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1.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 89-98, 2021 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830072

RESUMEN

Amphibians are globally threatened by emerging infectious diseases, and ranaviruses are among the most concerning pathogens to threaten species in the wild. We sampled for ranaviruses in wild amphibians at 8 sites in Costa Rica, spanning broad climatic zones and taxonomic associations. Seven of these sites are inhabited by highly threatened amphibian species that persist at low global population sizes after population declines due to amphibian chytridiomycosis. One of the surveyed sites is occupied by an introduced amphibian species, which is relatively rare in Central America but may be an important pathway for long-distance transport of ranaviruses. We detected ranavirus using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 16.3% of the 243 individuals and among 5 of our 8 sites, but not at the site with the introduced species. Infection prevalence varied among species and sites, but not with mean annual temperature or mean annual precipitation. Infection intensity did not vary with species, site, temperature, or precipitation. Our results show that ranavirus infection is spatially widespread in Costa Rica, affecting a broad range of host species, and occurs across climatic zones-though we encountered no mortality or morbidity in our sampled species. Ranaviruses are known to cause intermittent mass mortality in amphibian populations, and the threatened species sampled here are likely vulnerable to population impacts from emerging ranaviruses. Therefore, we believe the potential impacts of ranaviruses on amphibian populations in tropical regions have likely been underestimated, and that they should be viewed as a potential major stressor to threatened amphibians in tropical regions.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Virus ADN , Ranavirus , Anfibios , Animales , América Central , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus ADN/epidemiología , Infecciones por Virus ADN/veterinaria
2.
Environ Manage ; 67(5): 974-987, 2021 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33661346

RESUMEN

Over one-fourth of the world's land area is dedicated to agriculture, and these lands provide important ecosystem services (ES). Trees are a key component of agricultural ecosystems' ability to provide ES, especially in tropical regions. Agricultural landowners' evaluation of the ES provided by trees influences management decisions, impacting tree cover at large scales. Using a case study approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews with four types of agricultural landowners in southern Costa Rica to better understand how they value ES provided by trees. We used a socio-cultural valuation method, which revealed that landowners highly valued regulating and provisioning ES provided by trees and that the number and type of ES identified was influenced by the principle economic activity. Those farmers with larger amounts of forests on their properties more often identified cultural ES. The socio-cultural valuation methods revealed that respondents valued trees as wildlife habitat, coupling supporting and cultural services with both material (e.g., tourism) and non-material benefits (e.g., beauty). Few farmers in the study benefited from payment for ecosystem services programs, but the high value farmers placed on trees indicates there are other opportunities to increase tree cover on farms, such as promotion of live fencing and expanded riparian corridors. Results from this work can help improve conservation outcomes by shifting the focus of ecosystem service valuation to the needs and concerns of small-scale farmers in the development of outreach programs, management plans, and policies aimed at increasing tree cover on private lands in agricultural landscapes.


Asunto(s)
Ecosistema , Árboles , Agricultura , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Costa Rica
3.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 152, 2021 Mar 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743667

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inguinal hernia surgery is a frequent procedure among general surgeons in Costa Rica, but the management and technique are not uniform. The International Guideline for Groin Hernia management was published in 2018 to standardize the inguinal hernia surgery, but the diffusion of the guidelines and its adherence have been extremely varied. PURPOSE: Collect and analyze the current reality regarding groin hernia management in Costa Rica. Secondly evaluate the diffusion and development comparing it to the guideline's recommendations. METHOD: Questionnaire of 42 single and multiple answer questions according to the topics of the International Guideline directed to general surgeons. Diffusion of the inquiry through surgical and hernia association chats and email. Timeframe June-December 2019. RESULTS: 64 surveys were collected, which is a representative number of the general surgeons national college. The most frequent procedure between these was the abdominal wall surgery. Every surgeon did more than 52 groin hernia surgeries in one year, most of them outpatients. The epidural anesthesia was used the most and Lichtenstein's technique was the most frequently used (64%). 68% of the surgeons know how to perform a minimally invasive inguinal hernia surgery but with variable volumes. 38% of participants considered themselves experts in groin hernia management and 52% did not know the 2018 International Guideline. The recommendations of such guideline are followed only partially. CONCLUSIONS: The 2018 Hernia Surge International Guidelines have low diffusion among Costa Rican surgeons. The laparoscopic approach is widely accepted but there are no studies to assess the results and the quality. There should be protocols and studies adapted to Costa Rica's national situation.


