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2.
J Bioeth Inq ; 16(3): 353-364, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273601

RESUMEN

Although "you are what you eat" is a well-worn cliché, personal identity does not figure prominently in many debates about the ethics of eating interventions. This paper contributes to a growing philosophical literature theorizing the connection between eating and identity and exploring its implications for eating interventions. I explore how "identity-policing," a key mechanism for the social constitution and maintenance of identity, applies to eating and trace its ethical implications for eating interventions. I argue that identity policing can be harmful and that eating interventions can subject people to these harms by invoking identity policing qua intervention strategy or by encouraging people to eat in ways that subject them to policing from others. While these harms may be outweighed by the benefits of the intervention being promoted, they should nonetheless be acknowledged and accounted for. To aid in these evaluations, I consider factors that modulate the presence and severity of identity-policing and discuss strategies for developing less harmful eating interventions. I conclude by considering the relationship between identity-policing and identity loss caused by long-term diet change. This paper contributes to the centering of identity in food ethics and to a more comprehensive picture of identity's ethical importance for eating interventions.


Asunto(s)
Dieta/ética , Dieta/psicología , Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Preferencias Alimentarias/ética , Preferencias Alimentarias/psicología , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Identificación Social , Humanos , Motivación , Marginación Social , Normas Sociales
3.
Health Care Women Int ; 40(10): 1101-1116, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335306

RESUMEN

Our aim was to develop a framework-based weight control behavior questionnaire (Weight-CuRB) and test its psychometric properties among a non-probability sample of 240 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Appropriate validity, simplicity, functionality and reliability were observed for the Weight-CuRB. The explanatory model fits the data well (χ2 [139] = 245.835, p < .001, CFI = 0.950, NFI = 0.901, IFI = 0.950, RMSEA = 0.057[(0.045-0.068]). To our knowledge, this was the first study to develop and validate a framework-based instrument aiming at cognitive needs assessment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. The weight-CuRB may be useful in addressing the core cognitive determinants of weight control among the patients.


Asunto(s)
Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Motivación , Osteoporosis Posmenopáusica/psicología , Posmenopausia , Psicometría/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Anciano , Índice de Masa Corporal , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Psicometría/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Aumento de Peso
4.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (31): 28-56, enero-abr. 2019.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1004711

RESUMEN

Resumo Neste artigo, pretendemos seguir o curso da ideia de 'direitos LGBT' na ONU, tomados como direitos humanos relacionados com a orientação sexual e com a identidade de gênero. Nosso argumento consiste em que esses direitos são acionados pelos atores políticos como 'direitos morais' e a ONU tem dado uma contribuição importante para torná-los direitos postos. Pressupomos que, justamente por tais direitos não estarem consagrados no direito internacional, ações e reações no debate acerca de 'direitos LGBT' se dão nas fissuras deste arcabouço. Neste artigo, assinalamos quais são essas fissuras e abordamos como os atores políticos as têm explorado. Os dados analisados aqui foram coletados mediante pesquisa documental e bibliográfica.


Abstract In this article, we intend to follow the course of the idea of 'LGBT rights' in the UN, understood as human rights related to sexual orientation and gender identity. Our argument is that these rights are used by political actors as 'moral rights', and the UN has given an important contribution to establish them in the international framework. We assume that, precisely because such rights are not established in international law, actions and reactions in the debate about 'LGBT rights' occur in the fissures of this framework. In this article, we highlight these fissures and discuss how they have been explored by political actors. The analyzed data was collected through document and bibliographic research.


