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1.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 51: 101030, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38772646

RESUMEN

Spirometra mansoni is a diphyllobothroid cestode and one of the causing agents of sparganosis, a zoonotic foodborne and waterborne infection in humans. This parasite has an indirect life cycle with domestic and wild canids or felids as definitive hosts. The last report of S. mansoni in Costa Rica was done in 2004 by morphological assessment of worms, whereas molecular evidence of this species was obtained recently in the Americas. Herein, we present seven cases of spirometrosis in four dogs, three cats and a coyote from different regions of Costa Rica occurring in a time span of a year. Dog cases presented vomiting, hyporexia, lethargy and diarrhea, whereas cats were mostly asymptomatic. Moreover, the coyote was found with Spirometra sp. proglottids incidentally. Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) sequences of eggs or proglottids derived from all cases were analyzed with a Bayesian Inference phylogenetic tree and a haplotype network. These analyses showed the clustering of S. mansoni from Costa Rica with other sequences derived from Asia and America. Moreover, cox1 sequences clustered in two separate haplotypes, suggesting the high genetic diversity of the species. The present cases represent the first molecular evidence of the parasite in Central America; thus, extending its known range in the American continent.


Asunto(s)
Animales Salvajes , Enfermedades de los Gatos , Enfermedades de los Perros , Filogenia , Spirometra , Animales , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Spirometra/genética , Spirometra/aislamiento & purificación , Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Perros/epidemiología , Perros , Masculino , Enfermedades de los Gatos/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Gatos/epidemiología , Femenino , Animales Salvajes/parasitología , Coyotes/parasitología , Infecciones por Cestodos/veterinaria , Infecciones por Cestodos/parasitología , Infecciones por Cestodos/epidemiología , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/análisis , Complejo IV de Transporte de Electrones/genética
2.
J Helminthol ; 98: e39, 2024 May 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38726571

RESUMEN

During nematode surveys of natural vegetation in forests of La Cima de Copey de Dota, San José, San José province, Costa Rica, a Xenocriconemella species closely resembling X. macrodora and related species was found. Integrative taxonomical approaches demonstrated that it is a new species described herein as X. costaricense sp. nov. The new species is parthenogenetic (only females have been detected) and characterised by a short body (276-404 µm); lip region with two annuli, not offset, not separated from body contour; first lip annulus partially covering the second lip annulus. Stylet thin, very long (113-133 µm) and flexible, occupying 30.5-47.8% of body length. Excretory pore located from one or two annuli anterior to one or two annuli posterior to level of stylet knobs, at 42 (37-45) µm from anterior end. Female genital tract monodelphic, prodelphic, outstretched, and occupying 35-45% of body length, with vagina slightly ventrally curved (14-18 µm long). Anus located 6-11 annuli from the tail terminus. Tail conoid and bluntly rounded terminus, the last 2-3 annuli oriented dorsally. Results of molecular characterisation and phylogenetic analyses of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA, ITS, and partial 18S rRNA, as well as cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 gene sequences further characterised the new species and clearly separated it from X. macrodora and other related species (X. iberica, X. paraiberica, and X. pradense).


Asunto(s)
Filogenia , Animales , Costa Rica , Femenino , Masculino , Nematodos/clasificación , Nematodos/anatomía & histología , Nematodos/genética , ADN Ribosómico/genética , ARN Ribosómico 28S/genética , ADN de Helmintos/genética , Bosques , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
3.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 59(5): e14582, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715452