Asunto(s)
Ingle/cirugía , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Hernia Inguinal/cirugía , Herniorrafia/métodos , Laparoscopía/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Pautas de la Práctica en Medicina/estadística & datos numéricos , Cirujanos , Adulto , Anestesia Local/estadística & datos numéricos , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Femenino , Herniorrafia/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuidados Preoperatorios , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Zootaxa ; 4915(3): zootaxa.4915.3.4, 2021 Jan 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756562

RESUMEN

A new species of Myxia Bahder Bartlett (Cixiidae: Cixiinae: Oecleini) is established as Myxia baynardi sp. n. collected from native palms in cloud forest habitat in Costa Rica. Placement in the genus Myxia is supported by molecular analysis of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S loci as well as morphological characters. Haplaxius delta (Kramer) was collected along the Caribbean coast as a new country record for Costa Rica. Based on morphological characters observed and molecular analysis of COI and 18S, H. delta is herein moved to the genus Myxia.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Cocos , Costa Rica , Bosques , Hemípteros/genética , Los Angeles
5.
Zootaxa ; 4908(3): zootaxa.4908.3.3, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756611

RESUMEN

Recent survey work for planthoppers at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica found two new species allied with Cenchrea Westwood. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and 18S were sequenced for the new taxa and used these data to assess the genus-level standing of the new taxa. The new taxa do not cluster with Cenchrea dorsalis Westwood, the type species of Cenchrea. A new genus Tico gen. n. described for the reception of new species described as Tico emmettcarri sp. n. (the type species) and Tico pseudosororius sp. n. Cenchrea sororia Fennah is moved to Tico gen. n., to form the new combination Tico sororius (Fennah). Tico gen. n. is compared with allied genera, and review genus-level diagnostic features and the species composition of Cenchrea, which appears to be compositionally heterogenous, but additional data is needed to evaluate genus-level placement of most species.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Costa Rica , Hemípteros/genética , Bosque Lluvioso , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
6.
Zootaxa ; 4926(2): zootaxa.4926.2.10, 2021 Feb 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756755

RESUMEN

Coralliozetus clausus, a new species of chaenopsid blenny, endemic to Isla del Coco, Costa Rica, is described. This small species, not exceeding 15 mm SL, is a short-bodied member of the genus along with Coralliozetus cardonae (Caribbean), Coralliozetus angelicus, and Coralliozetus springeri (both eastern Pacific). It differs from its closest relative, C. springeri, known from mainland waters from Costa Rica to Ecuador, in having a single tiny supraorbital cirrus and dark dots on the operculum and branchiostegal membrane of males while C. springeri has paired supraorbital cirri (one of which is substantial in size) and no dots on the operculum. Although two other species of Coralliozetus have been reported from Isla del Coco, this appears to be only member of the genus present on the island. It is the second chaenopsid endemic to Isla del Coco and brings the number of cryptobenthic fishes endemic to Isla del Coco to twelve.


Asunto(s)
Cocos , Animales , Costa Rica , Peces , Masculino
7.
J Environ Manage ; 285: 112053, 2021 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33571756

RESUMEN

The private regulation of agri-food value chains through sustainability standards has proliferated in recent decades, promising producers to differentiate themselves and gain preferential market access. However, in a number of producing countries, laws exist that mirror and go beyond what private labels demand. These countries have two options for placing their sustainable products in the market: signal their national system's equivalence to private schemes, or utilize the existing regulatory framework as favorable preconditions for widespread certification. In framing this choice as a collective reputation challenge, this study analyzes under which conditions states and parastatal actors opt for either approach, provides evidence of the strategies used, and draws conclusions on their respective success and on-the-ground outcomes. Using an in-depth comparative case study of the coffee sectors of Costa Rica and Colombia, the study finds that the divergence in institutional strategies can be explained by three factors: sector-specific institutional capacities; a country's place in the commodity marketplace, which determines the expected added pay-off of certification; and a country's overall international image.


