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1.
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 92(4): 241.e1-241.e11, abr. 2020. mapas, graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-186847

RESUMEN

El 31 de diciembre de 2019, la Comisión Municipal de Salud y Sanidad de Wuhan (provincia de Hubei, China) informó sobre la existencia de 27 casos de neumonía de etiología desconocida con inicio de síntomas el 8 de diciembre, incluyendo 7 casos graves, con exposición común a un mercado de marisco, pescado y animales vivos en la ciudad de Wuhan. El 7 de enero de 2020, las autoridades chinas identificaron como agente causante del brote un nuevo tipo de virus de la familia Coronaviridae, denominado temporalmente «nuevo coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. El 30 de enero de 2020 la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) declara el brote una Emergencia Internacional. El día 11 de febrero la OMS le asigna el nombre de SARS-CoV2 e infección COVID-19 (Coronavirus Infectious Disease). El Ministerio de Sanidad convoca a las Sociedades de Especialidades para la elaboración de un protocolo clínico de manejo de la infección. La Asociación Española de Pediatría nombra un grupo de trabajo de las Sociedades de Infectología Pediátrica y Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos que se encargan de elaborar las presentes recomendaciones con la evidencia disponible en el momento de su realización


On 31 December 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Committee of Health and Healthcare (Hubei Province, China) reported that there were 27 cases of pneumonia of unknown origin with symptoms starting on the 8 December. There were 7 serious cases with common exposure in market with shellfish, fish, and live animals, in the city of Wuhan. On 7 January 2020, the Chinese authorities identified that the agent causing the outbreak was a new type of virus of the Coronaviridae family, temporarily called «new coronavirus», 2019-nCoV. On January 30th, 2020, the World Health Organisation (WHO) declared the outbreak an International Emergency. On 11 February 2020 the WHO assigned it the name of SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 and COVID-19). The Ministry of Health summoned the Specialties Societies to prepare a clinical protocol for the management of COVID-19. The Spanish Paediatric Association appointed a Working Group of the Societies of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and Paediatric Intensive Care to prepare the present recommendations with the evidence available at the time of preparing them


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Coronavirus/clasificación , Coronavirus/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Sociedades Médicas , España
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(12)2020 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604730

RESUMEN

The recently emerged SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the global health crisis of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. No evidence is yet available for CoV infection into hosts upon zoonotic disease outbreak, although the CoV epidemy resembles influenza viruses, which use sialic acid (SA). Currently, information on SARS-CoV-2 and its receptors is limited. O-acetylated SAs interact with the lectin-like spike glycoprotein of SARS CoV-2 for the initial attachment of viruses to enter into the host cells. SARS-CoV-2 hemagglutinin-esterase (HE) acts as the classical glycan-binding lectin and receptor-degrading enzyme. Most ß-CoVs recognize 9-O-acetyl-SAs but switched to recognizing the 4-O-acetyl-SA form during evolution of CoVs. Type I HE is specific for the 9-O-Ac-SAs and type II HE is specific for 4-O-Ac-SAs. The SA-binding shift proceeds through quasi-synchronous adaptations of the SA-recognition sites of the lectin and esterase domains. The molecular switching of HE acquisition of 4-O-acetyl binding from 9-O-acetyl SA binding is caused by protein-carbohydrate interaction (PCI) or lectin-carbohydrate interaction (LCI). The HE gene was transmitted to a ß-CoV lineage A progenitor by horizontal gene transfer from a 9-O-Ac-SA-specific HEF, as in influenza virus C/D. HE acquisition, and expansion takes place by cross-species transmission over HE evolution. This reflects viral evolutionary adaptation to host SA-containing glycans. Therefore, CoV HE receptor switching precedes virus evolution driven by the SA-glycan diversity of the hosts. The PCI or LCI stereochemistry potentiates the SA-ligand switch by a simple conformational shift of the lectin and esterase domains. Therefore, examination of new emerging viruses can lead to better understanding of virus evolution toward transitional host tropism. A clear example of HE gene transfer is found in the BCoV HE, which prefers 7,9-di-O-Ac-SAs, which is also known to be a target of the bovine torovirus HE. A more exciting case of such a switching event occurs in the murine CoVs, with the example of the ß-CoV lineage A type binding with two different subtypes of the typical 9-O-Ac-SA (type I) and the exclusive 4-O-Ac-SA (type II) attachment factors. The protein structure data for type II HE also imply the virus switching to binding 4-O acetyl SA from 9-O acetyl SA. Principles of the protein-glycan interaction and PCI stereochemistry potentiate the SA-ligand switch via simple conformational shifts of the lectin and esterase domains. Thus, our understanding of natural adaptation can be specified to how carbohydrate/glycan-recognizing proteins/molecules contribute to virus evolution toward host tropism. Under the current circumstances where reliable antiviral therapeutics or vaccination tools are lacking, several trials are underway to examine viral agents. As expected, structural and non-structural proteins of SARS-CoV-2 are currently being targeted for viral therapeutic designation and development. However, the modern global society needs SARS-CoV-2 preventive and therapeutic drugs for infected patients. In this review, the structure and sialobiology of SARS-CoV-2 are discussed in order to encourage and activate public research on glycan-specific interaction-based drug creation in the near future.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Evolución Molecular , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/fisiología , Neumonía Viral/virología , Receptores Virales/metabolismo , Internalización del Virus , Acetilesterasa/metabolismo , Animales , Betacoronavirus/genética , Sitios de Unión , Línea Celular , Coronavirus/genética , Esterasas , Transferencia de Gen Horizontal , Glicosaminoglicanos/metabolismo , Hemaglutininas Virales/genética , Humanos , Lectinas/metabolismo , Pandemias , Polisacáridos , Receptores Virales/química , Ácidos Siálicos/química , Ácidos Siálicos/metabolismo , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/fisiología , Torovirus , Proteínas Virales de Fusión/genética
3.
Euro Surveill ; 25(23)2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32553059