RESUMEN

Crossbred cattle are commonly used for milk production in the tropics, combining the potential benefits of pure breeds with the heterosis effects of the offspring. However, no comprehensive assessment of lifetime productivity for crossbred versus purebred cattle in low-altitude tropical environments has been carried out. The present study compares the lifetime productivity of purebred Holstein (HO, n = 17,269), Gyr (GY4, n = 435), and Brahman (BR4, n = 622) with crossbreds Gyr × Holstein (GY × HO, n = 5521) and Brahman×Holstein (BR × HO, n = 5429) cows from dairy farms located in low and medium altitude tropical regions in Costa Rica. The production traits of interest were age at first calving (AFC), days open (DO), milk production per lactation (TMP), lactation length (LLEN), age at culling (ACUL), and number of lactations (NLAC). Estimates of heterosis were also calculated. The AFC for GY × HO crosses (33-34 months) was not significantly different (p > .05) from HO (33.8 months). For BR × HO crosses, a significant (p < .05) decrease in AFC (BR3HO1 35.6 months, BR2HO2 34.5 months, and BR1H03 33.3 months) was observed as the fraction of HO breed increased. Estimates of heterosis for AFC were favourable for both crosses, of a magnitude close to 3%. The DO for F1 crosses (GY2HO2 94 days; BR2HO2 96 days) was significantly (p < .05) lower than HO (123 days). Estimates of heterosis for DO were also favourable and above 15% for both crosses. The TMP and LLEN were higher for HO (TMP = 5003 kg; LLEN = 324 days) compared with GY × HO (TMP = 4428 to 4773 kg; LLEN = 298 to 312 days) and BR × HO (TMP = 3950 to 4761 kg; LLEN = 273 to 313 days) crosses. Heterosis for TMP was favourable but low for both crosses, with a magnitude below 3.0%. The NLAC for HO (4.6 lactations) was significantly (p < .05) lower than F1 (GY2HO2, 5.8 lactations; BR2HO2, 5.4 lactations). Heterosis for NLAC was above 6.0% for both crosses. Overall, estimates of lifetime income over feed costs per cow on average were USD 2637 (30.3%) and USD 734 (8.4%) higher in F1 GY × HO and BR × HO, respectively, compared to HO. In conclusion, crossbred animals, specifically those with Gyr and Brahman genetics, extend the productive lifespan, increasing economic returns.


Asunto(s)
Vigor Híbrido , Lactancia , Leche , Clima Tropical , Animales , Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiología , Lactancia/genética , Lactancia/fisiología , Femenino , Costa Rica , Cruzamiento , Hibridación Genética , Altitud , Cruzamientos Genéticos
4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(6): 1258-1262, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38782140

RESUMEN

Ancylostoma ceylanicum is the second most common hookworm infecting humans in the Asia-Pacific region. Recent reports suggest presence of the parasite in the Americas. We report A. ceylanicum infections in coyotes from the Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. Our findings call for active surveillance in humans and animals.


Asunto(s)
Ancylostoma , Anquilostomiasis , Coyotes , Zoonosis , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Animales , Anquilostomiasis/epidemiología , Anquilostomiasis/veterinaria , Anquilostomiasis/parasitología , Anquilostomiasis/diagnóstico , Ancylostoma/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/parasitología , Coyotes/parasitología , Humanos
5.
J Appl Microbiol ; 135(5)2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38692848

RESUMEN

AIM: Tarantulas are one of the largest predatory arthropods in tropical regions. Tarantulas though not lethal to humans, their venomous bite kills small animals and insect upon which they prey. To understand the abiotic and biotic components involved in Neotropical tarantula bites, we conducted a venom-microbiomics study in eight species from Costa Rica. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined that the toxin profiles of tarantula venom are highly diverse using shotgun proteomics; the most frequently encountered toxins were ω-Ap2 toxin, neprilysin-1, and several teraphotoxins. Through culture-independent and culture-dependent methods, we determined the microbiota present in the venom and excreta to evaluate the presence of pathogens that could contribute to primary infections in animals, including humans. The presence of opportunistic pathogens with hemolytic activity was observed, with a prominence of Stenotrophomonas in the venoms. Other bacteria found in venoms and excreta with hemolytic activity included members of the genera Serratia, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Microbacterium, and Morganella. CONCLUSIONS: Our data shed light on the venom- and gut-microbiome associated with Neotropical tarantulas. This information may be useful for treating bites from these arthropods in both humans and farm animals, while also providing insight into the toxins and biodiversity of this little-explored microenvironment.


