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1.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 174: 104824, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838717

RESUMEN

Acetamiprid is a new type of nicotinic insecticide that is widely used in pest control. Its environmental residues may cause silkworm cocooning disorder. In this study, silkworms that received continuous feeding of low concentration acetamiprid (0.15 mg/L) showed significantly decreased silk gland index and cocooning rate. Gene expression profiling of posterior silk glands (PSGs) revealed that the differentially expressed genes were significantly enriched in oxidative stress-related signal pathways with significant up-regulation. The contents of both H2O2 and MDA were increased, along with significantly elevated SOD and CAT activities, all of which reached maximal values at 48 h when H2O2 and MDA's contents were 10.46 and 7.98 nmol/mgprot, respectively, and SOD and CAT activities were 5.51 U/mgprot and 33.48 U/gprot, respectively. The transcription levels of antioxidant enzyme-related genes SOD, Mn-SOD, CuZn-SOD, CAT, TPX and GPX were all up-regulated, indicating that exposure to low concentration acetamiprid led to antioxidant response in silkworm PSG. The key genes in the FoxO/CncC/Keap1 signaling pathway that regulates antioxidant enzyme activity, FoxO, CncC, Keap1, NQO1, HO-1 and sMaf were all up-regulated during the whole process of treatment, with maximal values being reached at 72 h with 2.91, 1.46, 1.82, 2.52, 2.32 and 4.01 times of increases, respectively. These results demonstrate that exposure to low concentration acetamiprid causes oxidative stress in silkworm PSG, which may be the cause of cocooning disorder in silkworm. Our study provides a reference for the safety evaluation of environmental residues of acetamiprid on non-target insects.


Asunto(s)
Bombyx , Animales , Bombyx/genética , Bombyx/metabolismo , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Peróxido de Hidrógeno , Proteínas de Insectos/genética , Proteínas de Insectos/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Asociada A ECH Tipo Kelch , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Neonicotinoides , Estrés Oxidativo , Seda
2.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100966, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652532

RESUMEN

Slow-growing broilers offer differentiation in the chicken meat market for consumers who have distinct preferences based on perceived higher welfare indices and willingness to pay a higher price for the product. Although breeding for slow-growing broilers is relatively advanced in Europe and the United States, it is limited in Australia. Crossbreeding is one of the approaches taken to developing slow-growing broiler strains. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare performance, immune response, leg health, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of a novel crossbred slow-growing broiler breed (SGB) with the conventional, fast-growing Cobb 500 broiler (CB) to assess their suitability as an alternative for chicken meat production in Australia. A total of 236 one-day-old broiler chicks (116 SGB and 120 fast-growing CB) were reared on standard commercial diet in an intensive production system. Birds and feed were weighed on a weekly basis and feed intake and feed conversion ratio calculated. At 21 d of age, a 2% suspension of sheep red blood cells was injected subcutaneously into 8 broilers of each breed to compare their antibody response. Birds from both breeds were grown to a final live weight of 2.0-2.2 kg, before a latency-to-lie (LTL) test, carcass analysis and apparent metabolizable energy (AME) assay were performed. The SGB reached the target weight at 55 d of age compared with 32 d in CB. However, SGB stood for longer during LTL, had higher thigh, drumstick, and wing yields (as a percentage of carcass weight) as well as darker and redder meat in comparison with the CB. The CB had better feed conversion efficiency, higher antibody (IgM) production, higher AME, heavier breast yield, and lower meat drip loss than the SGB. Although fast-growing CB outperformed the SGB for traditional performance parameters, the crossbred in this study was comparable with other slow-growing broiler breeds and strains across different countries and is thus a suitable candidate for a slow-growing alternative in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Composición Corporal , Pollos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Carne , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Australia , Cruzamiento , Pollos/genética , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dieta , Ingestión de Alimentos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo/fisiología , Carne/normas
3.
Rev. urug. enferm ; 16(1): 1-14, mar. 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1150935

RESUMEN

Introdução: A infância é um período da vida de grande transformação física, psíquica e social e como forma de prevenir enfermidades e promover o desenvolvimento saudável das crianças, as políticas de saúde vigentes no Brasil, estabelecem um acompanhamento longitudinal e com foco na atenção integral através da puericultura. Objetivo: Compreender a percepção e a prática do enfermeiro sobre a identificação dos sinais de risco/atraso do desenvolvimento em crianças acompanhadas durante a consulta de enfermagem em puericultura. Métodos: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com 12 enfermeiros que trabalham nas unidades de saúde da família de um distrito sanitário da cidade do Recife, entre janeiro e março de 2017. Para a coleta de dados foi empregada entrevista individual semiestruturada com o uso da gravação, sendo os mesmos submetidos à análise de conteúdo na modalidade temática. Resultados: A maioria das enfermeiras conhecia e utilizava a ficha de acompanhamento do desenvolvimento infantil proposta pelo Ministério da Saúde (MS) e inserida na caderneta da criança durante a consulta de puericultura, entretanto, a linguagem utilizada para definir os sinais de risco e atraso não é precisa. Porém, quando identificam alguma alteração no Crescimento e Desenvolvimento (CD) recorrem a equipe multiprofissional para acompanhamento dos casos. Considerações finais: O estudo permitiu perceber e discutir a importância da avaliação do desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor, destacando a enfermeira como agente essencial desse processo. Ficou demonstrado na prática das enfermeiras o conhecimento dos protocolos para o acompanhamento do CD, porém destacou-se que a falta de cumprimento e registro dos parâmetros/indica-dores de avaliação orientados pelo MS foi um fato dificultador para uma assistência integral, sem deixar de enxergar a família como aliada no cuidado à criança.


