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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435337

RESUMEN

Little is understood of the social and cultural effects of coronaviruses such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV). This systematic review aims to synthesize existing findings (both qualitative and quantitative) that focus on the social and cultural impacts of coronaviruses in order to gain a better understanding of the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing a predetermined search strategy, we searched CINAHL, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science to identify existing (qualitative, quantitative, and mixed-methods) studies pertaining to the coronavirus infections and their intersection with societies and cultures. A narrative synthesis approach was applied to summarize and interpret findings of the study. Stemming from SARS outbreak in 2003, qualitative and quantitative findings (twelve adopted quantitative methods and eight exclusively used qualitative methods) were organized under five topical domains: governance, crisis communication and public knowledge, stigma and discrimination, social compliance of preventive measures, and the social experience of health workers. The selected studies suggest that current societies are not equipped for effective coronavirus response and control. This mixed-methods systematic review demonstrates that the effects of coronaviruses on a society can be debilitating.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Cultura , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Gobierno , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pandemias , Cooperación del Paciente , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología , Discriminación Social
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6, 2021 01 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397903

RESUMEN

The current practice for diagnosis of COVID-19, based on SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing of pharyngeal or respiratory specimens in a symptomatic patient at high epidemiologic risk, likely underestimates the true prevalence of infection. Serologic methods can more accurately estimate the disease burden by detecting infections missed by the limited testing performed to date. Here, we describe the validation of a coronavirus antigen microarray containing immunologically significant antigens from SARS-CoV-2, in addition to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, common human coronavirus strains, and other common respiratory viruses. A comparison of antibody profiles detected on the array from control sera collected prior to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic versus convalescent blood specimens from virologically confirmed COVID-19 cases demonstrates near complete discrimination of these two groups, with improved performance from use of antigen combinations that include both spike protein and nucleoprotein. This array can be used as a diagnostic tool, as an epidemiologic tool to more accurately estimate the disease burden of COVID-19, and as a research tool to correlate antibody responses with clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Antígenos Virales/sangre , /inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Antígenos Virales/inmunología , /diagnóstico , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G/sangre , Inmunoglobulina G/inmunología , Inmunoglobulina M/sangre , Inmunoglobulina M/inmunología , Análisis por Micromatrices/métodos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Pruebas de Neutralización , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología
4.
Comput Biol Med ; 128: 104123, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260034

RESUMEN

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic caused by the coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has already caused in excess of 1.25 million deaths worldwide, and the number is increasing. Knowledge of the host transcriptional response against this virus and how the pathways are activated or suppressed compared to other human coronaviruses (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV) that caused outbreaks previously can help in the identification of potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19. Hence, we used time point meta-analysis to investigate available SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV in-vitro transcriptome datasets in order to identify the significant genes and pathways that are dysregulated at each time point. The subsequent over-representation analysis (ORA) revealed that several pathways are significantly dysregulated at each time point after both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection. We also performed gene set enrichment analyses of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with that of SARS-CoV-2 at the same time point and cell line, the results of which revealed that common pathways are activated and suppressed in all three coronaviruses. Furthermore, an analysis of an in-vivo transcriptomic dataset of COVID-19 patients showed that similar pathways are enriched to those identified in the earlier analyses. Based on these findings, a drug repurposing analysis was performed to identify potential drug candidates for combating COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales , Bases de Datos de Ácidos Nucleicos , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/metabolismo , Virus del SRAS/metabolismo , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , /tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Virus del SRAS/genética , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/genética
5.
J Mol Graph Model ; 102: 107778, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099199

RESUMEN

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 have become a global pandemic with serious rate of fatalities. SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have also caused serious outbreak previously but the intensity was much lower than the ongoing SARS-CoV-2. The main infectivity factor of all the three viruses is the spike glycoprotein. In this study we have examined the intrinsic dynamics of the prefusion, lying state of trimeric S protein of these viruses through Normal Mode Analysis using Anisotropic Network Model. The dynamic modes of the S proteins of the aforementioned viruses were compared by root mean square inner product (RMSIP), spectral overlap and cosine correlation matrix. S proteins show homogenous correlated or anticorrelated motions among their domains but direction of Cα atom among the spike proteins show less similarity. SARS-CoV-2 spike shows high vertically upward motion of the receptor binding motif implying its propensity for binding with the receptor even in the lying state. MERS-CoV spike shows unique dynamical motion compared to the other two S protein indicated by low RMSIP, spectral overlap and cosine correlation value. This study will guide in developing common potential inhibitor molecules against closed state of spike protein of these viruses to prevent conformational switching from lying to standing state.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/química , Virus del SRAS/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , /virología , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Simulación de Dinámica Molecular , Pandemias , Conformación Proteica , Dominios Proteicos , Estructura Cuaternaria de Proteína
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 741-754, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32936465