Asunto(s)
Venenos de Araña , Arañas , Animales , Arañas/microbiología , Costa Rica , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Bacterias/genética , Proteómica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Microbiota
6.
Environ Microbiol Rep ; 16(3): e13251, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38778789

RESUMEN

We conducted a research campaign in a neotropical rainforest in Costa Rica throughout the drought phase of an El-Nino Southern Oscillation event to determine microbial community dynamics and soil C fluxes. Our study included nests of the leafcutter ant Atta cephalotes, as soil disturbances made by these ecosystem engineers may influence microbial drought response. Drought decreased the diversity of microbes and the abundance of core microbiome taxa, including Verrucomicrobial bacteria and Sordariomycete fungi. Despite initial responses of decreasing diversity and altered composition, 6 months post-drought the microbiomes were similar to pre-drought conditions, demonstrating the resilience of soil microbial communities to drought events. A. cephalotes nests altered fungal composition in the surrounding soil, and reduced both fungal mortality and growth of Acidobacteria post-drought. Drought increased CH4 consumption in soils due to lower soil moisture, and A. cephalotes nests decrease the variability of CH4 emissions in some soil types. CH4 emissions were tracked by the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria and fungal composition. These results characterize the microbiome of tropical soils across both time and space during drought and provide evidence for the importance of leafcutter ant nests in shaping soil microbiomes and enhancing microbial resilience during climatic perturbations.


Asunto(s)
Hormigas , Bacterias , Sequías , Hongos , Microbiota , Bosque Lluvioso , Microbiología del Suelo , Clima Tropical , Hormigas/microbiología , Hormigas/fisiología , Animales , Hongos/clasificación , Hongos/fisiología , Hongos/aislamiento & purificación , Costa Rica , Bacterias/clasificación , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Suelo/química , Bosques
7.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 8039, 2024 04 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38580725

RESUMEN

This study aimed to characterize the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and virulence profiles of 67 Escherichia coli isolates obtained from faecal samples of 77 wild mammals from 19 different species, admitted in two rescue and rehabilitation centers in Costa Rica. It was possible to classify 48% (n = 32) of the isolates as multidrug-resistant, and while the highest resistance levels were found towards commonly prescribed antimicrobials, resistance to fluoroquinolones and third generation cephalosporins were also observed. Isolates obtained from samples of rehabilitated animals or animals treated with antibiotics were found to have significantly higher AMR levels, with the former also having a significant association with a multidrug-resistance profile. Additionally, the isolates displayed the capacity to produce α-haemolysins (n = 64, 96%), biofilms (n = 51, 76%) and protease (n = 21, 31%). Our results showed that AMR might be a widespread phenomenon within Costa Rican wildlife and that both free-ranging and rehabilitated wild mammals are potential carriers of bacteria with important resistance and virulence profiles. These results highlight the need to study potential sources of resistance determinants to wildlife, and to determine if wild animals can disseminate resistant bacteria in the environment, potentially posing a significant threat to public health and hindering the implementation of a "One Health" approach.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Escherichia coli , Escherichia coli , Animales , Costa Rica , Salud Pública , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Mamíferos , Animales Salvajes/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/veterinaria , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias , Centros de Rehabilitación
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 24(1): 355, 2024 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649809

