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1.
Artículo en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51930

RESUMEN

[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar las asociaciones existentes entre las características sociodemográficas y la prevalencia del consumo actual de tabaco en Costa Rica, según los resultados de la Encuesta Global de Tabaquismo en Adultos (GATS). Métodos. Estudio epidemiológico, observacional de tipo transversal con representación nacional (n = 8607), que utilizó las variables sociodemográficas incluidas en la GATS realizada durante 2015. Se diseñó un modelo de regresión logística para predecir la influencia de esas variables en el consumo actual de tabaco. La variable dependiente es el consumo actual de tabaco considerando los determinantes sociales disponibles en la encuesta: género, nivel educativo, zona de residencia, edad y la composición del hogar. Resultados. El modelo de regresión logística demuestra que ser mujer (OR = 0,29; P < 0,01), tener 65 años y más (OR = 0,61; P = 0,02), vivir en zona rural (OR = 0,63; P < 0,01) y vivir con otras personas (OR = 0,68; P < 0,01), en particular con niños de 15 años o menos (OR = 0,55; P < 0,01), son factores protectores del consumo de tabaco. El consumo de tabaco disminuye de forma significativa con el aumento de la riqueza medida por los artefactos en la casa en las mujeres, pero no en los hombres. Completar la educación secundaria es un factor protector en las personas de 15-34 años (OR = 0,47; P < 0,01), aunque no en las personas de 35 años y más. Conclusiones. Existe una asociación entre las variables sociodemográficas disponibles en la encuesta GATS Costa Rica realizada en el 2015 y el consumo actual de tabaco. Intervenciones a nivel familiar y comunal podrían contribuir a que los consumidores abandonen el tabaquismo.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the current prevalence of tobacco use in Costa Rica, based on the results of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). Methods. Cross-sectional observational epidemiological study, country-wide (n = 8607), that used the sociodemographic variables included in GATS 2015. A logistic regression model was designed to predict the impact of those variables on current tobacco use. The dependent variable is current tobacco use, considering the social determinants available in the survey: sex, educational level, area of residence, age, and household composition. Results. The logistic regression model shows that being female (OR = 0.29; P < 0.01), being 65 years old and over (OR = 0.61; P = 0.02), living in a rural area (OR = 0.63; P < 0.01), and living with other people (OR = 0.68; P < 0.01), in particular with children 15 years old or under (OR = 0.55; P < 0.01), are protective factors against tobacco use. Tobacco use declines significantly with increased wealth, as measured by household items, in women but not in men. Completing secondary education is a protective factor in people 15-34 years old (OR = 0.47; P < 0.01) but not in people 35 and over. Conclusions. There is an association between the sociodemographic variables found in the GATS Costa Rica survey carried out in 2015 and current tobacco use. Interventions at the family and community levels could help consumers give up smoking.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar as associações existentes entre as características sociodemográficas e a prevalência do consumo presente de tabaco na Costa Rica, segundo os resultados da Pesquisa Global sobre Tabagismo em Adultos (Global Adult Tobacco Survey – GATS). Métodos. Trata-se de um estudo epidemiológico observacional transversal com representatividade nacional (n = 8.607) com o uso das variáveis sociodemográficas estudadas na GATS realizada em 2015. Usou-se um modelo de regressão logística para predizer a influência das variáveis estudadas no consumo presente de tabaco. A variável dependente foi o consumo presente de tabaco levando em consideração os determinantes sociais disponíveis na pesquisa: gênero, nível de escolaridade, área de residência, idade e composição do domicílio. Resultados. Observou-se, no modelo de regressão logística, que ser do sexo feminino (OR 0,29; P < 0,01), ter 65 anos ou mais (OR 0,61; P = 0,02), residir na zona rural (OR 0,63; P < 0,01) e viver em um domicílio com outras pessoas (OR 0,68; P < 0,01), sobretudo com crianças menores de 15 anos (OR 0,55; P < 0,01), são fatores de proteção contra o consumo de tabaco. O consumo de tabaco diminui de forma significativa com o aumento da renda (medida de acordo com o número de serviços e utilidades domésticas) apenas entre as mulheres. Ter o ensino médio completo é um fator de proteção na faixa etária entre 15 e 34 anos (OR 0,47; P < 0,01), mas não entre as pessoas acima de 35 anos. Conclusões. Existe uma associação entre as variáveis sociodemográficas estudadas na GATS de 2015 e o consumo presente de tabaco na Costa Rica. Intervenções realizadas ao nível da família e da comunidade poderiam contribuir para a cessação do tabagismo.


