae seemed to be more thermally tolerant. The most promising and potential technique for quickly destroying hornet nests may be steam injection, as the humid airflow system killed all hornets within 13 seconds, and therefore could be a good candidate for a green nest control method.


Asunto(s)
Control de Insectos/métodos , Especies Introducidas , Termotolerancia/fisiología , Avispas/fisiología , Animales , Abejas/fisiología , Femenino , Francia , Calor , Larva/fisiología , Masculino , Temperatura
18.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008696, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970689

RESUMEN

Gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis (g-HAT) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse flies. 70% of cases in 2019 (604/863) occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The national programme for g-HAT elimination in DRC includes a large-scale deployment of Tiny Targets which attract and kill tsetse. This intervention is directed by vector-control specialists with small teams, moving in canoes, deploying Tiny Targets along riverbanks where tsetse concentrate. While the targets are deployed in communal areas, and the method is cheap and easy-to-use, local people have little involvement. This study aimed to evaluate if a community-led vector control programme was feasible in the context of DRC's g-HAT elimination programme. In 2017, a community-led intervention was implemented in three villages in the Kwilu province of DRC. This intervention was evaluated through an Action Research with qualitative data collected through 21 focus group discussions and 289 hours of observation. Also the geographical location and quality of each Tiny Targets were collected (total number deployed = 2429). This research revealed that community-based approach largely worked: people were motivated and proactive, showed a good application of the acquired knowledge resulting in an effective deployment of Tiny Targets. In addition, our study provided evidence that acceptability of the targets by the community can improve deployment quality by reducing target loss and damage. The approach was feasible in places where canoe-based teams could not reach. Against these advantages, a community-based approach was time-consuming and had to adapt to the seasonal and daily rhythms of the community. A community-based approach for tsetse control is technically feasible and recommended but limits to the speed and scale of the approach restraints its application as a standalone strategy in a large-scale national programme aiming to eliminate g-HAT in a short timeframe.


Asunto(s)
Control de Insectos/métodos , Insectos Vectores , Enfermedades Desatendidas/prevención & control , Animales , República Democrática del Congo/epidemiología , Erradicación de la Enfermedad , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Humanos , Insectos Vectores/parasitología , Insectos Vectores/fisiología , Masculino , Enfermedades Desatendidas/parasitología , Proyectos Piloto , Trypanosoma , Tripanosomiasis Africana/epidemiología , Tripanosomiasis Africana/transmisión , Moscas Tse-Tse/parasitología , Moscas Tse-Tse/fisiología
19.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238979, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931513

RESUMEN

Invasive pests, such as emerald ash borer or Asian longhorn beetle, have been responsible for unprecedented ecological and economic damage in eastern North America. These and other wood-boring invasive insects can spread to new areas through human transport of untreated firewood. Behaviour, such as transport of firewood, is affected not only by immediate material benefits and costs, but also by social forces. Potential approaches to reduce the spread of wood-boring pests through firewood include raising awareness of the problem and increasing the social costs of the damages incurred by transporting firewood. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these measures, we create a coupled social-ecological model of firewood transport, pest spread, and social dynamics, on a geographical network of camper travel between recreational destinations. We also evaluate interventions aimed to slow the spread of invasive pests with untreated firewood, such as inspections at checkpoints to stop the movement of transported firewood and quarantine of high-risk locations. We find that public information and awareness programs can be effective only if the rate of spread of the pest between and within forested areas is slow. Direct intervention via inspections at checkpoints can only be successful if a high proportion of the infested firewood is intercepted. Patch quarantine is only effective if sufficiently many locations can be included in the quarantine and if the quarantine begins early. Our results indicate that the current, relatively low levels of public outreach activities and lack of adequate funding are likely to render inspections, quarantine and public outreach efforts ineffective.


Asunto(s)
Control de Insectos/métodos , Control de Plagas/métodos , Animales , Acampada/tendencias , Escarabajos , Bosques , Humanos , Insectos , Especies Introducidas/tendencias , Modelos Teóricos , Viaje/tendencias , Madera/parasitología
20.
Nature ; 584(7822): 584-588, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788724

RESUMEN

Locust plagues threaten agricultural and environmental safety throughout the world1,2. Aggregation pheromones have a crucial role in the transition of locusts from a solitary form to the devastating gregarious form and the formation of large-scale swarms3,4. However, none of the candidate compounds reported5-7 meet all the criteria for a locust aggregation pheromone. Here, using behavioural assays, electrophysiological recording, olfactory receptor characterization and field experiments, we demonstrate that 4-vinylanisole (4VA) (also known as 4-methoxystyrene) is an aggregation pheromone of the migratory locust (Locusta migratoria). Both gregarious and solitary locusts are strongly attracted to 4VA, regardless of age and sex. Although it is emitted specifically by gregarious locusts, 4VA production can be triggered by aggregation of four to five solitary locusts. It elicits responses specifically from basiconic sensilla on locust antennae. We also identified OR35 as a specific olfactory receptor of 4VA. Knockout of OR35 using CRISPR-Cas9 markedly reduced the electrophysiological responses of the antennae and impaired 4VA behavioural attractiveness. Finally, field trapping experiments verified the attractiveness of 4VA to experimental and wild populations. These findings identify a locust aggregation pheromone and provide insights for the development of novel control strategies for locusts.


Asunto(s)
Locusta migratoria/efectos de los fármacos , Locusta migratoria/fisiología , Feromonas/metabolismo , Feromonas/farmacología , Estirenos/metabolismo , Estirenos/farmacología , Envejecimiento , Migración Animal/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Ecosistema , Femenino , Control de Insectos , Locusta migratoria/química , Masculino , Densidad de Población , Receptores Odorantes/deficiencia , Receptores Odorantes/genética , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Sensilos/fisiología
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