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1.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 189-201, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650520

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The main goal of the resources project «Healthy claws - the foundation for the future¼ is to establish a Swiss national claw health monitoring programme for cattle, similar to what has already been established in other countries (e. g. Finland, Sweden). So far in the course of the project, 30 claw trimmers have been trained to use a digital recording software. An appropriate training concept and information to the work environment of Swiss claw trimmers are necessary to ensure that the recorded claw health data is of good quality. The newly developed training programme for claw trimmers was evaluated using the 30 first trained claw trimmers of the project. The training consisted of group events and individual schooling sessions, during which the claw trimmers were trained to recognise, classify and digitally record foot and claw disorders according to the «ICAR claw health atlas¼. At the end of the training programme, demographic and work relevant data about the claw trimmers was collected and their abilities when using the recording software, as well as recognising and classifying foot and claw disorders using pictures or live animals, were evaluated. The demographic and work relevant data collected at the end of the training showed an ageing of the profession (43% of the participants were over 50 years old), a lack of full-time claw trimmers (23% of the claw trimmers worked 90% or 100%), a neglect of locomotion scoring during claw trimming (no locomotion scoring standing from 60% and in movement from 33% of the participants) and a broad use of the Swiss claw trimming method (90% of the claw trimmers indicate using this method). An average Cohens kappa value of 0,74, and thus an overall substantial agreement with the first author, respectively the ICAR Atlas, was achieved for the identification and classification of foot and claw disorders. It was also noted, that all the participants were capable of using the recording software in practice after their schooling. The calculation of Cohens kappa values helps to recognise claw trimmers which fall below the limiting value and therefore show an insufficient agreement. These claw trimmers can thus be excluded from the scientific evaluation or undergo further training. It was concluded that the described training concept is suitable to establish a national claw health monitoring programme.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/educación , Pezuñas y Garras , Servicios Preventivos de Salud , Enseñanza/normas , Animales , Bovinos , Humanos , Vigilancia de la Población , Servicios Preventivos de Salud/métodos , Programas Informáticos , Suiza
2.
Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd ; 163(3): 203-217, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33650521

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The evaluation of new animal husbandry concepts includes, beyond the exploration of chosen parameters, that the question is addressed whether economic benefits for producers and ethical benefits for society result of the new system when compared to traditional systems. In a previous study, a novel management and housing concept for veal production («outdoor veal calf¼, OVC) was tested from October 2016 to July 2018. The OVC concept was associated with distinctly lower antimicrobial use while average daily weight gain was similar and calf welfare better; furthermore mortality was lower compared to conventional label fattening. The aim of the present study was to compare economics between the OVC concept on intervention farms (IF) and the IP-SUISSE label concept on control farms (CF) by calculating contribution margins (CM). The CM indicates the difference between the performance of a production branch (e. g. slaughter return) and the allocable costs for this production branch (e. g. feed costs). In the present study, two different approaches were used for CM calculation to analyze the available data in detail. No substantial differences in CM between the OVC concept and the IP-SUISSE concept were found in either approach. However, the specific CM varied between the approaches as different calculation criteria for quantities and prices were applied (approach «real¼ with accurate costs and returns from the OVC study and approach «standardized¼ with costs and returns based on the CM catalogue). The CM varied slightly for the CM per man-hour (IF «real¼: 6.96 CHF/man-hour, «standardized¼: 4.49 CHF/man-hour; CF: 7.90 CHF/man-hour and 8.08 CHF/man-hour, respectively) and considerably for the CM per fattening space and year (IF «real¼: -380.36 CHF, «standardized¼: -559.50 CHF; CF: -244.70 CHF and -318.80 CHF, -respectively). Producing veal with the OVC concept -allowed for achieving comparable CM/man-hour as in conventional label production. Thus, the farmers' economic interests should be warranted when implementing the OVC concept.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/economía , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Animales , Vivienda para Animales , Suiza
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670030