RESUMEN

Respiratory disease and increased mortality occurred in minks on two farms in the Netherlands, with interstitial pneumonia and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in organ and swab samples. On both farms, at least one worker had coronavirus disease-associated symptoms before the outbreak. Variations in mink-derived viral genomes showed between-mink transmission and no infection link between the farms. Inhalable dust contained viral RNA, indicating possible exposure of workers. One worker is assumed to have attracted the virus from mink.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Granjas , Visón , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , ARN Viral/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ARN/veterinaria , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Genoma Viral , Países Bajos , Pandemias/veterinaria , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Neumonía Viral/veterinaria , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/epidemiología
4.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 06 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32526937

RESUMEN

The severe respiratory disease COVID-19 was initially reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, and spread into many provinces from Wuhan. The corresponding pathogen was soon identified as a novel coronavirus named SARS-CoV-2 (formerly, 2019-nCoV). As of 2 May, 2020, over 3 million COVID-19 cases had been confirmed, and 235,290 deaths had been reported globally, and the numbers are still increasing. It is important to understand the phylogenetic relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and known coronaviruses, and to identify its hosts for preventing the next round of emergency outbreak. In this study, we employ an effective alignment-free approach, the Natural Vector method, to analyze the phylogeny and classify the coronaviruses based on genomic and protein data. Our results show that SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to, but distinct from the SARS-CoV branch. By analyzing the genetic distances from the SARS-CoV-2 strain to the coronaviruses residing in animal hosts, we establish that the most possible transmission path originates from bats to pangolins to humans.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Coronavirus/genética , Modelos Biológicos , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Animales , Betacoronavirus/clasificación , Quirópteros/virología , Coronavirus/clasificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Cisteína Endopeptidasas/química , Cisteína Endopeptidasas/genética , Brotes de Enfermedades , Reservorios de Enfermedades , Humanos , Mamíferos/clasificación , Mamíferos/virología , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/química , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética
5.
Comput Biol Med ; 121: 103749, 2020 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32568687