Resumen En este artículo, pretendemos seguir el curso de la idea de 'derechos LGBT' en la ONU, tomados como derechos humanos relacionados con orientación sexual e identidad de género. Nuestro argumento consiste en que esos derechos son accionados por los actores políticos como 'derechos morales' y la ONU ha dado una contribución importante para hacerlos derechos puestos. Suponemos que, justamente por tales derechos no estén consagrados en el derecho internacional, acciones y reacciones en el debate acerca de 'derechos LGBT' se dan en las fisuras del ordenamiento. En este artículo, señalamos cuáles son esas fisuras y abordamos cómo los actores políticos las han explorado. Los datos analizados aquí fueron recolectados mediante investigación documental y bibliográfica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Religión , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Naciones Unidas/tendencias , Derechos Civiles/tendencias , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos Civiles , Identidad de Género
5.
Bioethics ; 33(4): 495-501, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480821

RESUMEN

Collaborations in global health research are on the rise because they enhance productivity, facilitate capacity building, accelerate output and make tackling big, multifactorial research questions possible. In this paper, I examine the concepts of trust and reliance in scientific collaborations in general, but also in the particular context of collaborations in global health research between high-income countries and low-and-middle income countries (LMIC). I propose and defend the argument that given the particular characteristics of collaborations and demands of trust relationships, reliance is a better relational mode for successful collaborations. Although reliance can be difficult to establish in situations where asymmetry of power exists, trust should not be the only relational mode available to LMIC researchers because of the type of vulnerability it introduces to the relationship. I conclude that the promotion of good collaborations requires addressing the power imbalances between partners, and establishing an even playing field in global health research.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica , Conducta Cooperativa , Salud Global , Cooperación Internacional , Confianza , Países Desarrollados , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Investigadores , Controles Informales de la Sociedad
6.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(1): 103-108, 2019 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29993153

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The relationship between informal leaders, i.e., highly competent individuals who have influence over peers without holding formal leadership positions, and organisational outcomes has not been adequately assessed in health care. AIMS: We evaluated the relationships between informal leaders and experience, job satisfaction and patient satisfaction, among hospital nurses. METHODS: Floor nurses in non-leadership positions participated in an online survey and rated colleagues' leadership behaviours. Nurses identified as informal leaders took an additional survey to determine their leadership styles via the Multifactor Leadership QuestionnaireTM . Six months of patient satisfaction data were linked to the nursing units. RESULTS: A total of 3,456 (91%) nurses received peer ratings and 628 (18%) were identified as informal leaders. Informal leaders had more experience (13.2 ± 10.9 vs. 8.4 ± 9.7 years, p < 0.001) and higher job satisfaction than their counterparts (4.8 ± 1.2 vs. 4.5 ± 1.1, p = 0.007). Neither the proportion of informal leaders on a unit nor leadership style was associated with patient satisfaction (p = 0.53, 0.46, respectively). CONCLUSION: While significant relationships were not detected between patient satisfaction and styles/proportion of informal leaders, we found that informal leaders had more years of experience and higher job satisfaction. More work is needed to understand the informal leaders' roles in achieving organisational outcomes. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: Nurse informal leaders are unique resources and health care organisations should utilise them for optimal outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Liderazgo , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/psicología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/normas , Enfermeras y Enfermeros/estadística & datos numéricos , Psicometría/instrumentación , Psicometría/métodos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Texas
7.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1017387

RESUMEN

El poder produce sujetos, sería una manera de enunciar una de las tesis foucaultianas que abren un horizonte crítico más allá del esquema de la soberanía, el cual Judith Butler describe de forma precisa cuando afirma "estamos acostumbrados a concebir el poder como algo que ejerce presión sobre el sujeto desde fuera, algo que subordina, coloca por debajo y relega a un orden inferior" (2010, p. 12). La representación del poder como fuerza externa que se impone, como represión por parte de un grupo, un individuo o el Estado, se desplaza, en la analítica foucaultiana, hacia una teoría de la sujeción, en el doble sentido de este término, como sometimiento y como subjetivación (Álvarez, 2015; Butler, 2010). Así, el problema central para Foucault no sería el origen, naturaleza o legitimación del poder sino su ejercicio sobre otros, la pregunta precisa que se plantea Foucault al respecto es, justamente, "¿qué ocurre cuando los individuos ejercen, como se dice, su poder sobre otros?" (Álvarez, 2015, p. 329). Para Foucault la respuesta a esta cuestión no es evidente ni inmediata, pues la aparición en el siglo XVI del Estado en Occidente (Álvarez, 2015) se configuró como causa de la extendida concepción del poder investido para someter. Ahora bien, lejos está el filósofo francés de desconocer la importancia de estos análisis, no obstante, su reflexión apunta hacia la constitución del sujeto como quien ejerce y sobre el que se ejerce el poder y, por tanto, de las estrategias que se usan para ello.