Introduction: Childhood is a period of life of great physical, psychological and social transformation and as a way to prevent diseases and promote the healthy development of children, the health policies in force in Brazil, establish a longitudinal monitoring and focusing on comprehensive care through childcare. Objective: Understand the nurse's perception and practice on the identification of signs of risk / delay in development in children monitored during the nursing consultation in childcare. Methods: Qualitative study, conducted with 12 nurses who work in family health units in a health district in the city of Recife, between January and March 2017. For data collection, a semi-structured individual interview was used with the use of the recording, the same being analyzed by the thematic content analysis. Results: Most nurses knew and used the child development monitoring form proposed by the Ministry of Health (MH) and inserted in the child's handbook during the pediatric consultation, however, the language used to defi ne the signs of risk and delay is not accurate. Yet, when they identify any change in Growth and Development (GD), they use the multidisciplinary team to monitor the cases. Conclusions: The study made it possible to perceive and discuss the importance of assessing neuropsychomotor development, highlighting the nurse as an essential agent of this process. It was demonstrated in the nurses' practice the knowledge of the protocols for the monitoring of the GD, however it was highlighted that the lack of compliance and registration of the parameters/evaluation indicators oriented by the MH was a hindering factor for comprehensive care, without fail to realize the family as an ally in child care.


Introducción: La infancia es un período de vida de gran transformación física, psicológica y social y, como una forma de prevenir enfermedades y promover el desarrollo saludable de los niños, las políticas de salud vigentes en Brasil establecen un monitoreo longitudinal y se centran en la atención integral a través de la puericultura. Objetivo: Comprender la percepción y práctica de la enfermera sobre la identificación de signos de riesgo/retraso en el desarrollo en niños monitoreados durante la consulta de enfermería en la puericultura. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo, realizado con 12 enfermeras que trabajan en unidades de salud familiar en un distrito de salud de la ciudad de Recife, entre enero y marzo de 2017. Para la recopilación de datos, se utilizó una entrevista individual semiestructurada con el uso de la grabación, siendo el mismo sometidos al análisis del contenido en la modalidad temática analizado por el método de interpretación de los sentidos. Resultados: La mayoría de las enfermeras conocían y usaban el formulario de monitoreo del desarrollo infantil propuesto por el Ministerio de Salud (MS) e insertado en el manual del niño durante la consulta pediátrica, sin embargo, el lenguaje utilizado para definir los signos de riesgo y retraso no es exacto. Sin embargo, cuando identifican cualquier cambio en el Crecimiento y Desarrollo (CD), utilizan el equipo multidisciplinario para monitorear los casos. Consideraciones finales: El estudio permitió percibir y discutir la importancia de evaluar el desarrollo neuropsicomotor, destacando a la enfermera como un agente esencial de este proceso. Se demostró en la práctica de las enfermeras el conocimiento de los protocolos para el monitoreo de la CD, sin embargo, se destacó que la falta de cumplimiento y registro de los parámetros/indicadores de evaluación orientados por el MS era un factor que obstaculizaba la atención integral, si no se dan cuenta de la familia como aliada en el cuidado infantil.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Enfermería Pediátrica , Brasil , Cuidado del Niño , Desarrollo Infantil , Salud del Niño , Monitoreo , Crecimiento y Desarrollo
4.
J Environ Manage ; 286: 112229, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33667821

RESUMEN

Up-flow anaerobic bioreactors are widely applied for high-rate digestion of industrial wastewaters and rely on formation, and retention, of methanogenic granules, comprising of dense, fast-settling, microbial aggregates (approx. 0.5-4.0 mm in diameter). Granule formation (granulation) mechanisms have been reasonably well hypothesized and documented. However, this study used laboratory-scale bioreactors, inoculated with size-separated granular sludge to follow new granule formation, maturation, disintegration and re-formation. Temporal size profiles, volatile solids content, settling velocity, and ultrastructure of granules were determined from each of four bioreactors inoculated only with small granules, four with only large granules, and four with a full complement of naturally-size-distributed granules. Constrained granule size profiles shifted toward the natural distribution, which was associated with maximal bioreactor performance. Distinct morphological features characterized different granule sizes and biofilm development stages, including 'young', 'juvenile', 'mature' and 'old'. The findings offer opportunities toward optimizing management of high-rate, anaerobic digesters by shedding light on the rates of granule growth, the role of flocculent sludge in granulation and how shifting size distributions should be considered when setting upflow velocities.


Asunto(s)
Euryarchaeota , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Anaerobiosis , Reactores Biológicos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Aguas del Alcantarillado
5.
Hist Philos Life Sci ; 43(1): 30, 2021 Feb 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624250

RESUMEN

The discovery of RNA interference in 1998 has made a lasting impact on biological research. Identifying the regulatory role of small RNAs changed the modes of molecular biological inquiry as well as biologists' understanding of genetic regulation. This article examines the early years of small RNA biology's success story. I query which factors had to come together so that small RNA research came into life in the blink of an eye. I primarily look at scientific repertoires as facilitators of rapid scientific change. I show that for a short period of time, between the years 1998 and 2002, different model organism communities, investigative strategies, technological innovations, and research interests could be successfully aligned to take small RNA research off the ground. I discuss how the keystone discoveries were situated in specific experimental traditions and what strategies were employed to establish these discoveries as more general phenomena. Providing thus a practice-based approach of rapid scientific change, I ask how to relate the change in propositional bits of scientific knowledge with changes in scientific practice.