RESUMEN

Convolutional neural network (CNN)-based computer vision systems have been increasingly applied in animal farming to improve animal management, but current knowledge, practices, limitations, and solutions of the applications remain to be expanded and explored. The objective of this study is to systematically review applications of CNN-based computer vision systems on animal farming in terms of the five deep learning computer vision tasks: image classification, object detection, semantic/instance segmentation, pose estimation, and tracking. Cattle, sheep/goats, pigs, and poultry were the major farm animal species of concern. In this research, preparations for system development, including camera settings, inclusion of variations for data recordings, choices of graphics processing units, image preprocessing, and data labeling were summarized. CNN architectures were reviewed based on the computer vision tasks in animal farming. Strategies of algorithm development included distribution of development data, data augmentation, hyperparameter tuning, and selection of evaluation metrics. Judgment of model performance and performance based on architectures were discussed. Besides practices in optimizing CNN-based computer vision systems, system applications were also organized based on year, country, animal species, and purposes. Finally, recommendations on future research were provided to develop and improve CNN-based computer vision systems for improved welfare, environment, engineering, genetics, and management of farm animals.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/instrumentación , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador , Redes Neurales de la Computación , Algoritmos , Animales , Animales Domésticos , Bovinos , Cabras , Aves de Corral , Ovinos , Porcinos
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(4)2021 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33671216

RESUMEN

The prediction of health disorders is the goal of many sensor systems in dairy farming. Although mastitis and lameness are the most common health disorders in dairy cows, these diseases or treatments are a rare event related to a single day and cow. A number of studies already developed and evaluated models for classifying cows in need of treatment for mastitis and lameness with machine learning methods, but few have illustrated the effects of the positive predictive value (PPV) on practical application. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of low-frequency treatments of mastitis or lameness for the applicability of these classification models in practice. Data from three German dairy farms contained animal individual sensor data (milkings, activity, feed intake) and were classified using machine learning models developed in a previous study. Subsequently, different risk criteria (previous treatments, information from milk recording, early lactation) were designed to isolate high-risk groups. Restricting selection to cows with previous mastitis or hoof treatment achieved the highest increase in PPV from 0.07 to 0.20 and 0.15, respectively. However, the known low daily risk of a treatment per cow remains the critical factor that prevents the reduction of daily false-positive alarms to a satisfactory level. Sensor systems should be seen as additional decision-support aid to the farmers' expert knowledge.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/instrumentación , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/diagnóstico , Industria Lechera , Cojera Animal/diagnóstico , Mastitis/diagnóstico , Animales , Bovinos , Granjas , Femenino , Lactancia , Leche
5.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20191526, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787753

RESUMEN

The Environmental enrichment technique, although scientifically recognized for raising the level of animal welfare, has led to the questioning of its influence on the results of experimental research. Thus, the goal is to promote reflection about the need for standardization of these procedures. For that, documents and experimental analysis were done, in order to quantify and characterize the types of environmental enrichment used and to evaluate the effect of that in the social behavior of Rattus norvegicus. Data from the document review confirmed the hypothesis that the researchers have used a variety of methods, not demonstrating a concern for standardization and prior assessment of its effects on the search results. Demand was corroborated in the experimental study in which, although there was available a simple object acting as refuge promotes behavioral improvements, the presence of the co-specific, as well as characteristics of the micro and macro environment can compromise the homogeneity of the sample. The data from this study endorse the need for validation procedures of environmental enrichment for specific proposals, to investigative data comparison, are possible and contribute to the refinement of the search to reduce the number of animals targeted for this purpose.


Asunto(s)
Experimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Animales de Laboratorio , Conducta Animal , Vivienda para Animales , Ratas , Conducta Social
6.
Animal ; 15(3): 100154, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573976