Power produces subjects, it would be a way to state one of the Foucaultian theses that open a critical horizon beyond the scheme of sovereignty, which Judith Butler describes precisely when she affirms "we are accustomed to conceive of power as something that puts pressure on the subject from outside, something that subordinates, places below and relegates to a lower order "(2010, p. 12). The representation of power as an external force that is imposed, as repression by a group, an individual or the State, moves, in Foucaultian analytics, towards a theory of subjection, in the double sense of this term, as submission and as subjectivation (Álvarez, 2015; Butler, 2010). Thus, the central problem for Foucault would not be the origin, nature or legitimation of power but its exercise over others, the precise question that Foucault asks about it is, precisely, "what happens when individuals exercise, as they say, their power over others? "(Álvarez, 2015, p. 329). For Foucault, the answer to this question is neither evident nor immediate, since the appearance in the 16th century of the State in the West (Álvarez, 2015) was configured as the cause of the extended conception of the power vested to submit. Now, the French philosopher is far from ignoring the importance of these analyzes, however, his reflection points to the constitution of the subject as who exercises and over which power is exercised and, therefore, of the strategies used to it.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Poder Psicológico , Filosofía , Autoritarismo , Controles Informales de la Sociedad
8.
Salud Colect ; 14(2): 273-288, 2018.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281755

RESUMEN

The purpose of this study is to understand the meanings of religious work in the prevention of violence and in the recovery of people involved in illicit acts in a complex of shantytowns in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The activities of religious entities in the territory, the view of religious leaders regarding their role and that of their church, and the representations of the territory and of the people who commit violent acts were analyzed. Using a qualitative approach, participant observation and interviews of religious leaders and "converts" were conducted between 2010 and 2012. The resulting narratives were treated using enunciation analysis. The leaders emphasize the importance of their churches' actions in violent and precarious areas, while the "converts" highlight the role of evangelization in their religious conversion. However, the relationships between religion and violence are complex, involving various types of trajectories and behaviors; in this way, the strength of religious support in the conversion process is both highlighted and questioned. The text concludes that churches' actions tend to be palliative and focused on the individual and therefore do little to transform reality, with the church potentially taking on roles of social control and pacification.


Asunto(s)
Pobreza , Religión , Violencia , Brasil , Organizaciones Religiosas , Humanos , Liderazgo , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Población Urbana , Violencia/prevención & control , Trabajo
9.
Dev Psychopathol ; 30(5): 1797-1815, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30106356

RESUMEN

The present study extends prior research on the link between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness by testing an integrated model in which neighborhood characteristics exert effects on health conditions through accelerated cardiometabolic aging. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 408 African Americans from the Family and Community Health Study. Using four waves of data spanning young adulthood (ages 18-29), we first found durable effects of neighborhood disadvantage on accelerated cardiometabolic aging and chronic illness. Then, we used marginal structural modeling to adjust for potential neighborhood selection effects. As expected, accelerated cardiometabolic aging was the biopsychosocial mechanism that mediated much of the association between neighborhood disadvantage and chronic illness. This finding provides additional support for the view that neighborhood disadvantage can influence morbidity and mortality by creating social contexts that becomes biologically embedded. Perceived neighborhood collective efficacy served to buffer the relationship between neighborhood disadvantage and biological aging, identifying neighborhood-level resilience factor. Overall, our results indicate that neighborhood context serves as a fundamental cause of weathering and accelerated biological aging. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood increases biological wear and tear that ultimately leads to onset of chronic illness, but access to perceived collective efficacy buffers the impact of these neighborhood effects. From an intervention standpoint, identifying such an integrated model may help inform future health-promoting interventions.