Asunto(s)
Bioquímica/historia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Productos Agrícolas/genética , Técnicas Genéticas/historia , Interferencia de ARN , Animales , Bioquímica/métodos , Caenorhabditis elegans/crecimiento & desarrollo , Productos Agrícolas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Enfermedad/genética , Crecimiento y Desarrollo/genética , Historia del Siglo XX , Historia del Siglo XXI , ARN/genética
6.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100947, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518311

RESUMEN

This study investigated whether dietary resistant potato starch (RPS) inclusion could ameliorate the negative impact of a low nonphytate phosphorus (nPP) diet on growth performance, feather growth, feather follicles (FF) development, and carcass traits by improving nutrient utilization and cecal microbiome fermentation capacity in Pekin ducks. The experiment was performed with a 2 × 2 randomized block design with 2 levels of RPS (0 or 12%) and 2 levels of nPP (low or normal, low: 0.22% at 1-14 d and 0.18% at 15-35 d of age; normal: 0.40% at 1-14 d and 0.35% at 15-35 d of age) for a total of 4 treatments, each with 8 replicate pens per treatment of 12 birds per pen. As regards growth performance and carcass traits, RPS inclusion markedly increased (P < 0.05) BW of 14 and 35 d, BWG and FI of 1-14 d, 15-35 d, and 1-35 d as well as abdominal fat and breast meat percentage of 35 d in ducks fed low nPP diets; moreover, RSP inclusion significantly reduced (P < 0.05) mortality in ducks fed low nPP diets. As regards feather growth and follicles development of 35 d, RPS inclusion significantly increased (P < 0.05) the fourth primary feather length, absolute feather weight, and the density of primary FF in the back skin in ducks fed low nPP diets. In regard to nutrition utilization, RPS supplementation significantly increased (P < 0.05) the availability of DM, CP, and energy, as well as dietary AME at 35 d of age in ducks fed low nPP diets. However, RPS supplementation had no effect (P > 0.05) on the concentration of cecal short-chain fatty acids and the activities of cecal phytase and cellulase in ducks fed low nPP diets. These results indicate that RPS can improve nutrient availability to ameliorate the negative effects on performance and feather development caused by a low nPP diet in Pekin ducks.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Patos , Plumas , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Animales , Dieta/veterinaria , Plumas/efectos de los fármacos , Crecimiento y Desarrollo/efectos de los fármacos , Fósforo/metabolismo , Distribución Aleatoria , Solanum tuberosum/química
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01802020, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605376

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Newborn who had Zika vírus but did not show microcephaly at birth may have neuropsychomotor development problems. We aimed to evaluate the developmental and anthropometric milestones of asymptomatic children whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil in 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional case series study of children in Fortaleza born without microcephaly whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy. Home visits were undertaken to evaluate the developmental milestones and gather anthropometric data of the children and to conduct semi-structured interviews with the mothers to identify their socioeconomic and gestational profiles and assess the newborns after birth. RESULTS: In total, 30 cases were identified. Of these, 17 children and their mothers participated in the study. The median age of the mothers at the time of delivery was 26 years. All were symptomatic, and TORCH was negative. At the time of the home visit, all had growth profiles suitable for their age. However, nearly all children (15/17, 88.2%) presented at least one developmental delay, considering their age group. CONCLUSIONS: There were late changes in the neuropsychomotor development of children born to mothers who had Zika during pregnancy, suggesting the need for specialized medical follow-ups.


Asunto(s)
Microcefalia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Infección por el Virus Zika , Virus Zika , Adulto , Brasil , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Madres , Embarazo , Infección por el Virus Zika/diagnóstico
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572858

RESUMEN

To improve health and reduce the rapidly increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in children, the Chinese government has formulated childcare standards, with the Growth and Development Check (GDC) as the main content. However, few studies have evaluated the impact of the GDC on lowering the risk of childhood overweight and obesity. Using the 2014 China Family Dynamics Survey and propensity score matching (PSM), this article examined the impact of the GDC on overweight/obesity in children aged 5 years and younger. The results revealed that the mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 17.80 kg/m2, and the prevalence of overweight/obesity was 24.62% in children. Children whose parents were aware of the GDC had a lower BMI and a lower risk of overweight/obesity than those whose parents were not aware of it. Children who engaged in the GDC in the last 12 months had a lower BMI and a lower chance of overweight/obesity than those not engaged.