Asunto(s)
Uso de Tabaco , Adulto , Factores Epidemiológicos , Análisis de Regresión , Costa Rica , Uso de Tabaco , Factores Epidemiológicos , Análisis de Regresión , Factores Epidemiológicos , Análisis de Regresión
2.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-02-26.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51888

RESUMEN

El informe Seguridad social en Centroamérica y República Dominicana: situación actual y desafíos ofrece una descripción general de los principales regímenes vigentes en los sistemas y las instituciones de seguridad social de Centroamérica y el Caribe, realiza un análisis comparativo de esos regímenes, y presenta los desafíos regionales en materia de seguridad social, junto con las metas y los indicadores conexos para el decenio 2018-2028. Más allá de la diversidad en cuanto a la madurez y el desarrollo de los arreglos institucionales de seguridad social de la región, es posible distinguir una serie de desafíos comunes que pueden abordarse utilizando como marco de referencia la Estrategia para el acceso universal a la salud y la cobertura universal de salud de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud del 2014. Algunos de ellos se relacionan con temas estructurales que requieren importantes transformaciones en términos de rectoría y gobernanza —como la segmentación de los sistemas y la fragmentación de los servicios, la ampliación del número de contribuyentes y un financiamiento adecuado a las necesidades de la población— y otros con la prestación de los servicios de salud —un aspecto que requiere la transición a una atención integral y el fomento de la articulación de los distintos niveles de atención a través de redes integradas—. Para la elaboración de este documento se han consultado documentos oficiales de las instituciones de seguridad social de los países miembros del CISSCAD, la legislación vigente en los países y normas de cada institución, y se ha recurrido a bases de datos y publicaciones de organismos internacionales. Este informe está dirigido a profesionales, académicos y expertos del sector de la salud y la protección social interesados en la evolución de los sistemas de seguridad social en la Región de las Américas. Brinda información y análisis de datos que representan aportes técnicos útiles para debatir y formular propuestas de mejoras en los institutos de seguridad social de toda la Región.


Asunto(s)
Financiación de los Sistemas de Salud , Financiación de la Atención de la Salud , Políticas, Planificación y Administración en Salud , Planes y Programas de Salud , Seguridad Social , Equidad en el Acceso a los Servicios de Salud , Cobertura Universal de Salud , Belice , Costa Rica , El Salvador , Guatemala , Honduras , Nicaragua , Panamá , República Dominicana
3.
Oecologia ; 192(3): 591-601, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31989321

RESUMEN

Leaf-cutter ant nests are biogeochemical hot spots where ants live and import vegetation to grow fungus. Metabolic activity and (in wet tropical forests) soil gas flux to the nest may result in high nest CO2 concentrations if not adequately ventilated. Wind-driven ventilation mitigates high CO2 concentrations in grasslands, but little is known about exchange for forest species faced with prolonged windless conditions. We studied Atta cephalotes nests located under dense canopy (leaf area index > 5) in a wet tropical rainforest in Costa Rica, where wind events are infrequent. We instrumented nests with thermocouples and flow-through CO2 sensing chambers. The results showed that CO2 concentrations exiting leaf-cutter ant nests follow a diel pattern with higher values at night. We developed an efflux model based on pressure differences that evaluated the observed CO2 diel pattern in terms of ventilation by (1) free convection (warm, less dense air rises out the nest more prominently at night) and (2) episodic wind-forced convection events providing occasional supplemental ventilation during daytime. Average greenhouse gas emissions were estimated through nest vents at about 78 kg CO2eq nest-1 year-1. At the ecosystem level, leaf-cutter ant nest vents accounted for 0.2% to 1% of total rainforest soil emissions. In wet, clayey tropical soils, leaf-cutter ant nests act as free convection-driven conduits for exporting CO2 and other greenhouse gases produced within the nest (fungus and ant respiration, refuse decay), and by roots and soil microbes surrounding the nest. This allows A. cephalotes nests to be ventilated without reliable wind conditions.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Gases de Efecto Invernadero , Animales , Convección , Costa Rica , Ecosistema , Bosque Lluvioso
4.
J Dairy Sci ; 103(1): 215-219, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733842