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses (CoVs) are nonsegmented, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses highly pathogenic to humans. Some CoVs are known to cause respiratory and intestinal diseases, posing a threat to the global public health. Against this backdrop, it is of critical importance to develop safe and effective vaccines against these CoVs. This review discusses human vaccine candidates in any stage of development and explores the viral characteristics, molecular epidemiology, and immunology associated with CoV vaccine development. At present, there are many obstacles and challenges to vaccine research and development, including the lack of knowledge about virus transmission, pathogenesis, and immune response, absence of the most appropriate animal models.


Asunto(s)
/biosíntesis , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Animales , /virología , Camelus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cricetulus , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Humanos , Macaca mulatta , Ratones , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Virus del SRAS/efectos de los fármacos , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , /inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/inmunología , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/virología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Vacunas de Subunidad , Vacunas Sintéticas/biosíntesis , Vacunas de Partículas Similares a Virus/biosíntesis
7.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 890: 173659, 2021 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33131637

RESUMEN

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the pathogen of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), is currently spreading around the world. The WHO declared on January 31 that the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 was a public health emergency. SARS-Cov-2 is a member of highly pathogenic coronavirus group that also consists of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although respiratory tract lesions were regarded as main manifestation of SARS-Cov-2 infection, gastrointestinal lesions were also reported. Similarly, patients with SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV were also observed. Common gastrointestinal symptoms of patients mainly included diarrhea, vomiting and abdominal pain. Gastrointestinal lesions could be used as basis for early diagnosis of patients, and at the same time, controlling gastrointestinal lesions better facilitated to cut off the route of fecal-oral transmission. Hence, this review summarizes the characteristics and mechanism of gastrointestinal lesions caused by three highly pathogenic human coronavirus infections including SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, as well as SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, it is expected to gain experience from gastrointestinal lesions caused by SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections in order to be able to better relieve SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Targetin gut microbiota to regulate the process of SARS-CoV-2 infection should be a concern. Especially, the application of nanotechnology may provide help for further controlling COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Enfermedades Gastrointestinales/etiología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Virus del SRAS , Animales , Humanos
8.
Biochimie ; 180: 169-177, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189832

RESUMEN

Current mortality due to the Covid-19 pandemic (approximately 1.2 million by November 2020) demonstrates the lack of an effective treatment. As replication of many viruses - including MERS-CoV - is supported by enhanced aerobic glycolysis, we hypothesized that SARS-CoV-2 replication in host cells (especially airway cells) is reliant upon altered glucose metabolism. This metabolism is similar to the Warburg effect well studied in cancer. Counteracting two main pathways (PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK signaling) sustaining aerobic glycolysis inhibits MERS-CoV replication and thus, very likely that of SARS-CoV-2, which shares many similarities with MERS-CoV. The Warburg effect appears to be involved in several steps of COVID-19 infection. Once induced by hypoxia, the Warburg effect becomes active in lung endothelial cells, particularly in the presence of atherosclerosis, thereby promoting vasoconstriction and micro thrombosis. Aerobic glycolysis also supports activation of pro-inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and M1 macrophages. As the anti-inflammatory response and reparative process is performed by M2 macrophages reliant on oxidative metabolism, we speculated that the switch to oxidative metabolism in M2 macrophages would not occur at the appropriate time due to an uncontrolled pro-inflammatory cascade. Aging, mitochondrial senescence and enzyme dysfunction, AMPK downregulation and p53 inactivation could all play a role in this key biochemical event. Understanding the role of the Warburg effect in COVID-19 can be essential to developing molecules reducing infectivity, arresting endothelial cells activation and the pro-inflammatory cascade.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Glucólisis/fisiología , Inflamación , Replicación Viral/fisiología , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/fisiología
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 755(Pt 1): 142575, 2021 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022459