Asunto(s)
Obesidad Pediátrica , Índice de Masa Corporal , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Humanos , Sobrepeso/epidemiología , Obesidad Pediátrica/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Puntaje de Propensión
9.
Sci Total Environ ; 769: 145155, 2021 May 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485208

RESUMEN

Temperature variations have significant impacts on the growth and development of fish. In this study, the effects of temperature on the growth and development of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were investigated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Three groups of fish were exposed to various temperatures for 60 days: T1-E (10 °C), T2-E (15 °C), and T3-E (20 °C). Afterward, the temperature of all groups was increased to 20 °C and maintained for 62 days (T1-S, T2-S, T3-S). The livers were extracted for subsequent analysis. In the first stage of the experiment, the growth rate was highest in the T3-E group, followed by the T1-E and T2-E groups. The following metabolites identified by comparative analysis were found to be elevated: L-thyroxine, cysteamine, uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose, α-ketoglutaric acid, carbamoyl phosphate, and guanidine acetic acid of the T1-E group. Pathway analysis of the altered metabolites suggested changes in glucose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the ornithine cycle, histidine metabolism, and taurine metabolism, which were involved with growth and development. Meanwhile, partial compensatory growth was observed in fish in the T1-S and T2-S groups. Metabolites identified as potential markers of growth included L-cysteine, taurocholic acid, UDP-glucose, and L-thyroxine. The significantly changed metabolic pathways were cysteine and methionine metabolism, bile secretion, tyrosine metabolism, and hypotaurine metabolism. We screened out the marker metabolites and metabolic pathway could provide important insights into the potential mechanisms of temperature affects the growth and development of European seabass. All in all, our research can provide theoretical basis and technical guidance for efficiently culturing European seabass.


Asunto(s)
Lubina , Animales , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Metabolómica , Alimentos Marinos , Temperatura
10.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 29: e3402, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1150009

RESUMEN

Objective: to compare the entrepreneurial tendency between beginner and graduating students from undergraduate Nursing courses. Method: this is a cross-sectional and quantitative research study. Data was collected from 377 Nursing students from four undergraduate Nursing courses in different Brazilian regions, 162 of them in first year and 215 in last year. Data was collected by means of a social and academic characterization form and the General Entrepreneurial Tendency Test. Data analysis was conducted by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: the scores of the beginner students were below the mean in all dimensions of the instrument. The senior year students were above the test mean in the Impulse and determination dimension. A statistically significant difference was identified in relation to the course period and to the entrepreneurial tendency in the following dimensions: Need for achievement (p=0.001) and Impulse and determination (p=0.000). Conclusion: the results indicate the importance of investment by universities in the development of an entrepreneurial culture in higher education in Nursing.


Objetivo: comparar a tendência empreendedora entre alunos iniciantes e concluintes de cursos de graduação em enfermagem. Método: trata-se de uma pesquisa quantitativa, de caráter transversal. Os dados foram coletados com 377 estudantes de enfermagem de quatro cursos de graduação em enfermagem de diferentes regiões do Brasil, sendo 162 do primeiro ano e 215 do último ano. Coletaram-se os dados por meio de uma ficha de caracterização social e acadêmica e o Teste de Tendência Empreendedora Geral. A análise dos dados foi meio de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: as pontuações dos alunos iniciantes ficaram abaixo da média em todas dimensões do instrumento. Os alunos concluintes ficaram acima da média do teste na dimensão Impulso e determinação. Identificou-se diferença estatisticamente significativa em relação ao período do curso e a tendência empreendedora nas dimensões: Necessidade de realização (p=0,001) e Impulso e determinação (p=0,000). Conclusão: os resultados indicam a importância do investimento das universidades no desenvolvimento de uma cultura empreendedora no ensino superior em enfermagem.


Objetivo: comparar la tendencia emprendedora entre estudiantes de primer año y concluyentes de la carrera de Enfermería. Método: se trata de una investigación cuantitativa de carácter transversal. Se recolectaron datos con 377 estudiantes de Enfermería de cuatro cursos de grado en Enfermería en diferentes regiones de Brasil, 162 de ellos en primer año y 215 en el último año de la carrera. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de un formulario de caracterización social y académica y por medio de la Prueba de Tendencia Emprendedora General. El análisis de datos se realizó por medio de estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: las puntuaciones de los estudiantes de primer año estuvieron por debajo de la media en todas las dimensiones del instrumento. Los estudiantes concluyentes estuvieron por encima de la media de la prueba en la dimensión Impulso y determinación. Se identificó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en relación con el período de la carrera y la tendencia emprendedora en las siguientes dimensiones: Necesidad de realización (p=0,001) e Impulso y determinación (p=0,000). Conclusión: los resultados indican la importancia de la inversión de las universidades en el desarrollo de una cultura emprendedora en la educación superior en Enfermería.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Estudiantes de Enfermería , Universidades , Investigación en Administración de Enfermería , Educación Superior , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Educación en Enfermería , Mercado de Trabajo
12.
Med. U.P.B ; 39(2): 49-55, 21/10/2020.
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1123581

RESUMEN

La aparición progresiva de habilidades sensoriales, motoras y cognitivo-afectivas en el humano a lo largo de su desarrollo es un reflejo de cambios fisiológicos que se gestan al interior del sistema nervioso. Dichos cambios hacen parte de procesos dinámicos y dependen, después del nacimiento, de la actividad eléctrica inducida por la experiencia. Considerando lo anterior, el sistema nervioso en desarrollo constituye una especie de protomapa, sobre el que la experiencia moldea características moleculares, neuroquímicas y de conectividad, que se reflejan en las actividades emergentes del sistema. La evidencia que soporta la importancia que la influencia experiencial tiene sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso viene en aumento. Esta revisión reúne información sobre estudios en modelos biológicos y en humanos sometidos a privación sensorial y ambiental. Se enfatiza en la caracterización de los rasgos cognitivos y sociales.