RESUMEN

Kefir is an artisanal product that is gaining scientific attention due to its increase in consumption attributed to its potential health benefits. The effect on the quality attributes of kefir grains of different origin (household and commercial) and preserved with different methods (drying and freezing) was evaluated to standardize a domestic and semi-industrial process. Chemical (protein, lactose. lactic acid, ethanol, and acetic acid) as well as microbial properties (total plate count and total yeast count) were monitored during the experiment. Results show a statistical difference between the kefir grains in terms of acetic acid and ethanol percentages, which leads to the conclusion that there is a difference in the microbial populations that produce these products. Lactic acid, protein, and lactose parameters are statistically the same as well as the growth in biomass and the total population of yeast. Our results suggest that both types of kefir grains maintain a similar performance and that their metabolic capabilities are stable throughout time (taking into account that the household grains have been productive for years), meaning that domestic or semi-industrial processes could be easily standardized.


Asunto(s)
Ácido Acético/análisis , Etanol/análisis , Kéfir/análisis , Animales , Costa Rica , Fermentación
5.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(12): e0007914, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31790407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Snakebite envenoming is a neglected public health challenge that affects mostly economically deprived communities who inhabit tropical regions. In these regions, snakebite incidence data is not always reliable, and access to health care is scare and heterogeneous. Thus, addressing the problem of snakebite effectively requires an understanding of how spatial heterogeneity in snakebite is associated with human demographics and snakes' distribution. Here, we use a mathematical model to address the determinants of spatial heterogeneity in snakebite and we estimate snakebite incidence in a tropical country such as Costa Rica. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We combined a mathematical model that follows the law of mass action, where the incidence is proportional to the exposed human population and the venomous snake population, with a spatiotemporal dataset of snakebite incidence (Data from year 1990 to 2007 for 193 districts) in Costa Rica. This country harbors one of the most dangerous venomous snakes, which is the Terciopelo (Bothrops asper, Garman, 1884). We estimated B. asper distribution using a maximum entropy algorithm, and its abundance was estimated based on field data. Then, the model was adjusted to the data using a lineal regression with the reported incidence. We found a significant positive correlation (R2 = 0.66, p-value < 0.01) between our estimation and the reported incidence, suggesting the model has a good performance in estimating snakebite incidence. CONCLUSIONS: Our model underscores the importance of the synergistic effect of exposed population size and snake abundance on snakebite incidence. By combining information from venomous snakes' natural history with census data from rural populations, we were able to estimate snakebite incidence in Costa Rica. The model was able to fit the incidence data at fine administrative scale (district level), which is fundamental for the implementation and planning of management strategies oriented to reduce snakebite burden.