Asunto(s)
Afroamericanos/etnología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Enfermedad Crónica/etnología , Cardiopatías/etnología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/etnología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Adolescente , Adulto , Envejecimiento/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Adulto Joven
10.
Fam Community Health ; 41(4): 214-224, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134336

RESUMEN

Despite the knowledge that children in low-income neighborhoods are particularly vulnerable to asthma, few studies of child asthma focus on variation among low-income neighborhoods. We examined the relationship between child asthma and features associated with neighborhood poverty including safety, social cohesion, informal social control, collective efficacy, and disorder, across a sample of children from low-income neighborhoods (N = 3010; 2005-2007). Results show that the relationship between asthma and poverty is accounted for by family-level characteristics, but informal social control remains significantly and positively related to asthma after accounting for family-level characteristics. We discuss the importance of neighborhood environmental features for children's asthma.


Asunto(s)
Asma/epidemiología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Controles Informales de la Sociedad/métodos , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Pobreza
11.
Nutrients ; 10(7)2018 Jul 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018221

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the impact of a 6-month school nutrition intervention on changes in dietary knowledge, attitude, behavior (KAB) and nutritional status of Syrian refugee children. A quasi-experimental design was followed; Syrian refuge children in grades 4 to 6 were recruited from three informal primary schools (two intervention and one control) located in the rural Bekaa region of Lebanon. The intervention consisted of two main components: classroom-based education sessions and provision of locally-prepared healthy snacks. Data on household socio-demographic characteristics, KAB, anthropometric measures and dietary intake of children were collected by trained field workers at baseline and post-intervention. Of the 296 school children enrolled, 203 (68.6%) completed post-intervention measures. Significant increases in dietary knowledge (ß = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.89), attitude (ß = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.08, 1.30), and body mass index-for-age-z-scores (ß = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.10, 0.41) were observed among intervention vs. control groups, adjusting for covariates (p < 0.05). Compared to the control, the intervention group had, on average, significantly larger increases in daily intakes of total energy, dietary fiber, protein, saturated fat, and several key micronutrients, p < 0.05. Findings suggest a positive impact of this school-based nutrition intervention on dietary knowledge, attitude, and nutritional status of Syrian refugee children. Further studies are needed to test the feasibility and long-term impact of scaling-up such interventions.


Asunto(s)
Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/dietoterapia , Ciencias de la Nutrición del Niño/educación , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Estado Nutricional , Refugiados , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Conducta Infantil/etnología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/etnología , Trastornos de la Nutrición del Niño/prevención & control , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales Infantiles/etnología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud/etnología , Humanos , Líbano , Masculino , Estado Nutricional/etnología , Proyectos Piloto , Campos de Refugiados , Refugiados/educación , Salud Rural/etnología , Instituciones Académicas , Bocadillos/etnología , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Aprendizaje Social , Siria/etnología
12.
BMC Med Ethics ; 19(1): 53, 2018 06 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29871633

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Dual Use Research of Concern (DURC) constitutes a major challenge for research practice and oversight on the local, national and international level. The situation in Germany is shaped by two partly competing suggestions of how to regulate security-related research: The German Ethics Council, as an independent political advisory body, recommended a series of measures, including national legislation on DURC. Competing with that, the German National Academy of Sciences and the German Research Foundation, as two major professional bodies, presented a strategy which draws on the self-control of science and, inter alia, suggests expanding the scope of research ethics committees (RECs) to an evaluation of DURC. MAIN BODY: This situation is taken as an occasion to further discuss the scope and limits of professional self-control with respect to security-related research. The role of RECs as professional bodies of science is particularly analyzed, referring to the theoretical backgrounds of professionalism. Two key sociological features of professionalism - ethical orientation and professional self-control - are discussed with respect to the practice of biomedical science. Both attributes are then analyzed with respect to the assessment of DURC by RECs. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, it is stated that issues of biosecurity transcend the boundaries of the scientific community and that a more comprehensive strategy should be implemented encompassing both professional self-control and legal oversight.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/ética , Investigación de Doble Uso/ética , Comités de Ética en Investigación , Regulación Gubernamental , Investigadores/ética , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Investigación Biomédica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Investigación de Doble Uso/legislación & jurisprudencia , Ética en Investigación , Alemania , Humanos , Profesionalismo
13.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0196852, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723255