The progressive advent of sensory, motor, affective, and cognitive skills in the human being through its development, demonstrate physiological changes that are gestated within the nervous system. These processes are dynamic and dependent postnatally on electrical activity induced by experience. Taking this into account, the developing nervous system constitutes a protomap molded by experience dependent molecular, physiological and connectivity characteristics, which are reflected in the emergent principles of the system. The evidence that supports the importance of experience as influence over the development of this system has increased in the past years. This document gathers information about animal models and human studies enduring sensory and environmental deprivation, emphasizing in the characterization of their cognitive and social remarks.


O aparecimento progressivo de habilidades sensoriais, motoras e cognitivo-afetivas no humano ao longo do seu desenvolvimento é um reflexo de mudanças fisiológicas que se gestam no interior do sistema nervoso. Ditas mudanças fazem parte de processos dinâmicos e dependem, depois do nascimento, da atividade elétrica induzida pela experiência. Considerando o anterior, o sistema nervoso em desenvolvimento constitui uma espécie de "protomapa", sobre o que a experiência molda características moleculares, neuroquímicas e de conectividade, que se refletem nas atividades emergentes do sistema. A evidência que suporta a importância que a influência experiencial tem sobre o desenvolvimento do sistema nervoso vem em aumento. Esta revisão reúne informação sobre estudos em modelos biológicos e em humanos submetidos a privação sensorial e ambiental. Se enfatiza na caracterização das características cognitivas e sociais.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastornos del Neurodesarrollo , Reflejo , Privación Sensorial , Sinapsis , Cognición , Modelos Animales , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Modelos Biológicos , Sistema Nervioso , Plasticidad Neuronal
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): 320-326, oct 2020. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122019

RESUMEN

Objetivo. Analizar la asociación entre la fuerza de prensión manual relativa (FPMR) y la masa grasa (MG), controlando el posible efecto del estado de madurez.Metodología. Se estudiaron niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos con un rango de edad de ≥ 7,5 a ≤ 15,49 años. Se evaluó la FPMR mediante un dinamómetro hidráulico manual. El porcentaje de MG se evaluó mediante la absorciometría de rayos X de doble energía. Para analizar las diferencias por sexo y grupo etario y entre los niños normopesos y obesos en los niveles de FPMR, se utilizó el análisis de covarianza. Se consideraron como covariable los años de pico de velocidad de crecimiento (estado de madurez). Para analizar la asociación entre los niveles de FPMR y MG, se utilizó la correlación parcial, controlando el año de pico de velocidad de crecimiento.Resultados. Participaron 1685 escolares (731 mujeres y 954 varones). Fueron conformados 4 grupos de edad (7,5-9,4 años; 9,5-11,4 años; 11,5-13,4 años y 13,5-15,4 años). La FPMR aumentó con la edad en ambos sexos. Los valores de MG fueron elevados en todos los grupos etarios. No hubo diferencias en los grupos 3 y 4 en las niñas y en el grupo 4 de los niños. Los niños clasificados como peso normal presentaron significativamente mayor FPMR que los obesos. Se observó una asociación negativa entre FPMR y MG.Conclusión. Se demostró que la FPMR estaba negativamente asociada con la MG, tras controlar el efecto del estado de madurez


Objective. To analyze the association between relative handgrip strength (RHGS) and fat mass (FM) after controlling for the potential effect of maturity status.Methodology. Both male and female children and adolescents aged ≥ 7.5 to ≤ 15.49 years were studied. RHGS was assessed using a hydraulic hand dynamometer. FM percentage was established using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Age and sex differences in RHGS levels between normal weight and obese participants were studied with an analysis of covariance. A covariate was years from peak height velocity (maturity status). The association between RHGS and FM levels was analyzed using a partial correlation and controlling for age at peak height velocity.Results. A total of 1685 students (731 girls and 954 boys) participated. Four age groups were established (7.5-9.4 years, 9.5-11.4 years, 11.5-13.4 years, and 13.5-15.4 years). RHGS increased with age in both males and females. FM values were high in all age groups. No differences were observed in groups 3 and 4 among girls or in group 4 among boys. Participants classified as normal weight showed a significantly higher RHGS than their obese peers. A negative association was noted between RHGS and FM.Conclusion. RHGS was shown to be negatively associated with FM after controlling for the effect of maturity status


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Fuerza Muscular , Índice de Masa Corporal , Chile , Tejido Adiposo , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Obesidad
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(5): s142-s152, oct 2020. ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1122562

RESUMEN

Es innegable la necesidad de contar con curvas estándar de tamaño al nacer y crecimiento para evaluar y contribuir a orientar las acciones en la atención del neonato. Durante muchos años, se utilizaron las referencias de Lejarraga y Fustiñana, que fueron progresivamente reemplazadas por las de Fenton y Kim.Recientemente, el proyecto INTERGROWTH-21st construyó estándares de crecimiento prescriptivo para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 33 semanas de edad gestacional, referencias para evaluar el tamaño al nacer desde las 24 a las 32,6 semanas de edad gestacional y curvas para el seguimiento longitudinal del crecimiento de recién nacidos pretérmino desde las 27 semanas de edad gestacional. Los Comités de Crecimiento y Desarrollo y de Estudios Feto-neonatales de la Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría, en conjunto con la Secretaría de Gobierno de Salud de la Nación, acordaron recomendar el reemplazo de las curvas de Fenton y Kim por las de INTERGROWTH-21st