Asunto(s)
Bothrops/crecimiento & desarrollo , Modelos Teóricos , Mordeduras de Serpientes/epidemiología , Topografía Médica , Animales , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Clima Tropical
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 45(11-12): 914-925, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802386

RESUMEN

Frogs in the genus Phyllobates are known for the presence of batrachotoxin, a highly toxic alkaloid, in their skin. Nevertheless, Phyllobates frogs from Costa Rica and Panama (P. lugubris and P. vittatus) are considered non-toxic, as they have been reported to harbor low concentrations of this alkaloid. However, the potential toxicity of Central American Phyllobates has not been assessed experimentally. Our goal was to determine the toxicity of the whole skin of P. vittatus, an endemic species from the Southeastern Pacific region of Costa Rica. We performed median lethal dose (LD50) tests in mice to determine general toxicity, and an irritant assay based on the behavioral responses of mice to subcutaneous injection, to determine differences in irritability, as a measure of toxicity, among three study localities. Using UPLC-ESI-QTOF, we obtained chemical profiles of the methanolic extract of frog skins. Due to the absence of mortality at the studied doses, we were unable to estimate LD50. However, we recorded a list of toxicity symptoms in mice that are consistent with cardiotoxic effects, and found that mice presented more symptoms at higher concentrations of skin extracts during the first hour of the LD50 assays, recovering completely at all doses by the end of the assay. On the other hand, we did not detect differences in irritability among studied localities. Additionally, we putatively identified three toxic alkaloids (Batrachotoxinin A, DHQ 251A and Lehm 275A). This study provides the first experimental data on the toxicity and associated symptoms in mice, as well as the chemical profile of the skin of P. vittatus. We suggest that the skin alkaloids of P. vitattus may confer a chemical defense towards predators.


Asunto(s)
Alcaloides/análisis , Alcaloides/toxicidad , Anuros/fisiología , Mezclas Complejas/análisis , Mezclas Complejas/toxicidad , Piel/química , Animales , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Simulación por Computador , Costa Rica , Bases de Datos de Compuestos Químicos , Femenino , Dosificación Letal Mediana , Ratones Endogámicos ICR , Venenos/análisis , Venenos/toxicidad , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos
7.
Zootaxa ; 4577(3): zootaxa.4577.3.5, 2019 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715711

RESUMEN

An ongoing survey for novel phytoplasmas and viruses that affect palms (Arecaceae) is being conducted in Costa Rica along with potential vectors. During that survey, a new species of derbid planthopper (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) in the genus Omolicna Fennah was detected from Heredia and Limón State and is here described as Omolicna xavieri sp. n. This new taxon was first found on declining coconut palms (Cocos nucifera) and subsequently on healthy coconut palms in Tortuguero National Park. Also, two additional species of Omolicna, O. brunnea and O. triata, were collected on coconut in the same habitat and represent new country records. There are no previously published records of Omolicna from Costa Rica. Sequence data for the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) and the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were obtained. In addition, novel 18S primers specific to auchenorrhynchan insects were developed and presented. The molecular data show high pairwise distances between O. xavieri sp. n. and other Omolicna species (24% to 31% and 10% using COI and 18S, respectively). Based on both morphological and sequence data, we erect and briefly describe the new subgenus Agoo for the new species to reflect the observed differences. A checklist of Omolicna species is presented.


Asunto(s)
Arecaceae , Hemípteros , Animales , Cocos , Costa Rica
8.
Zootaxa ; 4576(2): zootaxa.4576.2.12, 2019 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715770