RESUMEN

Because punishments are expected to give offenders what they deserve proportionally to the severity of their offenses, the punishment of an entire group because of the misdeed of a few of its members is generally considered as unfair. Group entitativity might increase support for such collective punishment, because members of highly entitative groups are perceived as more similar and interchangeable. We designed three experiments comparing support for third-party collective punishment of low versus high entitative groups. As comparison base-rate, we included conditions in which participants punish an individual wrongdoer (Experiments 1 & 2). Results show that although support for individual punishment is higher than support for collective punishment, this difference was reduced (Experiment 1) or absent (Experiment 2) when the group was highly entitative. Experiment 3 replicated the increasing effect of group entitativity on support for collective punishment. We conclude that group entitativity increases the likelihood of an entire group being treated as a single unit, facilitating collective punishment when a few group members commit an offense.


Asunto(s)
Procesos de Grupo , Culpa , Castigo/psicología , Percepción Social , Responsabilidad Social , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente/ética , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Delincuencia Juvenil/ética , Masculino , Modelos Psicológicos , Países Bajos , Organizaciones , Plagio , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Justicia Social
14.
Public Health ; 159: 1-3, 2018 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653225

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: One strategy to prevent the onset of non-communicable diseases is to motivate healthy lifestyles through health media messages. In Peru, the food industry is currently implementing such strategy with health message cues, in the form of a small icon of a walking person or a healthy dish, appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements. Yet the extent of this practice is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was three-fold: to identify (1) the food and beverage advertisements showing health cues, (2) the types of health cues, and (3) their length in time. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of televised food and beverage advertisements that children and adolescents encounter on Peruvian television. METHODS: Content analysis of the presence of a health cue, type of health cue (physical activity and healthy diets), and the length in time of the health cue appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements in Peru. RESULTS: Health cues appeared on over 70% of advertisements for sugary drinks and tended to promote healthy diets more so than physical activity. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the food industry is currently advertising their products along with health message cues, and children and adolescents are exposed to this practice. Thus, we call for further testing of the effect of these health cues on children's and adolescents' food preferences and behaviors.


Asunto(s)
/estadística & datos numéricos , Señales (Psicología) , Industria de Alimentos , Comunicación en Salud/métodos , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Adolescente , Bebidas , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Alimentos , Humanos , Perú , Televisión
15.
Int J Drug Policy ; 55: 256-262, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29605540

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The intentional use of illicit drugs for sexual purposes (also known as 'chemsex') is well known within the MSM communities in Malaysia although research in this population is scarce primarily because both drug use and homosexuality are illegal and stigmatised in Malaysia. METHODS: From April to December 2014, interviews were conducted with twenty men (age range 21-43) living in Greater Kuala Lumpur who had sexual intercourse with other men in the past 6 months and who used illicit drugs at least monthly in the past 3 months. Fourteen men were recruited via gay social networking smartphone applications or websites while six were referred by the participants. Data were analsed using thematic analytic approach. FINDINGS: The average duration of illicit drug use was 6.4 years (range 1-21) and all participants were using methamphetamine ("ice" or crystal meth) with frequency of use ranged from daily to once a month. Participants came from diverse ethnic, economic, and occupational backgrounds. Most participants used an inhalation apparatus ("bong") to consume methamphetamine and injection was rare in the sample. The primary motivation of methamphetamine use was to increase sexual capacity, heighten sexual pleasure and enhance sexual exploration and adventurism. Socializing with friends ("chilling"), and increased energy for work were secondary motivations. Participants emphasized the need to control the use of methamphetamine and some have established rules to control the amount and duration of use and a minority of men have maintained condom use during anal sex while under the influence of methamphetamine. Participants who professed to be in control of their drug use characterized themselves as functional users regardless of the health and social consequences from continuing use. Overall, participants perceived themselves differently from the traditional opioid users and reported limited access to sexual health and substance use treatment services. CONCLUSION: There is a need to increase access to HIV prevention services such as PrEP and PEP, professional support, and substance abuse treatment for drug-using MSM. A more open and friendly environment towards drug-using MSM may help them access and engage with the health services.