It is unquestionable the need to have standards of size at birth and growth to evaluate and contribute to guide the actions in the care of the newborn. For many years the references of Lejarraga and Fustiñana were used, progressively replaced by those of Fenton and Kim. However, recently, the INTERGROWTH-21st project has developed prescriptive growth standards to evaluate the size at birth from 33 weeks of gestational age, references from 24 to 32.6 weeks of gestational age, and curves for postnatal growth from 27 weeks of gestational age onward. The Growth and Development and Neonatal Fetal Studies Committees of the Argentine Society of Pediatrics in conjunction with the Secretary of National Government of Health agreed to recommend the replacement of the Fenton and Kim curves with those of INTERGROWTH-21st.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Peso al Nacer , Tamaño Corporal , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Gráficos de Crecimiento , Estándares de Referencia , Recien Nacido Prematuro/crecimiento & desarrollo , Antropometría , Edad Gestacional
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238102, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941484

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To assess neurological sequelae and growth in the first 12 months of life in a cohort of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infected infants compared to cCMV uninfected infants. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective matched cohort study conducted in Soweto, South Africa where forty-six confirmed cCMV cases were matched on HIV-exposure, gender and gestational age (±two weeks) to 84 cCMV-uninfected controls in a 1:2 ratio. Cases and controls were followed up until 12 months of age to assess anthropometry, hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS: Thirty-four (73.9%) cCMV cases and 74 (88.1%) controls, completed all assessments at 12 months age. At 12 months, one cCMV case had died, none of the children in either group had SNHL and neurodevelopmental delay was present in a similar percentage of cCMV cases (n = 2; 6%) and controls (n = 1, 4%; OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.04-27.84, p = 0.958). Anthropometry did not differ between cases and controls overall throughout the follow up period. HIV-exposed cases had smaller head circumference for age at 6 and 12 months when compared with HIV-exposed controls. CONCLUSION: By 12 months of age, there was no evidence of a difference in neurological sequelae between cCMV infected South African children and cCMV uninfected children in this study. Further follow-up is warranted to detect late-onset hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay beyond 12 months of age.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/fisiopatología , Citomegalovirus/fisiología , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/complicaciones , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Estudios de Cohortes , Infecciones por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico por imagen , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo , Sudáfrica , Ultrasonografía , Adulto Joven
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238225, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915841

RESUMEN

Positional information on the shoulder girdle (the clavicle and scapula) is important for a better understanding of the function of the upper limb in the locomotive system as well as its associated disease pathogenesis. However, such data are limited except for information on the axial position of the scapula. Here, we describe a three-dimensional reconstruction of the shoulder girdle including the clavicle and scapula, and its relationship to different landmarks in the body. Thirty-six human fetal specimens (crown-rump length range: 7.6-225 mm) from the Kyoto Collection were used for this study. The morphogenesis and three-dimensional position of the shoulder girdle were analyzed with phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. We first detected the scapula body along with the coracoid and humeral head at Carnegie stage 18; however, the connection between the body and coracoid was not confirmed at this stage. During development, all landmarks on the shoulder girdle remained at the same axial position except for the inferior angle, which implies that the scapula enlarged in the caudal direction and reached the adult axial position in the fetal period. The scapula body was rotated internally and in the upward direction at the initiation of morphogenesis, but in the fetal period the scapula body was different than that in the adult position. The shoulder girdle was located at the ventral side of the vertebrae at the time of initial morphogenesis, but changed its position to the lateral side of the vertebrae in the late embryonic and fetal periods. Such a unique position of the shoulder girdle may contribute to the stage-specific posture of the upper limb. Adequate internal and upward rotation of the scapula could help in reducing the shoulder width, thereby facilitating childbirth. The data presented in this study can be used as normal morphometric references for shoulder girdle evaluations in the embryonic and fetal periods.


Asunto(s)
Desarrollo Fetal/fisiología , Rango del Movimiento Articular/fisiología , Articulación del Hombro/anatomía & histología , Articulación del Hombro/fisiología , Hombro/embriología , Hombro/fisiología , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Humanos , Hombro/anatomía & histología , Extremidad Superior/anatomía & histología , Extremidad Superior/fisiología
17.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 293-307, set. 2020. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130604

RESUMEN

La enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 o COVID-19 que causa neumonía viral y que puede llegar al síndrome de distrés respiratorio agudo, falla multiorgánica y muerte generó un problema de salud de gran relevancia a nivel mundial. Este nuevo agente etiológico de reciente aparición, ha ocasionado desconcierto en los equipos de salud. La heterogeneidad de la presentación clínica del COVID-19 genera nuevos desafíos para la medicina de laboratorio. Hasta el momento se han informado múltiples hallazgos bioquímicos que cambian según las características clínicas del individuo infectado. Los informes de casos son diversos y varían según el lugar y los datos recopilados. En este contexto es necesario poder relacionar dichos sucesos con el desarrollo y curso de la enfermedad. La injerencia del laboratorio no está restringida únicamente al diagnóstico etiológico inicial. Los parámetros bioquímicos juegan un rol fundamental tanto en el monitoreo como en la estadificación y en el pronóstico de la enfermedad. El objetivo de la presente revisión fue abordar las principales alteraciones de parámetros de laboratorio relacionadas a la infección por SARS-CoV-2.