RESUMEN

The genus Cabamofa, previously containing only C. mira from Costa Rica (Jaschhof 2005), is shown here to have a second species in Thailand, which is described and named C. orientalis sp. nov. The new species is known from a single male collected by the TIGER Project (Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research), a mass-sampling program to inventory insect diversity in Southeast Asia (Plant et al. 2011; http://sharkeylab.org/tiger, accessed 14 December 2018). As the circumstances of finding indicate, C. orientalis is a decidedly rare species, an attribute applying to perhaps one third of all tropical arthropods (Lim et al. 2012) and most Sciaroidea incertae sedis (Jaschhof 2017), including the Costa Rican C. mira. The latter species was originally described from two females, which were Malaise trapped in 2003 in lowland rain forest (Jaschhof 2005), while a conspecific male, a museum specimen collected in 1922 in an unknown habitat, was detected and described subsequently (Amorim Rindal 2007). Cabamofa is one of nearly 20 sciaroid genera whose family affiliation has not yet been resolved (Jaschhof 2017), but there is morphological evidence suggesting its close affinity to other Sciaroidea incertae sedis, such as Rogambara Jaschhof, 2005, Ohakunea Tonnoir Edwards, 1927, and Colonomyia Colless, 1963. These four genera together form the Ohakunea group of Jaschhof (2005), or the Ohakuneinae (as a subfamily of the broadly conceived family Rangomaramidae) of Amorim Rindal (2007). Recent molecular work (Sevcík et al. 2016, Kasprák et al. 2019) suggests a more distant phylogenetic position of Ohakunea to other Sciaroidea incertae sedis. The obvious conflict here between morphological and molecular evidence is stimulating fresh interest in the "incertae sedis issue", as proven by the present contribution. The morphology of C. orientalis provides no new clues as to the systematic position of Cabamofa, or the Ohakunea group, but reveals characters that were previously not known to occur in Cabamofa. The delimitation of this genus is briefly reviewed below. Our finding of C. orientalis extends the geographic distribution of Cabamofa from the New World to the Old World (Oriental) tropics, which consorts with the disjunct (Neotropical-Australasian) areas found in both Colonomyia and Ohakunea. Morphological terminology used here is in accordance with that by Cumming Wood (2017).


Asunto(s)
Dípteros , Distribución Animal , Estructuras Animales , Animales , Costa Rica , Femenino , Masculino , Filogenia , Tailandia
9.
Zootaxa ; 4571(4): zootaxa.4571.4.5, 2019 Mar 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715793

RESUMEN

The genus Acusana is recorded from the Brazilian fauna for the first time, with the description of four new species: Acusana adunca sp. nov. and Acusana spina sp. nov. from Mato Grosso, Central-Western Brazil and Acusana dilatata sp. nov. and Acusana longa sp. nov. from Maranhão, Northeast Brazil. Detailed description and illustrations of male and female are provided, as well a revised diagnosis for the genus. The female genitalia of Acusana species is described and illustrated by the first time. A new record of Acusana paga DeLong Freytag, 1966 is added from Costa Rica.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Brasil , Costa Rica , Femenino , Genitales Femeninos , Masculino
10.
Zootaxa ; 4679(3): zootaxa.4679.3.9, 2019 Oct 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715952

RESUMEN

A new species, Hemierana rileyi sp. nov., is described from the USA (Texas). Tyrinthia lycinella Bates, 1881 is synonymized with T. xanthe Bates, 1881. A new country record (Panama), and a new province record in Costa Rica (Limón) is given for Eranina cretaria (Galileo Martins, 2005), and a new country record (Panama) is given for Eranina costaricensis (Galileo Martins, 2005).


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Arañas , Animales , Costa Rica , Panamá , Texas
11.
Zootaxa ; 4671(3): zootaxa.4671.3.6, 2019 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716045

RESUMEN

Exploration of the deep sea off the Pacific margin of Costa Rica has resulted in the discovery of a number of new species and reports for the region. Here, we report on the occurrence of the octocoral genus Swiftia, and describe a new species collected by the Alvin submersible off the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The new species has been observed at around 1000 m depth, growing on authigenic carbonates near methane seeps. Swiftia sahlingi sp. nov. is characterised by having bright red colonies that are with limited branching, with slightly raised polyp-mounds, thin coenenchyme mainly composed of long warty spindles, and conspicuous plates. A molecular phylogenetic analysis supports the differences between this new taxon and the closest Swiftia species. The new species represents the first record of the genus from Costa Rica and in fact for the Eastern Tropical Pacific.