Asunto(s)
Metanfetamina/farmacología , Automedicación/psicología , Minorías Sexuales y de Género/psicología , Adulto , Humanos , Malasia , Masculino , Metanfetamina/administración & dosificación , Conducta Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Adulto Joven
16.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (28): 136-158, jan.-abr. 2018.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-904042

RESUMEN

Resumo Este artigo pretende discutir, a partir de um relato biográfico, a prática de aborto em contexto popular enquanto estratégia de cuidar de si. Para tanto, analisa a história de vida de Helena, uma mulher de camada popular, marcada pela violência de gênero e a desigualdade social. Trata das leituras e das práticas de eventos da vida sexual e reprodutiva como "regra", "fazer descer", "abortar", "ter filhos" e "ter companheiro", com o intuito de compreender o manejo empreendido entre códigos hegemônicos, usos cotidianos e modos de sobrevivência da solidão e da violência.


Abstract This article discusses the practice of abortion in a popular context as a strategy of caring for oneself, by analyzing the life story of Helena, a working class woman whose trajectory is marked by gender violence and social inequality. It deals with the understanding and practices of sexual and reproductive life events, such as "menses", "provoking menstruation", "abortion", "having children" and "having a partner", in order to understand the management undertaken at the intersection of hegemonic codes, daily practices, and modes of surviving solitude and violence.


Resumen Este artículo pretender discutir, a partir de una biografía, la práctica del aborto en un contexto popular como uno de los modos de una cuidarse a sí misma. Por eso, analiza la historia de vida de Helena, una mujer de estrato popular, marcada por la violencia de género y por la desigualdad social. Por eso, son abordadas las interpretaciones de eventos de la vida sexual y reproductiva como la "regla", "hacer bajar la menstruación", "abortar", "tener hijos" y "estar en pareja", para comprender el manejo de códigos sociales hegemónicos, sus usos cotidianos y modos de sobrevivencia a la solitud y a la violencia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Brasil , Salud de la Mujer/tendencias , Aborto Inducido/métodos , Violencia Doméstica , Mujeres Maltratadas , Vulnerabilidad Social , Investigación Cualitativa , Inequidad Social
17.
Sex., salud soc. (Rio J.) ; (28): 178-205, jan.-abr. 2018.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-904048

RESUMEN

Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es analizar cinco exponentes del cine argentino contemporáneo a la luz de los elementos aportados desde la matriz conceptual de la Queer Theory de tradición principalmente butleriana. Se procura ubicar la posibilidad de una erótica por fuera de los límites impuestos por la heteronorma y la clasificación de identidades.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar cinco expoentes do cinema argentino contemporâneo à luz de elementos aportados da matriz conceitual da Teoria Queer, principalmente da tradição Butleriana, para localizar a possibilidade de um erótico fora dos limites impostos pelo heteronorma e a classificação das identidades.


Abstract This work analyzes five Argentine contemporary films through some elements of Judith Butler's Queer Theory in order to investigate the possibility of an eroticism beyond the limits imposed by heteronormativity and the classification of identities.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Argentina/etnología , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Sexualidad , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Identidad de Género , Antropología Cultural , Películas Cinematográficas
18.
Child Abuse Negl ; 80: 90-98, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579549