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Older adults are increasingly susceptible to prolonged illness, multiple chronic diseases, and disabilities, which can lead to the coexistence of multimorbidity and frailty. Multimorbidity may result in various noncommunicable disease (NCD) patterns or configurations that could be associated with frailty and death. Mortality risk may vary depending on the presence of specific chronic diseases configurations or frailty. METHODS: The aim was to examine the impact of NCD configurations on mortality risk among older adults with distinct frailty phenotypes. The population was analyzed from the Costa Rican Longevity and Healthy Aging Study Cohort (CRELES). A total of 2,662 adults aged 60 or older were included and followed for 5 years. Exploratory factor analysis and various clustering techniques were utilized to identify NCD configurations. The frequency of NCD accumulation was also assessed for a multimorbidity definition. Frailty phenotypes were set according to Fried et al. criteria. Kaplan‒Meier survival analyses, mortality rates, and Cox proportional hazards models were estimated. RESULTS: Four different types of patterns were identified: 'Neuro-psychiatric', 'Metabolic', 'Cardiovascular', and 'Mixt' configurations. These configurations showed a higher mortality risk than the mere accumulation of NCDs [Cardiovascular HR:1.65 (1.07-2.57); 'Mixt' HR:1.49 (1.00-2.22); ≥3 NCDs HR:1.31 (1.09-1.58)]. Frailty exhibited a high and constant mortality risk, irrespective of the presence of any NCD configuration or multimorbidity definition. However, HRs decreased and lost statistical significance when phenotypes were considered in the Cox models [frailty + 'Cardiovascular' HR:1.56 (1.00-2.42); frailty + 'Mixt':1.42 (0.95-2.11); and frailty + ≥ 3 NCDs HR:1.23 (1.02-1.49)]. CONCLUSIONS: Frailty accompanying multimorbidity emerges as a more crucial indicator of mortality risk than multimorbidity alone. Therefore, studying NCD configurations is worthwhile as they may offer improved risk profiles for mortality as alternatives to straightforward counts.


Asunto(s)
Fragilidad , Multimorbilidad , Fenotipo , Humanos , Multimorbilidad/tendencias , Anciano , Masculino , Femenino , Fragilidad/mortalidad , Fragilidad/epidemiología , Fragilidad/diagnóstico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/mortalidad , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Anciano Frágil/estadística & datos numéricos , Mortalidad/tendencias , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Factores de Riesgo
9.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 379(1903): 20220320, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643786

RESUMEN

The paper focuses on the failure to account for the value of standing tropical forests, and of ecosystem services in general, in economic decision-making. This blindness to the values of nature has led to overexploitation, degradation and destruction of tropical forests, which, in turn, has also significantly contributed to greenhouse gas emissions. Forest conservation and restoration has a critical role to play in the fight against climate change and brings a vast array of additional benefits, from security in water, energy, food, health and livelihoods to maintaining biodiversity itself as a core component of our living planet. As first Minister of Environment and Energy under President Oscar Arias (1986-1990), I brought these views into societal decision-making in Costa Rica and here I briefly describe how. This article is part of the theme issue 'Bringing nature into decision-making'.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Bosques , Clima Tropical , Costa Rica , Toma de Decisiones , Biodiversidad
10.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(Suppl 6)2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38663891

RESUMEN

Studies on COVID-19 usually focus on health system responses to decrease the rate of COVID-19 infection and death, but patients with other diseases also require access to health services during the pandemic. This paper describes the structures and processes by which the Costa Rican Social Security Fund (CCSS) changed in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, which helped to sustain essential health services (EHSs). We conducted a desk review of the local literature and semistructured qualitative interviews with key informants from the CCSS. We found that the CCSS implemented changes in structure, such as creating a specialised COVID-19 centre and hiring additional interim health workers. The CCSS also implemented changes in processes, including leveraging its integrated network to optimise its resources and support alternative care modalities. These changes generated changes in outputs and outcomes that helped sustain EHSs for non-COVID-19 patients. These interventions were possible primarily due to Costa Rica's underlying health system, particularly its integrated nature with a single institution in charge of healthcare provision financed through mandatory health insurance, a unique digital medical record system and a contingency fund.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Humanos , Costa Rica , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Atención a la Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Seguridad Social
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 30(5): 1039-1042, 2024 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38666690