Asunto(s)
Alimentos , Colombia , Costa Rica
8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(9)2021 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608286

RESUMEN

The Asgard superphylum is a deeply branching monophyletic group of Archaea, recently described as some of the closest relatives of the eukaryotic ancestor. The wide application of genomic analyses from metagenome sequencing has established six distinct phyla, whose genomes encode diverse metabolic capacities and which play important biogeochemical and ecological roles in marine sediments. Here, we describe two metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from deep marine sediments off the Costa Rica margin, defining a novel lineage phylogenetically married to "Candidatus Thorarchaeota"; as such, we propose the name "Sifarchaeota" for this phylum. The two Sifarchaeota MAGs encode an anaerobic pathway for methylotrophy enabling the utilization of C1 to C3 compounds (methanol and methylamines) to synthesize acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA). The MAGs showed a remarkable saccharolytic capabilities compared to other Asgard lineages and encoded diverse classes of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes) targeting different mono-, di-, and oligosaccharides. Comparative genomic analysis based on the full metabolic profiles of different Asgard lineages revealed the close relation between Sifarchaeota and "Candidatus Odinarchaeota" MAGs, which suggested similar metabolic potentials and ecological roles. Furthermore, we identified multiple HGT events from different bacterial donors within Sifarchaeota MAGs, which hypothetically expanded Sifarchaeota capacities for substrate utilization, energy production, and niche adaptation.IMPORTANCE The exploration of deep marine sediments has unearthed many new lineages of microbes. The finding of this novel phylum of Asgard archaea is important, since understanding the diversity and evolution of Asgard archaea may inform also about the evolution of eukaryotic cells. The comparison of metabolic potentials of the Asgard archaea can help inform about selective pressures the lineages have faced during evolution.


Asunto(s)
Archaea , Genoma Arqueal , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiología , Metagenoma , Polisacáridos/metabolismo , Anaerobiosis , Archaea/genética , Archaea/aislamiento & purificación , Archaea/metabolismo , Biodegradación Ambiental , Costa Rica , Filogenia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112132, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33621848

RESUMEN

Riparian zones are one of the most productive ecosystems in the world, but are at risk due to agricultural expansion and climate change. To maximize return on conservation investment in mixed-use landscapes, it is important to identify the minimum intact riparian forest buffer sizes to conserve riparian ecosystem services. The minimum riparian forest buffer width necessary to maintain tropical river water quality remains unclear, and there is little analysis of effective riparian buffer lengths. Also, in studies on the effect of land use on river water quality globally, there is little standardization in the area where land use is analyzed. Here, these challenges were addressed in the Osa Peninsula in southwestern Costa Rica. Water quality parameters and social variables were sampled at 194 locations across the region. For each sample, land use was calculated in nine different riparian buffer sizes and at the sampling location. Riparian forest cover had a positive effect on water quality parameters, while agricultural cover had a negative effect. The longer the length of the buffer considered, the greater the relative support for influencing water quality (1000 m > 500 m > 100 m). All buffer widths yielded similar support within each length class. These results indicate that length of riparian forest buffers, not width, drives their ability to conserve water quality. While wide and long riparian forests are ideal to maximize the protection of river water quality and other ecosystem services, in landscapes where that is impractical, the 15-m-wide riparian forest buffers that are supported by Costa Rican legislation could improve water quality, providing that they are at least 500 m long. The results also indicate the importance of methodological standardization in studies that monitor land use effects on water quality. The authors propose that studies in similar regions analyze land use in riparian zones 15-m-wide by 1000 m upstream. Conserving and restoring narrow, long riparian forest buffers could provide a rapid, economical management approach to balance agricultural production and water quality protection.


Asunto(s)
Ríos , Calidad del Agua , Costa Rica , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Bosques , Árboles
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572878

RESUMEN

This research aims to study the food practices and perceptions related to excessive consumption of salt/sodium when cooking and eating outside the home in a study population representing the wide intergenerational and sociocultural diversity of Costa Rica. Key communities from around the country, cultural experts, and key informants were selected. Four qualitative research techniques were applied. Data was systematized based on the Social Ecological Model. Women are generally in charge of cooking and family food purchases. Salt is perceived as a basic ingredient, used in small amounts that can be reduced-but not eliminated-when cooking. Changes in food preparations and emotions associated with the consumption of homemade food with salt were identified. The population likes to eat out, where the establishments selected depend mainly on age group and income. Beyond cultural and geographical differences, age aspects are suggested as being the main differentiators, in terms of use of salt, seasonings, and condiments in the preparation of food at home, the recipes prepared, and the selection of establishments in which to eat out. The deeply rooted values and meanings associated with salt in food indicate that the implementation of salt reduction strategies in Costa Rica is challenging.