RESUMEN

Humanity has experienced outbreaks by viruses such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) in 2003, Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in 2012, Ebola virus in 2014 and nowadays SARS-CoV-2. While clinicians seek for a vaccine to reduce the epidemic outbreak, environmental engineers need to understand consequence of virus entity in sewage given the reported persistency of viruses in human feces and sewage environments for more than days. Herein, we discuss about concerns associated with virus occurrence in human feces and sewage, with attention to the possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission routes, based on the review of recent studies on SARS-CoV-2 as well as the previous pandemic events. Given the reported environmental stability of coronavirus, the feces- and sewage-derived transmission routes may be of importance to prevent unprecedented spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) particularly in developing countries. However, so far, limited number of studies detected infectious SARS-CoV-2 even in human feces, whereas a number of virus RNA copies were identified in both feces and sewage specimens. Therefore, uncertainty remains in the possibility of this transmission pathway, and further investigation is warranted in future studies, for example, by increasing the number of specimens, examining the effectiveness of methods for viral viability test, considering the patient medical history, and so forth.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Heces , Humanos , Aguas del Alcantarillado
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141483, 2021 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829257

RESUMEN

Environmental factors play a key role in the zoonotic transmission of emerging pathogenic viruses as mankind is constantly disturbing wildlife's ecosystems usually by cutting down forests to build human settlements or by catching wild animals for food, which deprives the viruses of their natural hosts and gives them opportunity to infect humans. In December 2019, a new coronavirus emerged from bats and was named SARS-CoV-2 by the International Committee for Taxonomy of Viruses, and the disease it causes named COVID-19 by the World Health Organization. Disease outbreaks such as SARS in 2002-2003, MERS in 2012 and the current COVID-19 pandemic are the result of higher mutation rates of coronaviruses and their unique capacity for genetic recombination, resulting in adaptations that make them more suitable to cross the species barriers and infect other species. This ability for host switching and interspecies infection is often attributed to the great diversity of these viruses, which is a result of viral and host factors such as the low fidelity of their RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the high frequency of their homologous RNA recombination, and the adaptation of the S protein to bind host receptors like the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the case of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DDP4) in MERS-CoV. This review presents an overview of the zoonotic transmission of SARS, MERS and COVID-19, focusing on the viral, host and environmental factors that favor the spillover of these viruses into humans, as well as the biological and ecological factors that make bats the perfect animal reservoir of infection for these viruses.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Ecosistema , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Zoonosis , Animales , Betacoronavirus , Ambiente , Actividades Humanas , Humanos
12.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 99(1): 93-106, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33269412

RESUMEN

In humans, coronaviruses can cause infections of the respiratory system, with damage of varying severity depending on the virus examined: ranging from mild-to-moderate upper respiratory tract diseases, such as the common cold, pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death. Human coronaviruses known to date, common throughout the world, are seven. The most common-and least harmful-ones were discovered in the 1960s and cause a common cold. Others, more dangerous, identified in the early 2000s and cause more severe respiratory tract infections. Among these the SARS-CoV, isolated in 2003 and responsible for the severe acute respiratory syndrome (the so-called SARS), which appeared in China in November 2002, the coronavirus 2012 (2012-nCoV) cause of the Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome (MERS) from coronavirus, which exploded in June 2012 in Saudi Arabia, and actually SARS-CoV-2. On December 31, 2019, a new coronavirus strain was reported in Wuhan, China, identified as a new coronavirus beta strain ß-CoV from group 2B, with a genetic similarity of approximately 70% to SARS-CoV, the virus responsible of SARS. In the first half of February, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), in charge of the designation and naming of the viruses (i.e., species, genus, family, etc.), thus definitively named the new coronavirus as SARS-CoV-2. This article highlights the main knowledge we have about the biomolecular and pathophysiologic mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/genética , /virología , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/clasificación , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/metabolismo , Virus del SRAS/clasificación , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/metabolismo , /genética , /metabolismo
13.
Antiviral Res ; 185: 104996, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33309540

RESUMEN

Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) is a respiratory disease caused by a coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Since its emergence in 2012, nosocomial amplifications have led to its high epidemic potential and mortality rate of 34.5%. To date, there is an unmet need for vaccines and specific therapeutics for this disease. Available treatments are either supportive medications in use for other diseases or those lacking specificity requiring higher doses. The viral infection mode is initiated by the attachment of the viral spike glycoprotein to the human Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV (DPP4). Our attempts to screen antivirals against MERS led us to identify montelukast sodium hydrate (MSH), an FDA-approved anti-asthma drug, as an agent attenuating MERS-CoV infection. We showed that MSH directly binds to MERS-CoV-Receptor-Binding Domain (RBD) and inhibits its molecular interaction with DPP4 in a dose-dependent manner. Our cell-based inhibition assays using MERS pseudovirions demonstrated that viral infection was significantly inhibited by MSH and was further validated using infectious MERS-CoV culture. Thus, we propose MSH as a potential candidate for therapeutic developments against MERS-CoV infections.