RESUMEN

In Latin America, rabies virus has persisted in a cycle between Desmodus rotundus vampire bats and cattle, potentially enhanced by deforestation. We modeled bovine rabies virus outbreaks in Costa Rica relative to land-use indicators and found spatial-temporal relationships among rabies virus outbreaks with deforestation as a predictor.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos , Brotes de Enfermedades , Virus de la Rabia , Rabia , Animales , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Rabia/epidemiología , Rabia/veterinaria , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Quirópteros/virología , Historia del Siglo XXI
12.
Am J Primatol ; 86(6): e23616, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38462743

RESUMEN

Parallel laser photogrammetry (PLP), which consists of attaching two or three parallel laser beams at a known inter-beam distance to a camera, can be used to collect morphological measurements of organisms noninvasively. The lasers project onto the photo being taken, and because the inter-beam distance is known, they act as a scale for image analysis programs like ImageJ. Traditionally, this method has been used to measure larger morphological traits (e.g., limb length, crown-rump length) to serve as proxies for overall body size, whereas applications to smaller anatomical features remain limited. To that end, we used PLP to measure the testes of 18 free-living mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) at La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. We tested whether this method could reliably measure this relatively small and globular morphology, and whether it could detect differences among individuals. We tested reliability in three ways: within-photo (coefficient of variation [CV] = 4.7%), between-photo (CV = 5.5%), and interobserver (intraclass correlation = 0.92). We found an average volume of 36.2 cm3 and a range of 16.4-54.4 cm3, indicating variation in testes size between individuals. Furthermore, these sizes are consistent with a previous study that collected measurements by hand, suggesting that PLP is a useful method for making noninvasive measurements of testes.


Asunto(s)
Alouatta , Rayos Láser , Fotogrametría , Testículo , Animales , Alouatta/anatomía & histología , Alouatta/fisiología , Masculino , Testículo/anatomía & histología , Fotogrametría/métodos , Costa Rica , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
13.
Zootaxa ; 5406(3): 441-450, 2024 Feb 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480141

RESUMEN

As a result of continuing research on the ichneumonid wasps of Costa Rica, two new species of Epirhyssa (Rhyssinae) are described: E. leonoreae and E. lewisi. A key is provided for the identification of all 14 species now known to occur in the country.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Avispas , Animales , Costa Rica
14.
Zootaxa ; 5405(1): 93-115, 2024 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38480395

RESUMEN

The parasitoid wasp genus Saltagenes Diller, 1995 is known only from the original description of a single species from Argentina. However, undescribed Saltagenes species occur throughout the Neotropical region and into the southern Nearctic. Here, I review the Saltagenes species of Costa Rica and describe seven new species: Saltagenes alboannulatus sp. nov., S. atrosomus sp. nov., S. escazuensis sp. nov., S. gauldi sp. nov., S. modicum sp. nov., S. pseudatrosomus sp. nov., and S. rotundiceps sp. nov. The generic diagnosis is revised to account for hitherto unknown morphological diversity of Saltagenes. An illustrated key and specimen images are provided to aid in identification. Saltagenes is now represented by eight described species though more than double that figure remain undescribed from outside of Costa Rica. More broadly, this study highlights the paucity of our knowledge of Costa Rican Ichneumoninae.


Asunto(s)
Himenópteros , Avispas , Animales , Costa Rica
15.
J Helminthol ; 98: e28, 2024 Mar 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38516701