RESUMEN

This paper continues a recent study of the spike protein sequence of the COVID-19 virus (SARS-CoV-2). It is also in part an introductory review to relevant computational techniques for tackling viral threats, using COVID-19 as an example. Q-UEL tools for facilitating access to knowledge and bioinformatics tools were again used for efficiency, but the focus in this paper is even more on the virus. Subsequence KRSFIEDLLFNKV of the S2' spike glycoprotein proteolytic cleavage site continues to appear important. Here it is shown to be recognizable in the common cold coronaviruses, avian coronaviruses and possibly as traces in the nidoviruses of reptiles and fish. Its function or functions thus seem important to the coronaviruses. It might represent SARS-CoV-2 Achilles' heel, less likely to acquire resistance by mutation, as has happened in some early SARS vaccine studies discussed in the previous paper. Preliminary conformational analysis of the receptor (ACE2) binding site of the spike protein is carried out suggesting that while it is somewhat conserved, it appears to be more variable than KRSFIEDLLFNKV. However compounds like emodin that inhibit SARS entry, apparently by binding ACE2, might also have functions at several different human protein binding sites. The enzyme 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 is again argued to be a convenient model pharmacophore perhaps representing an ensemble of targets, and it is noted that it occurs both in lung and alimentary tract. Perhaps it benefits the virus to block an inflammatory response by inhibiting the dehydrogenase, but a fairly complex web involves several possible targets.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Vacunas Virales/inmunología , Secuencia de Aminoácidos , Animales , Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/inmunología , Sitios de Unión , Biología Computacional , Coronavirus/química , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diseño de Fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/genética , Interacciones Microbiota-Huesped/inmunología , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutación , Peptidomiméticos/farmacología , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/química , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/metabolismo , Neumonía Viral/virología , Homología de Secuencia de Aminoácido , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/genética , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Vacunas Sintéticas/genética , Vacunas Sintéticas/inmunología , Vacunas Virales/genética
6.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(18): e174, 2020 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383370

RESUMEN

Initially, acute loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia) was not considered important symptoms for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To determine the prevalence of these symptoms and to evaluate their diagnostic significance, we (approximately 150 physicians of the Daegu Medical Association) prospectively collected data of cases of anosmia and ageusia from March 8, 2020, via telephone interview among 3,191 patients in Daegu, Korea. Acute anosmia or ageusia was observed in 15.3% (488/3,191) patients in the early stage of COVID-19 and in 15.7% (367/2,342) patients with asymptomatic-to-mild disease severity. Their prevalence was significantly more common among females and younger individuals (P = 0.01 and P < 0.001, respectively). Most patients with anosmia or ageusia recovered within 3 weeks. The median time to recovery was 7 days for both symptoms. Anosmia and ageusia seem to be part of important symptoms and clues for the diagnosis of COVID-19, particularly in the early stage of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Ageusia/etiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Coronavirus , Trastornos del Olfato/etiología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Ageusia/epidemiología , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos del Olfato/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Distribución por Sexo , Olfato , Gusto
8.
A A Pract ; 14(7): e01227, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32371823

RESUMEN

A 17-year-old healthy girl underwent an uneventful esthetic septorhinoplasty. She was easily extubated and transferred to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) with oxygen saturation (SpO2) of 96%. About 30 minutes after arrival in the PACU, she developed dyspnea with SpO2 of 84% and promptly received oxygen with bilevel positive airway pressure in conjunction with low-dose corticosteroid. The subsequent chest computed tomography (CT) revealed bilateral patchy infiltrates similar to the radiologic findings of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, a reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of a pharyngeal specimen confirmed the diagnosis of COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Disnea/diagnóstico por imagen , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto/complicaciones , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Adolescente , Extubación Traqueal , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Disnea/etiología , Femenino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administración & dosificación , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapéutico , Oxígeno/uso terapéutico , Pandemias , Faringe/virología , Cuidados Posoperatorios , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Resultado del Tratamiento
10.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 195-198, 2020 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32420944

RESUMEN

Summar y. The beginning of 2020 has seen the emergence of COVID-19, an outbreak caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, an important pathogen for humans. SARS-CoV-2 is an RNA virus containing 29891 nucleotides encoding 9889 amino acids. The genome is arranged as 5p-replicase (orf1/ab)-structural proteins [Spike (S) -Envelope (E) - Membrane (M) -Nucleocapsid (N)] -3. Viruses are obligate intracellular infectious agents that use the host cellular machinery to ensure their own fitness and survival. MicroRNAs (miRNA9) systems are potent post-transcriptional gene expression regulators that are important modulators of viral infections, and could play an important role in the treatment of viral infections. This review focuses to the genomic structure of coronaviruses, the functions of genomic proteins, the effects of micro RNA (miRNA) on virus replication and its pathogenesis.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus/genética , MicroARNs/genética , Animales , Betacoronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Genotipo , Humanos , Replicación Viral
11.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(2): e18821, 2020 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365046