Asunto(s)
Culinaria , Cloruro de Sodio Dietético , Costa Rica , Femenino , Humanos , Percepción , Sodio
11.
Extremophiles ; 25(1): 85-99, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33416983

RESUMEN

Aquatic environments of volcanic origin provide an exceptional opportunity to study the adaptations of microorganisms to early planet life conditions. Here, we characterized the prokaryotic communities and physicochemical properties of seepage sites at the bottom of the Poas Volcano crater and the Agrio River, two geologically related extremely acidic environments located in Costa Rica. Both locations hold a low pH (1.79-2.20) and have high sulfate and iron concentrations (Fe = 47-206 mg/L, SO42- = 1170-2460 mg/L), but significant differences in their temperature (90.0-95.0 ºC in the seepages at Poas Volcano, 19.1-26.6 ºC in Agrio River) and in the elemental sulfur content. Based on the analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, we determined that Sulfobacillus spp. represented more than half of the sequences in Poas Volcano seepage sites, while Agrio River was dominated by Leptospirillum and members of the archaeal order Thermoplasmatales. Both environments share some chemical characteristics and part of their microbiota, however, the temperature and the reduced sulfur are likely the main distinguishing features, ultimately shaping their microbial communities. Our data suggest that in the Poas Volcano-Agrio River system there is a common metabolism but with specialization of species that adapt to the physicochemical conditions of each environment.


Asunto(s)
Calor , Microbiota , Filogenia , Azufre , Ácidos , Archaea/clasificación , Bacterias/clasificación , Costa Rica , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , ARN Ribosómico 16S/genética , Ríos , Erupciones Volcánicas
12.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(2)2021 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33431562

RESUMEN

We have been field observers of tropical insects on four continents and, since 1978, intense observers of caterpillars, their parasites, and their associates in the 1,260 km2 of dry, cloud, and rain forests of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG) in northwestern Costa Rica. ACG's natural ecosystem restoration began with its national park designation in 1971. As human biomonitors, or "insectometers," we see that ACG's insect species richness and density have gradually declined since the late 1970s, and more intensely since about 2005. The overarching perturbation is climate change. It has caused increasing ambient temperatures for all ecosystems; more erratic seasonal cues; reduced, erratic, and asynchronous rainfall; heated air masses sliding up the volcanoes and burning off the cloud forest; and dwindling biodiversity in all ACG terrestrial ecosystems. What then is the next step as climate change descends on ACG's many small-scale successes in sustainable biodevelopment? Be kind to the survivors by stimulating and facilitating their owner societies to value them as legitimate members of a green sustainable nation. Encourage national bioliteracy, BioAlfa.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico , Ecosistema , Insectos , Animales , Costa Rica , Extinción Biológica , Clima Tropical
13.
Chemosphere ; 272: 129574, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485042

RESUMEN

The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment is known to have multiple origins; livestock activities comprise one scarcely studied source, both globally and specially in Latin-America. This work aims to study the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from swine farms and their surrounding surface waters, in a highland livestock production area of Costa Rica. The monitoring of 70 pharmaceutical active compounds resulted in the detection of 10 molecules in farm wastewater (influents and effluents of the on-farm treatment system), including compounds of animal and human use. A 57% of effluents showed high hazard (ΣHQ > 1), mainly due to the compounds risperidone, ketoprofen, ibuprofen and naproxen. Additionally, ecotoxicological tests with Daphnia magna and Microtox classified at least 21% of the effluents as very toxic (10 < TU ≤ 100); likewise, 86% of effluents exhibited germination index (GI) inhibition values over 90% for Lactuca sativa. Seven molecules were detected in surface water, six of them of human use (1,7-dimethylxanthine, caffeine, cephalexin, carbamazepine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen) and one (acetaminophen) of dual (human and veterinary) use; nonetheless, most of the detections were found in sampling points closer to human settlements than animal farms. Considering the set of molecules and their distribution, the livestock influence on surface water seems minimal in comparison with the urban influence. Only 16% of surface water samples showed high risk, mainly due to ibuprofen, gemfibrozil and caffeine; similarly, 45% samples presented GI inhibition >20% (no toxicity was determined towards Daphnia magna or Microtox). These findings in surface water suggest an incipient environmental risk in the area.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Animales , Costa Rica , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Granjas , Porcinos , Aguas Residuales , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/toxicidad
14.
Oecologia ; 195(2): 489-497, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394128