Asunto(s)
Acetatos/farmacología , Antivirales/farmacología , Ciclopropanos/farmacología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/efectos de los fármacos , Quinolinas/farmacología , Sulfuros/farmacología , Animales , Antiasmáticos/farmacología , Proteínas Portadoras/efectos de los fármacos , Chlorocebus aethiops , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Inductores del Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/farmacología , Dipeptidil Peptidasa 4/genética , Dipeptidil Peptidasa 4/metabolismo , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Antagonistas de Leucotrieno/farmacología , Receptores Virales/genética , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/metabolismo , Células Vero , Internalización del Virus/efectos de los fármacos
14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243270, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301474

RESUMEN

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic is a global crisis that threatens our way of life. As of November 18, 2020, SARS-CoV-2 has claimed more than 1,342,709 lives, with a global mortality rate of ~2.4% and a recovery rate of ~69.6%. Understanding the interaction of cellular targets with the SARS-CoV-2 infection is crucial for therapeutic development. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a comparative analysis of transcriptomic signatures of infection of SARS-CoV-2 compared to other respiratory viruses (EBOV, H1N1, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV), to determine a unique anti-SARS-CoV-2 gene signature. We identified for the first time that molecular pathways for heparin-binding, RAGE, miRNA, and PLA2 inhibitors were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. The NRCAM and SAA2 genes, which are involved in severe inflammatory responses, and the FGF1 and FOXO1 genes, which are associated with immune regulation, were found to be associated with the cellular gene response to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, several cytokines, most significantly IL-8 and IL-6, demonstrated key associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Interestingly, the only response gene that was shared among the five viral infections was SERPINB1. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis shed light on genes with high interaction activity that SARS-CoV-2 shares with other viral infections. The findings showed that the genetic pathways associated with rheumatoid arthritis, the AGE-RAGE signaling system, malaria, hepatitis B, and influenza A were of high significance. We found that the virogenomic transcriptome of infection, gene modulation of host antiviral responses, and GO terms of SARS-CoV-2 and EBOV were more similar than to SARS, H1N1, and MERS. This work compares the virogenomic signatures of highly pathogenic viruses and provides valid targets for potential therapy against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
/genética , Transcriptoma , /metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Ebolavirus/fisiología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/genética , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/metabolismo , Interacciones Huésped-Patógeno , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/fisiología , Gripe Humana/genética , Gripe Humana/metabolismo , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/fisiología , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , Virus del SRAS/fisiología
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33333995

RESUMEN

The twenty-first century has witnessed some of the deadliest viral pandemics with far-reaching consequences. These include the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) (1981), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) (2002), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (A/H1N1) (2009), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) (2012) and Ebola virus (2013) and the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) (2019-present). Age- and gender-based characterizations suggest that SARS-CoV-2 resembles SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV with regard tohigher fatality rates in males, and in the older population with comorbidities. The invasion-mechanism of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, involves binding of its spike protein with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors; MERS-CoV utilizes dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), whereas H1N1 influenza is equipped with hemagglutinin protein. The viral infections-mediated immunomodulation, and progressive inflammatory state may affect the functions of several other organs. Although no effective commercial vaccine is available for any of the viruses, those against SARS-CoV-2 are being developed at an unprecedented speed. Until now, only Pfizer/BioNTech's vaccine has received temporary authorization from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Given the frequent emergence of viral pandemics in the 21st century, proper understanding of their characteristics and modes of action are essential to address the immediate and long-term health consequences.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias/historia , Virosis/epidemiología , Comorbilidad , Ebolavirus , Femenino , VIH , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Masculino , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Salud Pública , Virus del SRAS , Virosis/fisiopatología
16.
J Biomed Sci ; 27(1): 104, 2020 Dec 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33341119

RESUMEN

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a new type of coronavirus that causes the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), which has been the most challenging pandemic in this century. Considering its high mortality and rapid spread, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to control this pandemic. As a result, the academia, industry, and government sectors are working tightly together to develop and test a variety of vaccines at an unprecedented pace. In this review, we outline the essential coronavirus biological characteristics that are important for vaccine design. In addition, we summarize key takeaways from previous vaccination studies of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV), highlighting the pros and cons of each immunization strategy. Finally, based on these prior vaccination experiences, we discuss recent progress and potential challenges of COVID-19 vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/inmunología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Virus del SRAS/inmunología , Vacunación , /epidemiología , /prevención & control , /uso terapéutico , Humanos
17.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266124