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Japan implemented a large-scale quarantine on the Diamond Princess cruise ship in an attempt to control the spread of the novel coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in February 2020. OBJECTIVE: We aim to describe the medical activities initiated and difficulties in implementing quarantine on a cruise ship. METHODS: Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for SARS-CoV-2 were performed for all 3711 people (2666 passengers and 1045 crew) on board. RESULTS: Of those tested, 696 (18.8%) tested positive for coronavirus disease (COVID-19), of which 410 (58.9%) were asymptomatic. We also confirmed that 54% of the asymptomatic patients with a positive RT-PCR result had lung opacities on chest computed tomography. There were many difficulties in implementing quarantine, such as creating a dividing traffic line between infectious and noninfectious passengers, finding hospitals and transportation providers willing to accept these patients, transporting individuals, language barriers, and supporting daily life. As of March 8, 2020, 31 patients (4.5% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) were hospitalized and required ventilator support or intensive care, and 7 patients (1.0% of patients with positive RT-PCR results) had died. CONCLUSIONS: There were several difficulties in implementing large-scale quarantine and obtaining medical support on the cruise ship. In the future, we need to prepare for patients' transfer and the admitting hospitals when disembarking the passengers. We recommend treating the crew the same way as the passengers to control the infection. We must also draw a plan for the future, to protect travelers and passengers from emerging infectious diseases on cruise ships.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuarentena/métodos , Navíos , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Salud Pública , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Viaje
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 329, 2020 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381073

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although people of all ages are susceptible to the novel coronavirus infection, which is presently named "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19), there has been relatively few cases reported among children. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in children and the differences from adults. CASE PRESENTATION: We report one pediatric case of COVID-19. A 14-month-old boy was admitted to the hospital with a symptom of fever, and was diagnosed with a mild form of COVID-19. The child's mother and grandmother also tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. However, the lymphocyte counts were normal. The chest computed tomography (CT) revealed scattered ground glass opacities in the right lower lobe close to the pleura and resorption after the treatment. The patient continued to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the nasopharyngeal swabs and stool at 17 days after the disappearance of symptoms. CONCLUSION: The present pediatric case of COVID-19 was acquired through household transmission, and the symptoms were mild. Lymphocyte counts did not significantly decrease. The RNA of SARS-CoV-2 in stool and nasopharyngeal swabs remained positive for an extended period of time after the disappearance of symptoms. This suggests that attention should be given to the potential contagiousness of pediatric COVID-19 cases after clinical recovery.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus , Heces/virología , Fiebre/etiología , Pulmón/diagnóstico por imagen , Nasofaringe/virología , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratorio Clínico , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Lactante , Recuento de Linfocitos , Masculino , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Síndrome Respiratorio Agudo Grave/transmisión , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
14.
Viruses ; 12(5)2020 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32366025

RESUMEN

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which first occurred in Wuhan (China) in December of 2019, causes a severe acute respiratory illness with a high mortality rate, and has spread around the world. To gain an understanding of the evolution of the newly emerging SARS-CoV-2, we herein analyzed the codon usage pattern of SARS-CoV-2. For this purpose, we compared the codon usage of SARS-CoV-2 with that of other viruses belonging to the subfamily of Orthocoronavirinae. We found that SARS-CoV-2 has a high AU content that strongly influences its codon usage, which appears to be better adapted to the human host. We also studied the evolutionary pressures that influence the codon usage of five conserved coronavirus genes encoding the viral replicase, spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid proteins. We found different patterns of both mutational bias and natural selection that affect the codon usage of these genes. Moreover, we show here that the two integral membrane proteins (matrix and envelope) tend to evolve slowly by accumulating nucleotide mutations on their corresponding genes. Conversely, genes encoding nucleocapsid (N), viral replicase and spike proteins (S), although they are regarded as are important targets for the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs, tend to evolve faster in comparison to the two genes mentioned above. Overall, our results suggest that the higher divergence observed for the latter three genes could represent a significant barrier in the development of antiviral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus/genética , Codón , Coronavirus/genética , Genoma Viral , Composición de Base , Betacoronavirus/química , Betacoronavirus/fisiología , Evolución Biológica , Coronavirus/clasificación , Genes Virales , Especificidad del Huésped , Mutación , Filogenia
15.
Arch Virol ; 165(7): 1653-1658, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399787