RESUMEN

A new species of trematode of anaporrhutine gorgoderid, from the gill chambers of the Munda round ray Urotrygon munda in Costa Rica is described, based on an integrative taxonomic approach that includes the use of light and scanning electron microscopy, ITS2 and 28S rDNA sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis. Anaporrhutum mundae sp. nov. can be distinguished from congeneric species by a combination of morphological traits and particularly by having the genital pore opening at the level of the intestinal bifurcation. The new species also can be distinguished from all other species of Anaporrhutum, except A. euzeti Curran, Blend & Overstreet, 2003, by having fewer testicular follicles per testis. Anaporrhutum mundae sp. nov. also differs from A. euzeti in its forebody shape and by having different morphology and location of the vitellaria. The study of the tegumental surface of A. mundae sp. nov., as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, allowed detection of new morphological characters for a member of Anaporrhutinae that may be of taxonomic value. These are: a stylet cavity dorsal to the oral sucker with a large penetration gland opening on each side of the cavity and small penetration gland openings located ventral to the stylet cavity, arranged in a circle around the mouth. This represents the first record of an Anaporrhutum species from Costa Rica. Further, A. mundae sp. nov. represents the first parasite described or reported in this host.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Trematodos , Infecciones por Trematodos , Masculino , Animales , Infecciones por Trematodos/parasitología , Filogenia , Costa Rica
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 416: 110663, 2024 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38503221

RESUMEN

Antibiotic resistant Salmonella enterica are on the increase, worldwide. Given the scarcity of data, this study aimed to investigate its occurrence, virulence, and antibiotic resistance in Costa Rica's food chain. In total, 65 chicken meat- and 171 chicken caecal samples were collected and examined for Salmonella. High frequencies of Salmonella were found in chicken meat (58.5 %, n/N = 38/65) and poultry farms (38.0 %, n/N = 65/171). The majority of Salmonella from chicken meat (89.5 %, n/N = 34/38) and caecum samples (93.6 %, n/N = 59/63) exhibited multidrug resistance (MDR). Serovar Infantis was the most prevalent (94 %, n/N = 67/71), followed by serovars Anatum and Kentucky (3 %, n/N = 2/71). A pESI-like plasmid (92 %, n/N = 65/71) containing virulence and resistance markers was found in S. Infantis. Given the high prevalence of MDR Salmonella, this study emphasizes the need to enhance surveillance systems for foodborne pathogens and antimicrobial resistance in Costa Rica's food production chain.


Asunto(s)
Aves de Corral , Salmonella enterica , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Costa Rica , Pollos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Salmonella , Serogrupo
17.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 92(3): 369-384, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38485887

RESUMEN

Management, brood nest structure and factors associated with varroa mite infestation were studied in 60 apiaries of Africanized honey bees in the northwest region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. Apiaries were monitored two times. The first monitoring was taken forward during the rainy season between May and November 2019. The second monitoring during the dry season between February and March 2020. Information about the beekeepers, apiaries and management was collected through a survey. Amount of open and capped brood, honey and pollen were measured in the field. The infestation rate of varroa (IRV) was quantified using standard laboratory methods. A determination of multi-residue pesticides in bee bread was made through GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS techniques. According to the results, most of the beekeepers produce honey (96.7%), participate in training activities (82.2%), and change the bee queens annually (70%). The first monitoring was characterized by a lower amount of capped brood and honey reserves compared to the second one. IRV was significantly higher in the first monitoring (6.0 ± 0.4) in comparison with the second one (3.0 ± 0.3) (U Mann-Whitney p < 0.001). The maximum value for the first monitoring exceeds 40%, while this value was close to 25% in the second monitoring. Mite infestation exposed significant differences in relation to the variables associated to the beekeeper's management, i.e., change of bee queen (p = 0.002) or when beekeepers monitor varroa mites (p = 0.004). Additionally, the IRV had inverse correlations (p < 0.01) with the number of comb sides with capped brood (Spearman's rho coefficient = - 0.190), and honey reserves (Spearman's rho coefficient = - 0.168). Furthermore, 23 of 60 bee bread samples presented one to five pesticide residues, being the most frequent antifungal agrochemicals.