RESUMEN

Within the past two decades, three zoonotic betacoronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks causing severe respiratory disease in humans. Of these, Middle East respiratory s yndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the only zoonotic coronavirus that is known to consistently result in frequent zoonotic spillover events from the proximate reservoir host-the dromedary camel. A comprehensive understanding of infection in dromedaries is critical to informing public health recommendations and implementing intervention strategies to mitigate spillover events. Experimental models of reservoir disease are absolutely critical in understanding the pathogenesis and transmission, and are key to testing potential dromedary vaccines against MERS-CoV. In this review, we describe experimental infections of dromedary camels as well as additional camelid models used to further understand the camel's role in MERS-CoV spillover to humans.


Asunto(s)
Camelus/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Reservorios de Enfermedades/virología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Animales , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Humanos , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/fisiología , Modelos Biológicos , Vacunación/veterinaria , Esparcimiento de Virus , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión , Zoonosis/virología
18.
Onderstepoort J Vet Res ; 87(1): e1-e9, 2020 Dec 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33354975

RESUMEN

The first known severe disease caused by a coronavirus (CoV) in humans emerged with the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in China, which killed 774 people during its 2002/2003 outbreak. The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) was the second human fatal disease, which started in 2012 in Saudi Arabia and resulted in 858 fatalities. In December 2019, a new virus, SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), originating from China, began generating headlines worldwide because of the unprecedented speed of its transmission; 5.2 million people were infected and 338 480 had been reported dead from December 2019 to May 2020. These human coronaviruses are believed to have an animal origin and had reached humans through species jump. Coronaviruses are well known for their high frequency of recombination and high mutation rates, allowing them to adapt to new hosts and ecological niches. This review summarises existing information on what is currently known on the role of wild and domesticated animals and discussions on whether they are the natural reservoir/amplifiers hosts or incidental hosts of CoVs. Results of experimental infection and transmission using different wild, domesticated and pet animals are also reviewed. The need for a One Health approach in implementing measures and practices is highlighted to improve human health and reduce the emergence of pandemics from these zoonotic viruses.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio , Zoonosis , Animales , /transmisión , Camelus/virología , Quirópteros/virología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Vectores de Enfermedades , Salud Global , Humanos , Salud Única , Pandemias
20.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244025, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351847

RESUMEN

Coronaviruses such as SARS-CoV-2 regularly infect host tissues that express antiviral proteins (AVPs) in abundance. Understanding how they evolve to adapt or evade host immune responses is important in the effort to control the spread of infection. Two AVPs that may shape viral genomes are the zinc finger antiviral protein (ZAP) and the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme-catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3). The former binds to CpG dinucleotides to facilitate the degradation of viral transcripts while the latter frequently deaminates C into U residues which could generate notable viral sequence variations. We tested the hypothesis that both APOBEC3 and ZAP impose selective pressures that shape the genome of an infecting coronavirus. Our investigation considered a comprehensive number of publicly available genomes for seven coronaviruses (SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV, and MERS infecting Homo sapiens, Bovine CoV infecting Bos taurus, MHV infecting Mus musculus, HEV infecting Sus scrofa, and CRCoV infecting Canis lupus familiaris). We show that coronaviruses that regularly infect tissues with abundant AVPs have CpG-deficient and U-rich genomes; whereas those that do not infect tissues with abundant AVPs do not share these sequence hallmarks. Among the coronaviruses surveyed herein, CpG is most deficient in SARS-CoV-2 and a temporal analysis showed a marked increase in C to U mutations over four months of SARS-CoV-2 genome evolution. Furthermore, the preferred motifs in which these C to U mutations occur are the same as those subjected to APOBEC3 editing in HIV-1. These results suggest that both ZAP and APOBEC3 shape the SARS-CoV-2 genome: ZAP imposes a strong CpG avoidance, and APOBEC3 constantly edits C to U. Evolutionary pressures exerted by host immune systems onto viral genomes may motivate novel strategies for SARS-CoV-2 vaccine development.


Asunto(s)
/genética , Coronavirus/genética , Citidina Desaminasa/genética , Proteínas de Unión al ARN/genética , Proteínas Represoras/genética , Animales , /virología , Bovinos , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/patogenicidad , Perros , Evolución Molecular , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Ratones , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/genética , Coronavirus del Síndrome Respiratorio de Oriente Medio/patogenicidad , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/patogenicidad , /patogenicidad , Porcinos/virología
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