RESUMEN

Although porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a significant pandemic threat in the swine population and has caused significant economic losses, information regarding the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV is scarce. Hence, the immune response in conventionally weaned pigs infected with PDCoV was assessed after challenge and rechallenge. After the first challenge, obvious diarrhea and viral shedding developed successively in all pigs in the four inoculation dose groups from 3 to 14 days postinfection (dpi), and all pigs recovered (no clinical symptoms or viral shedding) by 21 dpi. All pigs in the four groups exhibited significantly increased PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA and virus-neutralizing (VN) antibody (Ab) titers and IFN-γ levels in the serum after the first challenge. All pigs were completely protected against rechallenge at 21 dpi. The serum levels of PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA, and VN Abs increased further after rechallenge. Notably, the IFN-γ level declined continuously after 7 dpi. In addition, the levels of PDCoV-specific IgG, IgA and VN Abs in saliva increased significantly after rechallenge and correlated well with the serum Ab titers. Furthermore, the appearance of clinical symptoms of PDCoV infection in conventionally weaned pigs was delayed with reduced inoculation doses. In summary, the data presented here offer important reference information for future PDCoV animal infection and vaccine-induced immunoprotection experiments.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/veterinaria , Coronavirus/fisiología , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/inmunología , Animales , Anticuerpos Antivirales/inmunología , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/inmunología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diarrea/inmunología , Diarrea/virología , Interferón gamma/inmunología , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología , Esparcimiento de Virus
16.
Cell ; 181(4): 865-876.e12, 2020 05 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353252

RESUMEN

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus, has highlighted the need for antiviral approaches that can target emerging viruses with no effective vaccines or pharmaceuticals. Here, we demonstrate a CRISPR-Cas13-based strategy, PAC-MAN (prophylactic antiviral CRISPR in human cells), for viral inhibition that can effectively degrade RNA from SARS-CoV-2 sequences and live influenza A virus (IAV) in human lung epithelial cells. We designed and screened CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) targeting conserved viral regions and identified functional crRNAs targeting SARS-CoV-2. This approach effectively reduced H1N1 IAV load in respiratory epithelial cells. Our bioinformatic analysis showed that a group of only six crRNAs can target more than 90% of all coronaviruses. With the development of a safe and effective system for respiratory tract delivery, PAC-MAN has the potential to become an important pan-coronavirus inhibition strategy.


Asunto(s)
Antivirales/farmacología , Betacoronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/efectos de los fármacos , ARN Viral/antagonistas & inhibidores , Células A549 , Profilaxis Antibiótica/métodos , Secuencia de Bases , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Repeticiones Palindrómicas Cortas Agrupadas y Regularmente Espaciadas , Simulación por Computador , Secuencia Conservada , Coronavirus/efectos de los fármacos , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/crecimiento & desarrollo , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Células Epiteliales/virología , Humanos , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/genética , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Proteínas de la Nucleocápside/genética , Pandemias , Filogenia , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , ARN Replicasa/genética , Proteínas no Estructurales Virales/genética
18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(5): 412-417, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The epidemiologic and clinical characteristics of heart transplant (HTx) recipients during the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic remains unclear. We studied the characteristics of HTx recipients from December 20, 2019, to February 25, 2020, in an effort to understand their risk and outcomes. METHODS: All accessible HTx recipients were included in this single-center retrospective study. We collected information on the recipients using a web-based questionnaire as well as the hospital database. RESULTS: We followed 87 HTx recipients (72.4% were men, and the average age was 51 years). A total of 79 recipients resided in Hubei, and 57 recipients had a Wuhan-related history of travel or contact. Most took precautionary measures while in contact with suspicious crowds, and 96.6% of the families and communities undertook prevention and quarantine procedures. Four upper airway infections were reported, and 3 of them tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 (the fourth recovered and was not tested). All cases were mild and successfully recovered after proper treatment. Laboratory results of 47 HTx cases within the last 2 months were extracted. Of these, 21.3% of recipients had pre-existing lymphopenia, and 87.2% of recipients had a therapeutic concentration of tacrolimus (5-12 ng/ml). Liver and kidney insufficiency was seen in 5 and 6 recipients, respectively. CONCLUSION: HTx recipients who practiced appropriate prevention measures had a low rate of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and transition to the associated disease COVID-19. These early data will require confirmation as the pandemic establishes around the world.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Trasplante de Corazón , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Inmunosupresión , Inmunosupresores/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/uso terapéutico , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/tratamiento farmacológico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Cuarentena , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Int J Legal Med ; 134(4): 1271-1274, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458044