Asunto(s)
Antozoos , Animales , Costa Rica , Metano , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4624(2): zootaxa.4624.2.5, 2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716224

RESUMEN

Description of the final instar of Acanthagrion trilobatum Leonard, 1977 and A. speculum Garrison, 1985 is based on associated specimens from San José, Turrialba and Sarapiquí Provinces, Costa Rica. Illustrations of these two species and a comparative table summarizing the main features of all larvae of Acanthagrion described to date are provided. The larva of A. trilobatum is distinguished from that of A. speculum by shorter lateral caudal lamellae (length 7 mm vs. 8.2 mm), lateral carina of abdominal segments 2-8 with spiniform setae on posterior 1/3 (lateral carinae of only S6-8 with spiniform setae in A. speculum), and male gonapophyses incurved (straight in A. speculum).


Asunto(s)
Escarabajos , Odonata , Animales , Costa Rica , Larva , Masculino , Instrumentos Quirúrgicos
13.
Zootaxa ; 4623(3): zootaxa.4623.3.13, 2019 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716257

RESUMEN

The fossorial snake genus Anomalepis Jan 1860 currently comprises four species with distribution restricted to the Neotropics, occurring from Nicaragua to trans-Andean Peru. Species of Anomalepis occur on the mainland from sea level to about 2,700 m elevation in habitats that range from xerophyte vegetation to tropical wet forests (Kofron 1988; McDiarmid et al. 1999; Uetz et al. 2019; Wallach et al. 2014). Kofron (1988) performed a taxonomic review of the genus Anomalepis, recognizing two phenotypic clusters of species: the A. mexicanus Jan 1860 composed exclusively by its nominal form, and the A. aspinosus Taylor 1939 group consisting of the former species, A. colombia Marx 1953 (Fig. 1) and A. flavapices Peters 1957. While Anomalepis aspinosus occurs in xerophytic formation from 500-2700 above sea level (asl hereafter) along the Peruvian Andes (Kofron 1988; McDiarmid et al. 1999; Wallach et al. 2014), and Anomalepis flavapices is found in the coastal rainforest plains of northwestern Ecuador (Kofron 1988; Wallach et al. 2014), Anomalepis mexicanus presents the most widespread distribution amongst its congeners, occurring in northeastern Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica and Panama from sea level to 725 m altitude. Even though this species has previously been recorded for Peru (Kofron, 1988), it seems unlikely that this specimen belongs to A. mexicanus due to its distinct meristic features (see Kofron 1988) and its outlandish record (see Fig. 2). Marx (1953) described Anomalepis colombia based on a single specimen collected in 1946 by Kjell von Sneidern at La Selva (05º25'23N, 74º57'44W; 1700 m asl), municipality of Pueblo Rico, department of Caldas, Colombia. As far as we know, since its original description, no additional specimen of A. colombia has been reported in literature (cf. Kofron 1988; McDiarmid et al. 1999; Wallach et al. 2014).


Asunto(s)
Serpientes , Animales , Colombia , Costa Rica , Ecuador , Honduras , Nicaragua , Panamá , Perú
14.
Zootaxa ; 4619(2): zootaxa.4619.2.1, 2019 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716300

RESUMEN

Mexican species of the genus Probles Förster are reviewed. Twelve species have been discovered from Mexico, all belong to the subgenus Euporizon Horstmann and are new to science: P. alejandroi Khalaim, sp. nov., P. belokobylskii Khalaim, sp. nov., P. clypeola Khalaim, sp. nov., P. contrerasi Khalaim, sp. nov., P. juanitae Khalaim Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., P. lunai Khalaim, sp. nov., P. megasoma Khalaim Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., P. miquihuana Khalaim Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., P. picus Khalaim Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., P. spectabilis Khalaim Ruíz-Cancino, sp. nov., P. xalapana Khalaim, sp. nov. and P. zacapoaxtlana Khalaim, sp. nov. One species, P. megasoma sp. nov., is also recorded from Costa Rica. An identification key to species of Probles occurring in Mexico is given.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Animales , Costa Rica , México
15.
Zootaxa ; 4567(1): zootaxa.4567.1.12, 2019 Mar 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716447