RESUMEN

Cloud forests have been found to lose more nitrogen in stream discharge than they gain from atmospheric deposition. They also support a large diversity and biomass of tree epiphytes, predominately composed of cryptogams. Since cryptogam epiphytes harbor nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria, they may help make up for the nitrogen loss from ecosystems. We assessed cryptogam biomass on the ground, boles and branches in Quercus costaricensis dominated stands near the tree line in the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica. Nitrogen fixation was assayed using 15N2 uptake. Total cryptogam biomass was 2 977 kg ha-1, with 67% being found on the lower branches. Bryophytes and chlorolichens made up 53% and 44%, respectively, of the biomass. Half of the bryophyte mass was composed of the liverwort Plagiochila heterophylla, and 66% of the chlorolichen of Lobariella pallida. There were no significant differences in nitrogen fixation rates between the cryptogam species, with a mean rate of 5.04 µg N g-1 day-1 during the predominantly wet condition in the forest. The overall nitrogen input from fixation was 6.1 kg N ha-1 year-1, of which 78% came from bryophytes, 18% from chlorolichens, and 4% from cyanolichens. Only 2.0% of the fixation occurred in cryptogams on the ground, whereas 67%, 24%, and 7% occurred on the lower branches, boles, and upper branches, respectively. These results show that tree epiphytes constitute a significant source of nitrogen for these forests, due to the trees' large surface area, and can make up for the nitrogen lost from these ecosystems.


Asunto(s)
Líquenes , Fijación del Nitrógeno , Ascomicetos , Biomasa , Costa Rica , Ecosistema , Bosques , Nitrógeno/análisis , Árboles
15.
J Environ Manage ; 280: 111801, 2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360256

RESUMEN

Ecosystems (natural capital) produce a range of benefits to humans. Natural capital is best thought of as common property since many of the ecosystem services it helps produce are non-rival and/or non-excludable. Private property regimes and markets alone are ineffective and inappropriate institutions to manage them sustainably. These systems can be better managed as commons, using more nuanced private and community property rights and Common Asset Trusts (CATs), with legal precedent in the Public Trust Doctrine. Effective CATs embody a generalized version of Elinore Ostrom's eight core design principles for sustainable commons management: (1) shared identity and purpose; (2) equitable distribution of contributions and benefits; (3) fair and inclusive decision-making; (4) monitoring agreed behaviours; (5) graduated responses; (6) fast and fair conflict resolution; (7) authority to self-govern; and (8) collaborative relations with other groups and spatial scales. Here, we describe a few existing and proposed systems that approximate effective CATs. We also suggest how Costa Rica can transform its existing payment for ecosystem services (PES) scheme into a national CAT. Finally, we describe how CATs can facilitate more fair and effective public/private partnerships (PPPs) to invest in natural capital and ecosystem services.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ecosistema , Costa Rica , Toma de Decisiones , Propiedad
16.
Ansiedad estrés ; 26(2/3): 107-111, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-199757

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Driver stress is a phenomenon many have studied in probably all five continents. It has been the focus of curiosity for all sorts of disciplines, and science has been unable to curb it, much less park it. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to generate a unique scale that can be used in Spanish speaking countries regardless of culture or geography. Method and Materials: A sample of 1954 drivers from Mexico, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Chile and Spain was comprised. Through this study, the original 21 items of the ISET (Stressful Situations in Transit Inventory, in Spanish) were used to carry out both an Exploratory Factorial Analysis as well as a Confirmatory Factorial Analysis. RESULTS: As a result, a 9 item scale was created that is valid for use in Spanish countries. CONCLUSIONS: Although further research is warranted, the LatinSET is now valid for its use in Spanish-speaking countries


INTRODUCCIÓN: El estrés en conductores es un fenómeno que muchos han estudiado en probablemente los cinco continentes del mundo. Ha sido el enfoque de estudio de una gran variedad de disciplinas, pero la ciencia no ha podido desgranarlo, ni mucho menos eliminarlo por completo. OBJETIVOS: Este estudio tiene como objetivo generar una nueva escala que pueda ser usada en países de habla hispana sin importar la cultura o la geografía. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Una muestra de 1,954 conductores de México, Guatemala, Costa Rica, Chile y España fue recolectada. A través de este estudio, el juego original de 21 ítems del ISET (Inventario de Situaciones Estresantes en el Tránsito) fueron utilizados para llevar a cabo análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio. RESULTADOS: Como resultado, una escala de 9 ítems fue creada que es válida para su uso en países hispanoparlantes. CONCLUSIONES: A pesar de que se requiere de más estudios relevantes, el LatinSET está listo para ser usado