RESUMEN

In the setting of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, only few data regarding lung pathology induced by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is available, especially without medical intervention interfering with the natural evolution of the disease. We present here the first case of forensic autopsy of a COVID-19 fatality occurring in a young woman, in the community. Diagnosis was made at necropsy and lung histology showed diffuse alveolar damage, edema, and interstitial pneumonia with a geographically heterogeneous pattern, mostly affecting the central part of the lungs. This death related to COVID-19 pathology highlights the heterogeneity and severity of central lung lesions after natural evolution of the disease.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/patología , Pulmón/patología , Neumonía Viral/patología , Adenoviridae/genética , Adenoviridae/aislamiento & purificación , Adulto , Autopsia , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Bocavirus/genética , Bocavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Proteína C-Reactiva/análisis , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Femenino , Humanos , Influenzavirus A/genética , Influenzavirus A/aislamiento & purificación , Influenzavirus B/genética , Influenzavirus B/aislamiento & purificación , Macrófagos/patología , Megacariocitos/patología , Metapneumovirus/genética , Metapneumovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Neutrófilos/patología , Obesidad Mórbida , Pandemias , Polipéptido alfa Relacionado con Calcitonina/sangre , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/genética , Virus Sincitial Respiratorio Humano/aislamiento & purificación , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Rhinovirus/genética , Rhinovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Suiza , Linfocitos T/patología
20.
J Clin Virol ; 128: 104391, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32403008

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the past two decades, three novel coronaviruses (CoVs) have emerged to cause international human epidemics with severe morbidity. CoVs have also emerged to cause severe epidemics in animals. A better understanding of the natural hosts and genetic diversity of CoVs are needed to help mitigate these threats. OBJECTIVE: To design and evaluate a molecular diagnostic tool for detection and identification of all currently recognized and potentially future emergent CoVs from the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily. STUDY DESIGN AND RESULTS: We designed a semi-nested, reverse transcription RT-PCR assay based upon 38 published genome sequences of human and animal CoVs. We evaluated this assay with 14 human and animal CoVs and 11 other non-CoV respiratory viruses. Through sequencing the assay's target amplicon, the assay correctly identified each of the CoVs; no cross-reactivity with 11 common respiratory viruses was observed. The limits of detection ranged from 4 to 4 × 102 copies/reaction, depending on the CoV species tested. To assess the assay's clinical performance, we tested a large panel of previously studied specimens: 192 human respiratory specimens from pneumonia patients, 5 clinical specimens from COVID-19 patients, 81 poultry oral secretion specimens, 109 pig slurry specimens, and 31 aerosol samples from a live bird market. The amplicons of all RT-PCR-positive samples were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Our assay performed well with all tested specimens across all sample types. CONCLUSIONS: This assay can be used for detection and identification of all previously recognized CoVs, including SARS-CoV-2, and potentially any emergent CoVs in the Orthocoronavirinae subfamily.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Coronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa/métodos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/diagnóstico , Animales , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de las Aves/virología , Aves , Coronavirus/genética , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Variación Genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/virología , Virus del SRAS/genética , Virus del SRAS/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos , Enfermedades de los Porcinos/virología
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