RESUMEN

Rodrigama freidbergi sp. nov. is described based on specimens collected in the last 30 years in Israel. Previously described Rodrigama species are found in Costa Rica, Japan, China and Taiwan so this discovery of a rather large and distinctive species so far West is noteworthy. Pimplaetus taishanensis He 1996 is newly transferred to Rodrigama as Rodrigama taishanense comb. nov.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Animales , China , Costa Rica , Israel , Japón , Masculino , Taiwán
16.
Zootaxa ; 4565(3): zootaxa.4565.3.7, 2019 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716467

RESUMEN

Two new species of Anacroneuria are described. Anacroneuria bandido sp. n. is described from Coclé and Veraguas provinces of central Panama, and A. tuberculata sp. n. is proposed to provide a new name for a species previously identified from Costa Rica as A. magnirufa Jewett, 1958. New locality records are presented for eight species previously reported from Panama. The female of one species from Bocas del Toro province is described under an informal designation. There are now 26 recognized species of Plecoptera known from Panama.


Asunto(s)
Insectos , Animales , Costa Rica , Femenino , Panamá , Parques Recreativos
17.
Zootaxa ; 4671(1): zootaxa.4671.1.7, 2019 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716596

RESUMEN

A new king cricket species Glaphyrosoma stephanosoltis sp. nov. (Orthoptera: Anostostomatidae: Glaphyrosomatini) from mid-elevation tropical rainforests of Costa Rica is described. This new species represents the southernmost distribution of the genus Glaphyrosoma Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1888, which is widely distributed throughout Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras. Biology of the new species is briefly described.


Asunto(s)
Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribución Animal , Animales , Conducta Animal , Costa Rica , Guatemala , Honduras , México
18.
Zootaxa ; 4668(3): zootaxa.4668.3.10, 2019 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716624

RESUMEN

The genus Lissochlora was described by Warren (1900) and revised by Pitkin (1993) with respect to the fauna of Costa Rica. Lissochlora has a small spur or kink to its aedeagus and is distinguished from related genera by the absence of basal costal process of the valva in the male genitalia, which is present in Nemoria Hübner, Rhodochlora Warren and Paromphacodes Warren (Pitkin 1993, 1996). Paromphacodes, Lissochlora and Nemoria cluster together, sharing a bilobed eighth sternite and the presence of a costal sclerite or ornamentation on the valva (Viidalepp 2017). Usually species of Lissochlora have a shorter uncus in the male genitalia than that of related genera, and the last abdominal sternite of the male is usually shorter than the corresponding tergite (Viidalepp 2017).


Asunto(s)
Lepidópteros , Mariposas Nocturnas , Animales , Costa Rica , Masculino
19.
Zootaxa ; 4658(1): zootaxa.4658.1.12, 2019 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716766

RESUMEN

The Neotropical fish family Loricariidae is the most diverse family of catfishes (order Siluriformes) and the fifth largest fish family, with approximately 993 valid species. The species of the family are geographically distributed from Costa Rica in Central America to Argentina in South America and are grouped into 83 genera and the following six subfamilies: Hypoptopomatinae, Hypostominae, Loricariinae Delturinae, Lithogeninae and Rhinelepinae (Roberto et al., 2006, Birindelli et al., 2007, Corea et al., 2014, Eschmeyer Fong, 2019).


Asunto(s)
Bagres , Ríos , Animales , Argentina , América Central , Colombia , Costa Rica , Filogenia , América del Sur
20.
Zootaxa ; 4657(2): zootaxa.4657.2.8, 2019 Aug 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716789

RESUMEN

Melaniphax suffusculus gen. et sp. nov. is described from Costa Rica, representing the 57th delphacid species recorded from the country to date. The new genus is superficially similar to Caenodelphax Fennah in general appearance in that the body is uniformly colored with the wings infuscated. Distinctive features of the new taxon include simple, forceps-like gonostyli, a broadly compressed aedeagus with large serrate lateral flanges, and the anal tube bearing a pair of short, stout, truncate, caudally-directed processes on the ventro-caudal margin and slender, elongate processes from the antero-ventral margin.


Asunto(s)
Hemípteros , Animales , Costa Rica
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