RESUMEN

Children exposed to negative neighborhood conditions and parental spanking are at higher risk of experiencing maltreatment. We conducted prospective analyses of secondary data to determine the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and parental spanking on household Child Protective Services (CPS) involvement, and whether spanking mediates the relationship between neighborhood collective efficacy and CPS involvement. The sample (N = 2,267) was drawn from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), a stratified random sample of 4,789 births between 1998-2000 in 20 large U.S. cities. Logistic regression models were employed to test the effects of neighborhood collective efficacy and spanking at child age 3 on mother's report of CPS contact during the subsequent two years. The product-of-coefficient approach was used to test the mediation hypothesis. One aspect of neighborhood collective efficacy (i.e., Social Cohesion/Trust) is associated with lower odds of CPS involvement (OR = .80, 95% CI 0.670-0.951) after controlling for Informal Social Control, parental spanking, and the covariates. Parental spanking predicts increased odds of CPS involvement during the next two years (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.001-1.898), net of neighborhood collective efficacy and the covariates. The mediation hypothesis is not supported. Promoting both cohesive and trusting relationships between neighbors and non-physical discipline practices is likely to reduce the incidence of household CPS involvement.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Servicios de Protección Infantil , Crianza del Niño , Relaciones Interpersonales , Castigo , Bienestar del Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Madres , Abuso Físico , Estudios Prospectivos , Características de la Residencia , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
19.
Int J Equity Health ; 17(1): 24, 2018 02 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444674

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Empirical evidence shows that the relationship between health-seeking behaviour and diverse gender elements, such as gendered social status, social control, ideology, gender process, marital status and procreative status, changes across settings. Given the high relevance of social settings, this paper intends to explore how gender elements interact with health-seeking practices among men and women residing in an Indian urban slum, in consideration of the unique socio-cultural context that characterises India's slums. METHODS: The study was conducted in Sahid Smriti Colony, a peri-urban slum of Kolkata, India. The referral technique was used for selecting participants, as people in the study area were not very comfortable in discussing their health issues and health-seeking behaviours. The final sample included 66 participants, 34 men and 32 women. Data was collected through individual face-to-face in-depth interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The data analysis shows six categories of reasons underlying women's preferences for informal healers, which are presented in the form of the following themes: cultural competency of care, easy communication, gender-induced affordability, avoidance of social stigma and labelling, living with the burden of cultural expectations and geographical and cognitive distance of formal health care. In case of men ease of access, quality of treatment and expected outcome of therapies are the three themes that emerged as the reasons behind their preferences for formal care. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that both men and women utilise formal and informal care, but with different motives and expectations, leading to contrasting health-seeking outcomes. These gender-induced contrasts relate to a preference for socio-cultural (women) versus technological (men) therapies and long (women) versus fast (men) treatment, and are linked to their different societal and familial roles. The role of women in following and maintaining socio-cultural norms leads them to focus on care that involves long discussions mixed with socio-cultural traits that help avoid economic and social sanctions, while the role of men as bread earners requires them to look for care that ensures a fast and complete recovery so as to avoid financial pressures.


Asunto(s)
Cultura , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Áreas de Pobreza , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , India , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Estigma Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
20.
J Am Coll Health ; 66(3): 209-218, 2018 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405890

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We explored the potential mediating role of willingness to experience drinking consequences and other traditional alcohol outcome predictors (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies) in explaining the association between college alcohol beliefs 1 (CABs) and the actual experience of drinking consequences among college students. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 415 college students tested in October 2014. METHODS: Participants responded to an online survey. RESULTS: When compared to both types of norms and positive alcohol expectancies, CABs demonstrated the strongest associations to both willingness to experience drinking consequences and actual drinking consequences among college students. A multiple mediation analysis revealed that the impact of CABs on students' actual drinking consequences was mediated only through their willingness to experience drinking consequences. CONCLUSIONS: Students' college alcohol beliefs and their corresponding willingness to experience drinking consequences should be targeted in prevention and intervention programs designed to address the problem of college student drinking.


Asunto(s)
Abstinencia de Alcohol/psicología , Consumo de Alcohol en la Universidad/psicología , Percepción Social , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Controles Informales de la Sociedad , Valores Sociales , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Joven
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