Coronavirus 2019 or COVID-19, a disease which causes viral pneumonia and can reach acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure and death, has generated a major health problem, with worldwide relevance. This new etiological agent of recent appearance has caused great confusion among health teams. The heterogeneity of the clinical presentation of COVID-19 brings about new challenges for laboratory medicine. So far, various biochemical findings have been reported, varying according to the infected individual's clinical characteristics as well as to the location and data collected. In this context, it is necessary to be able to relate these events to the development and course of the disease. The role of the laboratory is not restricted only to the initial etiological diagnosis; biochemical parameters play a fundamental role in monitoring and both staging and prognosis of the disease. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the main laboratory parameter alterations related to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


A doença por coronavírus 2019 ou COVID-19, que causa pneumonia viral podendo chegar à síndrome de angústia respiratória, falha de múltiplos órgãos e morte, provocou um problema de saúde de grande relevância em nível mundial. Esse novo agente etiológico de recente aparecimento causou grande perplexidade nas equipes de saúde. A heterogeneidade da apresentação clínica do COVID-19 cria novos desafios para a medicina laboratorial. Até agora foram relatadas várias descobertas bioquímicas que variam de acordo com as características clínicas da pessoa infectada. Os relatórios dos casos são diversos e variam de acordo ao lugar e dados coletados. Nesse contexto é necessário poder relacionar esses fatos com o desenvolvimento e andamento da doença. O papel do laboratório não é restrito apenas ao diagnóstico etiológico inicial. Os parâmetros bioquímicos desempenham um papel fundamental tanto no monitoramento quanto no estadiamento e prognóstico da doença. O objetivo da presente revisão foi abordar as principais alterações de parâmetros laboratoriais relacionadas com a infecção por SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
Juego e Implementos de Juego , Neumonía Viral , Pronóstico , Síndrome de Dificultad Respiratoria del Adulto , Rol , Síndrome , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Falla Geológica , Equipos y Suministros , Parámetros , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Pacientes , Enfermedad , Causalidad , Confusión , Monitoreo , Muerte , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Diagnóstico , Informe de Investigación , Betacoronavirus , Desconcierto , Laboratorios
18.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 279-284, set. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130602

RESUMEN

El azúcar de mesa, que se obtiene de la caña de azúcar, es el edulcorante más utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos. El azúcar es importante en la obtención de energía, es necesario para la síntesis de ácidos grasos, de ácidos nucleicos, evita el estrés oxidativo y el desarrollo de anemia. Puede ocasionar caries, diabetes, obesidad, arteriosclerosis y otras patologías. En el presente trabajo se valoró el efecto que tiene la ingesta crónica de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% sobre el consumo de alimento balanceado, el perfil lipídico, la concentración de glucosa sérica, y sobre algunos marcadores del estado nutricional como el peso y las proteínas séricas totales, en machos de ratas Wistar. El agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% se administró a un grupo de 9 ratas Wistar durante 3 meses y se tomó como grupo control a un grupo de 9 ratas que bebieron agua natural. El consumo de alimentos por ambos grupos, así como los marcadores de química sanguínea se analizaron al final del tratamiento. Los niveles de glucosa, lípidos y proteínas séricas totales se midieron mediante espectroscopía. Los resultados mostraron que el consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa al 30% redujo en más de un 90% el consumo de alimento balanceado; sin embargo, no afectó el perfil lipídico ni el nivel de glucosa en sangre, así como tampoco el nivel de proteínas séricas totales. El consumo de agua endulzada con sacarosa podría provocar desnutrición a largo plazo ya que ocasiona una reducción en la ingesta de alimento rico en nutrientes.


Sugar, obtained from sugarcane, is the most commonly used sweetener in food processing. Sugar is an important food for energy generation and it is necessary for the synthesis of fatty acids and nucleic acids. It prevents oxidative stress and anemia development. However, its consumption can cause dental caries, diabetes, obesity, arteriosclerosis and other pathologies. In the present work, the effect of chronic intake of water sweetened with 30% sucrose on balanced food consumption, lipid profile, serum glucose concentration, as well as some markers of nutritional status such as weight and total serum proteins was assessed in male Wistar rats. The water sweetened with 30% sucrose was administered to a group of 9 Wistar rats for 3 months, having 9 rats as a control group that drank natural water. Food consumption between both groups as well as blood chemistry markers were analyzed at the end of the treatment. Glucose, lipid levels as well as total serum proteins were measured by spectroscopy. The results showed that the consumption of water sweetened with 30% sucrose reduced the consumption of balanced food by more than 90%, however, it did not affect the lipid profile, the level of glucose in the blood or the level of total serum proteins concentration. Consumption of sucrose-sweetened water could lead to long-term malnutrition by reducing the intake of nutrient-rich food.