Asunto(s)
Apicultura , Infestaciones por Ácaros , Varroidae , Animales , Abejas/parasitología , Abejas/fisiología , Varroidae/fisiología , Costa Rica , Infestaciones por Ácaros/veterinaria , Infestaciones por Ácaros/parasitología , Miel/análisis , Comportamiento de Nidificación
18.
J Acoust Soc Am ; 155(3): 2075-2086, 2024 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38477611

RESUMEN

Baleen whales use sounds of various characteristics for different tasks and interactions. This study focuses on recordings from the Costa Rica Rift, in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean, made by 25 ocean-bottom seismographs and a vertical array of 12 hydrophones between January and February 2015. The whale calls observed are of two kinds: more commonly, repetitive 4-5 s-long signals separated into two frequency bands centered at ∼20 and ∼36 Hz; less commonly, a series of ∼0.5 to 1.0 s-long, lower amplitude signals with frequencies between 80 and 160 Hz. These characteristics are similar to calls attributed to Bryde's whales which are occasionally sighted in this region. In this study, the repetitive calls are detected using both the short-term average/long-term average approach and a network empirical subspace detector. In total, 188 and 1891 calls are obtained for each method, demonstrating the value of the subspace detector for highly similar signals. These signals are first localized using a non-linear grid search algorithm and then further relocalized using the double-difference technique. The high-resolution localizations reveal the presence of at least seven whales during the recording period, often crossing the instrument network from southwest to northeast.


Asunto(s)
Balaenoptera , Animales , Cetáceos , Sonido , Océano Pacífico , Costa Rica , Vocalización Animal
19.
Respirar (Ciudad Autón. B. Aires) ; 16(1): 85-92, Marzo 2024.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1551285

RESUMEN

El sarcoma folicular de células dendríticas (SFCD) es una neoplasia maligna rara derivada de las células dendríticas foliculares. Ha sido clasificado, dadas sus características inmunohistoquímicas, como parte del grupo de los sarcomas, donde representa un porcentaje menor al 1%. Actualmente, existen menos de 1.000 reportes en la literatura a nivel mundial, lo cual plantea una dificultad no sólo diagnóstica, siendo confundido frecuentemente con neoplasias de tipo linfoide; sino también terapéutica al no existir un claro consenso sobre su manejo definitivo. Esta revisión de caso clínico describe el primer caso reportado de SFCD en Costa Rica.


Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (SFCD) is a rare malignant neoplasm derived from follicular dendritic cells, which has been classified, given its immunohistochemical characteristics, as part of the group of sarcomas, where it represents less than 1%. Currently, there are less than 1000 reports in the literature worldwide, which generates a difficulty not only in diagnosis, being frequently confused with lymphoid type neoplasms; but also, as therapeutic as there is no clear consensus on its definitive management. This clinical case review describes the first reported case of SFCD in Costa Rica.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Asma/diagnóstico , Tos/diagnóstico , Sarcoma de Células Dendríticas Foliculares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias del Mediastino/diagnóstico , Obesidad/diagnóstico , Biopsia , Informes de Casos , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Inmunohistoquímica , Toracotomía , Costa Rica
20.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0301135, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38547202

RESUMEN

Over the last decade, the global population of refugees and other migrants in need of international protection (MNP) has more than doubled. Despite their rapid growth, panel data collection among MNP remains rare, leaving scholars with few data sources to draw on to understand dynamic changes in their social, economic, legal, or health circumstances. With that paucity in mind, we developed and piloted the Encuesta de Refugiados: Experiencias Sociales y Salud (ERESS), a weekly panel survey conducted with MNP living in Costa Rica. To our knowledge, this panel constitutes one of the first weekly surveys with MNP anywhere in the world. Here, we describe the overall study design, sample recruitment and retention, and key descriptive findings. We show that retaining demographically and socioeconomically diverse MNP in intensive panel surveys is possible and that doing so reveals valuable insights into dynamic changes in their incorporation, family dynamics, and health and wellbeing. By offering a summary of our field experiences and central methodological findings, we highlight the potential benefits and challenges of collecting intensive panel data with MNP, as scholars increasingly seek to understand their pre- and post-migration trajectories and relationships between the two.


Asunto(s)
Refugiados , Migrantes , Humanos , Costa Rica/epidemiología , Dinámica Poblacional
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