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducción de Automóvil/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica/normas , Análisis Factorial , México , Guatemala , Costa Rica , Chile , España , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Lenguaje
17.
Psicol. educ. (Madr.) ; 26(2): 109-119, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-197246

RESUMEN

This paper studies the validity of the School Climate Battery of Questionnaires for Secondary and High School Teachers (SCBQ-SHST). The battery includes five questionnaires: Quality of Leadership, Quality of Teachers' Support, School Motivational Orientation, Quality of Students' Attitude, and Quality of Parental Support. A total of 178 teachers from Costa Rica were compared with 343 Spanish teachers. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the questionnaires allow assessing teachers' perceptions of the different dimensions of school climate in a valid and reliable way in both Spain and Costa Rica. Differences in the perception of Spanish and Costa Rican teachers about school climate shown by multigroup confirmatory factor analyses are discussed as well as theoretical and practical implications


Este artículo estudia la validez de la Batería de cuestionarios sobre clima escolar para profesores de Secundaria y Bachillerato (BQCE-SB). La batería incluye cinco cuestionarios: calidad de liderazgo, calidad de apoyo docente, orientación motivacional del centro, calidad de las actitudes de los estudiantes y calidad del apoyo de los padres. Un total de 178 docentes de Costa Rica se compararon con 343 docentes españoles. Los análisis factoriales confirmatorios mostraron que los cuestionarios permiten evaluar de manera válida y confiable las percepciones de los docentes sobre las diferentes dimensiones del clima escolar, tanto en España como en Costa Rica. Se discuten las diferencias en la percepción de los docentes españoles y costarricenses sobre el clima escolar que muestran los análisis factoriales confirmatorios multigrupo, así como sus implicaciones teóricas y práctica


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Instituciones Académicas , Docentes/psicología , Motivación , Apoyo Social , Liderazgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Comparación Transcultural , Costa Rica , España
18.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; dic. 7, 2020. 57 p. ilus..
Monografía en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151273

RESUMEN

Después de casi 9 meses de COVID-19, el Ministro de Salud informó en conferencia de prensa que la COVID-19 es la primera causa de muerte en Costa Rica, por lo que ha expresado una seria advertencia a la población sobre el latente riesgo de un colapso en las unidades de cuidados intensivos y la necesidad de mantener la continuidad de las medidas de protección.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Pandemias/prevención & control , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Servicios Públicos de Salud/organización & administración , Costa Rica/epidemiología
19.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53156

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Costa Rica has long been a country of special interest in the Americas and in global health because of its good health. The United Nations Development Programme ranks countries according to their level of human development based on life expectancy, education and national income. Although Costa Rica is ranked at 63 and classified as ‘High’, in terms of health it belongs in the ‘Very High’ group. In 2018 mean life expectancy for the ‘Very High’ countries was 79.5, while in Costa Rica it was 80. In 2018, under five mortality was 8.8/1000 live births, lower than countries ranked in the ‘Very High’ human development group. Expected years of schooling in Costa Rica is 15.4, closer to the average, 16.4 years, of the ‘Very High’ human development group than the average of the ‘High’ group. The country is much healthier than would be predicted by its national income; rather, other features of society’s development are likely to have played a key role in the development of good health. These include (i) the decision to cease investment in national defence, which freed up money to invest in health, education and the welfare of the population; (ii) the decision to create a universal health system financed by the State, employers and workers in the 1940s; and (iii) the educational system, that generated opportunities to lift important sectors of the population out of poverty, allowing them to have basic sanitary conditions that increase their possibilities to live longer and in better conditions. Despite these advances, inequalities in terms of income and social conditions persist, presenting challenges in the field of health, particularly for lower-income populations and those of African and indigenous descent. These inequalities must be addressed using decisions based on scientific evidence, a greater use of disaggregated data to reveal progress in addressing these inequalities, and with a broader articulation of the health sector with policies that act on the social determinants of health.