O açúcar comum, obtido a partir da cana de açúcar, é o adoçante mais utilizado na elaboração dos alimentos. O açúcar é importante para a geração de energia; necessário para a síntese de ácidos graxos e de ácidos nucleicos. Previne o estresse oxidativo e o desenvolvimento de anemia. No entanto, seu consumo pode causar cárie dentária, diabetes, obesidade, arteriosclerose e outras patologias. No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito da ingestão crônica de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% sobre o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, perfil lipídico, concentração sérica de glicose e alguns marcadores do estado nutricional, como o peso. e as proteínas séricas totais em ratos Wistar machos. A água adoçada com sacarose a 30% foi administrada a um grupo de 9 ratos Wistar por 3 meses, tendo como grupo controle um grupo de 9 ratos que beberam água natural. O consumo de alimentos entre os dois grupos e os marcadores de química sanguínea foram analisados no final do tratamento. Os níveis de glicose, lipídios e proteínas séricas totais foram medidos por espectroscopia. Os resultados mostraram que o consumo de água adoçada com sacarose a 30% reduziu em mais de 90% o consumo de alimentos ricos em nutrientes, no entanto, não afetou o perfil lipídico, o nível de glicose em sangue nem o nível de proteínas séricas totais. O consumo de água adoçada com sacarose poderia levar à desnutrição no longo prazo, visto que produz uma redução na ingestão de alimentos ricos em nutrientes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Animales , Masculino , Femenino , Arteriosclerosis , Análisis Espectral , Sangre , Ácidos Nucleicos , Consumo de Alimentos , Ratas Wistar , Sacarosa en la Dieta , Saccharum , Control , Ácidos Grasos , Anemia , Sacarosa , Terapéutica , Agua , Afecto , Caries Dental , Desnutrición , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Diabetes Mellitus , Azúcares , Alimentos , Manipulación de Alimentos
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237945, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810172

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Movement behaviours (e.g., sleep, sedentary behaviour, and physical activity) in isolation have demonstrated benefits to preschool-aged children's development. However, little is known on the integrated nature of movement behaviours and their relationship to healthy development in this age range. Thus, the objective of this study was to examine the relationships between accelerometer-derived movement behaviours and indicators of physical, cognitive, and social-emotional development using compositional analyses in a sample of preschool-aged children. METHODS: Children (n = 95) were recruited in Edmonton, Canada. Movement behaviours were measured with ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers worn 24 hours/day. Physical (i.e., body mass index [BMI] z-scores, percent of adult height, and motor skills), cognitive (i.e., working memory, response inhibition, and vocabulary), and social-emotional (i.e., sociability, externalizing, internalizing, prosocial behaviour, and cognitive, emotional, and behavioural self-regulation) development were assessed. Objective height and weight were measured for BMI z-scores and percent of adult height, while the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 was used to assess motor skills. The Early Years Toolbox was used to assess all cognitive and social-emotional development indicators. Compositional linear regression models and compositional substitution models were conducted in R. RESULTS: Children accumulated 11.1 hours of sleep, 6.1 hours of stationary time, 5.1 hours of light-intensity physical activity (LPA), and 1.8 hours of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) per day. Movement behaviour compositions were significantly associated with physical (i.e., locomotor skills, object motor skills, and total motor skills) and cognitive (i.e., working memory and vocabulary) development (R2 range: 0.11-0.18). In relation to other movement behaviours in the composition, MVPA was positively associated with most physical development outcomes; while stationary time had mixed findings for cognitive development outcomes (i.e., mainly positive associations in linear regressions but non-significant in substitution models). Most associations for LPA and sleep were non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: The overall composition of movement behaviors appeared important for development. Findings confirmed the importance of MVPA for physical development. Mixed findings between stationary time and cognitive development could indicate this sample engaged in both beneficial (e.g., reading) and detrimental (e.g., screen time) stationary time. However, further research is needed to determine the mechanisms for these relationships.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Emociones , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Movimiento , Cambio Social , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Ejercicio Físico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sedentaria
20.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 55(4): 397-403, Jul.-Aug. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138044

RESUMEN

Abstract Charcot neuroarthropathy (CN) is an unfortunate and common complication of patients with diabetes, most likely resulting from a lack of proper understanding of the disease, which leads to late diagnosis. It is commonly misdiagnosed as infection and treated with antibiotics and a frustrated attempt of surgical drainage, which will reveal only debris of the osteoarticular destruction. Proper education of diabetic patients and of the health care professionals involved in their treatment is essential for the recognition of the initial signs of CN. The general orthopedic surgeon is usually the first to treat these patients in the early stages of the disease and must be aware of the signs of CN in order to establish an accurate diagnosis and ensure proper treatment. In theory, this would make it possible to decrease the morbidity of this condition, as long as proper treatment is instituted early.


Resumo A neuropatia de Charcot (NC) é uma complicação lamentável e comum de pacientes com diabetes, provavelmente resutlante de uma falta de entendimento adequado dessa condição, que leva ao diagnóstico tardio.A confusão diagnóstica com quadro infeccioso contribui para que o tratamento inicialmente indicado seja equivocado ao prescrever medicação antibiótica ou, eventualmente, drenagem cirúrgica. Não é infrequente que a drenagem inadvertida do suposto abcesso revele que na verdade seu conteúdo é formado apenas de partículas provenientes da destruição osteoarticular. A educação adequada, tanto dos pacientes diabéticos quanto dos médicos responsáveis por prestar atendimento primário a estes pacientes, é fundamental para a correta compreensão das principais características relacionadas ao desenvolvimento da NC. O ortopedista geral é quem, na maioria das vezes, recebe no pronto atendimento os pacientes que se encontram na fase aguda inicial da doença. Por esta razão, esses profissionais devem estar extremamente alertas e serem capazes de identificar os primeiros sinais que permitem diagnosticar precocemente a NC. Em tese, isto possibilitaria reduzir a morbidade desta afecção na medida em que o tratamento adequado venha a ser precocemente instituído.


Asunto(s)
Artropatía Neurógena/complicaciones , Pie Diabético , Crecimiento y Desarrollo , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnóstico Tardío , Pie , Cirujanos Ortopédicos , Amputación
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