[RESUMEN]. Costa Rica es un país de especial interés en las Américas y en la salud mundial debido a su buena salud. El Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo clasifica a los países según su nivel de desarrollo humano con base en la esperanza de vida, la educación y el ingreso nacional. Aunque Costa Rica está clasificada en el puesto 63 y clasificada dentro del grupo ‘Alto’, en términos de salud pertenece al grupo ‘Muy alto’. En 2018 la esperanza de vida media de los países del grupo ‘Muy alto’ era de 79,5 años, mientras que en Costa Rica era de 80. En 2018, la mortalidad en menores de cinco años era de 8,8/1000 nacidos vivos, inferior a la de los países clasificados en el grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’. Los años de escolaridad esperados en Costa Rica son 15,4, más cercanos al promedio, 16,4 años, del grupo de desarrollo humano ‘Muy alto’ que el promedio del grupo ‘Alto’. El país es mucho más saludable de lo que podría predecirse por su ingreso nacional; más bien, es probable que otras características del desarrollo de la sociedad hayan desempeñado un papel fundamental en el desarrollo de la buena salud. Entre ellas figuran: (i) la decisión de dejar de invertir en la defensa nacional, que liberó dinero para invertir en salud, educación y bienestar de la población; (ii) la decisión de crear un sistema de salud universal financiado por el Estado, los empleadores y los trabajadores en el decenio de 1940; y (iii) el sistema educativo, que generó oportunidades para sacar de la pobreza a importantes sectores de la población, permitiéndoles disponer de condiciones sanitarias básicas que aumentan sus posibilidades de vivir más y en mejores condiciones. A pesar de estos avances, persisten desigualdades en términos de ingresos y condiciones sociales, lo que plantea desafíos en el ámbito de la salud, en particular para las poblaciones de menores ingresos y las de ascendencia africana e indígena. Estas desigualdades deben abordarse mediante decisiones basadas en pruebas científicas, un mayor uso de datos desagregados que revelen los progresos realizados para hacer frente a esas desigualdades, y una mayor articulación del sector de la salud con las políticas que actúan sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud.


Asunto(s)
Equidad en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Esperanza de Vida , Costa Rica , Equidad en Salud , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Desarrollo Humano , Esperanza de Vida
20.
Rev. cuba. salud pública ; 46(4): e2554, oct.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156633

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Introducción: Las crisis epidémicas se caracterizan por el surgimiento de enfermedades altamente transmisibles y contagiosas, cuya rápida capacidad de distribución geoespacial, genera un índice importante de morbilidad. Objetivo: Analizar las principales intervenciones salubristas adoptadas por la República de Costa Rica, en el marco del combate y prevención de la epidemia por la COVID-19, durante el primer semestre del año 2020. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio de análisis documental, con abordaje cualitativo y analítico-descriptivo. Se realizó lectura integral de lineamientos nacionales específicos; comunicaciones de prensa; boletines epidemiológicos; normativa sanitaria específica para la COVID-19, estrategias, guías y recomendaciones y protocolos sectoriales. Conclusiones: Las intervenciones salubristas adoptadas por la República de Costa Rica brindan las capacidades necesarias para que el sistema público de salud consiga atender las necesidades específicas de su población durante la crisis epidémica. El plan estratégico presentado por el Ministerio de Salud se muestra como una respuesta activa al combate y prevención de la COVID-19, con enfoque en las formas de contención. Las guías, orientaciones, lineamientos y protocolos específicos reafirman el compromiso estatal de cuidar y promover la salud de sus ciudadanos, aún en tiempos inciertos de crisis epidémica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Epidemic crisis are characterized by the emergence of highly transmissible and contagious diseases which their quick ability of geospatial distribution generate an important morbility rate. Objective: To analyze the main sanitary interventions adopted by the Republic of Costa Rica within the framework of COVID-19 fighting and prevention during the first semester of 2020. Methods: It was conducted a study of documental analysis with qualitative and analytic-descriptive approach. It was made a comprehensive reading of the specific national guidelines, press communications, epidemiologic reports, specific sanitary regulations for COVID-19, strategies, guides and recommendations, and sectorial protocols. Conclusions: The sanitary interventions implemented in the Republic of Costa Rica offer the needed capacities for the public health system to attend the specific needs of the population during the epidemic crisis. The strategic plan presented by the Ministry of Health stands as an active response to the fight and prevention of COVID-19 focused in limiting forms. Guides, directions, guidelines and specific protocols reinforce the state commitment of caring and promoting health of their citizens, even in uncertain times of epidemiologic crisis.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Pública , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Costa Rica , Estudios de Evaluación como Asunto
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