RESUMEN

Intensive pig production systems are a source of stress, which is linked to reduced animal welfare and increased antimicrobial use. As the gatekeepers of the welfare of the animals under their care, farmers are seen as the stakeholder responsible for improving animal welfare. The aim of this study was to explore the knowledge and attitudes of pig farmers towards pig welfare and the impact of such attitudes on farmers' selection of management strategies on the farm. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 44 pig farmers in one of the main pig producing regions of Brazil. Interviews covered knowledge and attitudes towards pig sentience and behaviour and welfare-related issues commonly observed in intensive pig farms (belly-nosing, fights, tail-biting, diarrhoea and castration without pain control) and farmers' conception and attitudes towards pig welfare. We identified many management and animal-based indicators of poor welfare, such as the use of painful and stressful management practices and use of environments that limit the expression of natural behaviours. However, most farmers were satisfied with animal welfare standards at their farms. Farmers' perceptions are aligned with their understanding of animal welfare. Although they identified all the dimensions that impact the welfare of a pig on a farm (affect, biological functioning and naturalness), their social reality, industry demands and available advice pushed them to perceive their range of action limited to biological and environmental aspects of the animals that do not necessarily benefit affective state. This precluded farmers from making associations between good health and the animal's ability to express a full behavioural repertoire, as well as from viewing abnormal behaviours as problems. The negative consequences for the welfare of the animals were commonly alleviated by routines that relied on constant use of medication, including high dependence on antibiotics. Expressions of estrangement from the production chain were common voices among the participants. This suggests that farmers may not be sufficiently informed or engaged in responding to consumers' expectations and commitments made by companies, which can pose a severe economic risk for farmers. The findings of this study indicate that economic, technical and social factors restrict farmers' autonomy and their ability to perform their role as stewards of animal welfare. (Re)connecting different human, animal and environmental interests may be a step to changing this scenario.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Agricultores , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Antibacterianos , Brasil , Granjas , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Porcinos
7.
Animal ; 15(2): 100123, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573940

RESUMEN

Major shifts in how animals are bred, raised and slaughtered are involved in the intensification of livestock systems. Globally, these changes have produced major increases in access to protein-rich foods with high levels of micronutrients. Yet the intensification of livestock systems generates numerous externalities including environmental degradation, zoonotic disease transmission and the emergence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes. Where the process of intensification is most advanced, the expertise, institutions and regulations required to manage these externalities have developed over time, often in response to hard lessons, crises and challenges to public health. By exploring the drivers of intensification, the foci of future intensification can be identified. Low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries are likely to experience significant intensification in livestock production in the near future; however, the lessons learned elsewhere are not being transferred rapidly enough to develop risk mitigation capacity in these settings. At present, fragmentary approaches to address these problems present an incomplete picture of livestock populations, antimicrobial use, and disease risks in LMIC settings. A worldwide improvement in evidence-based zoonotic disease and AMR management within intensifying livestock production systems demands better information on the burden of livestock-associated disease, antimicrobial use and resistance and resources allocated to mitigation.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Ganado , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Zoonosis
8.
Animal ; 15(2): 100103, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573972

RESUMEN

The nature of the relationship between humans and farm animals has multiple repercussions on the animals and the farmers and varies with farmers attitudes towards their animals. In particular, this relationship influences animal welfare and human working conditions. The present study, part of a larger research project investigating human-animal relationship (HAR) in pig farming and ways to improve it, had two objectives: 1) to investigate the HAR in a diversity of pig farming situations and to evaluate the possible correlation between farmer attitudes, pigs' reactions to humans, husbandry practices, animal health, welfare and productivity and 2) to find a way to rapidly assign a farmer to a profile, in order to better adapt course content during training sessions on HAR. The study focused on 52 farrow-to-finish farms and consisted of a semi-structured interview with the farmer, observations of the farmer in contact with his/her livestock, two human approach tests conducted on sows and growers and productivity data. Finally, a questionnaire was left at the farm to be filled out by all stockpersons on the farm. Interviews, analyzed using a thematic analysis followed by multiple correspondence analysis and ascendant hierarchical clustering, showed that some farmers develop husbandry practices to improve their HARs and identified three farmer profiles that have been named in relation to the place of the HAR in their profession: Profile 1 farmers for whom HAR is secondary in their work with their pigs, Profile 2 for whom the HAR is useful in their work with their pigs and Profile 3 for whom HAR is central in their work with their pigs. Logistic regression models of the relationships between behavioral tests and productivity data showed that confident sows produce and wean more piglets than fearful sows and that sows of Profile 3 farmers trust more humans than those of Profile 1 or 2 farmers. Farmers' responses to the questionnaire did not predict their profile assignment. Our results confirm the main role of the farmer's attitude towards animals on their farming practices, animal welfare and productivity. The farmers who have more confident pigs and better productivity are those for whom the farm animal is central to their profession, express the most pleasure in working with them and convey empathy for them.


Asunto(s)
Bienestar del Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Eficiencia , Agricultores , Granjas , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Porcinos
9.
Animal ; 15(2): 100119, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33579650

RESUMEN

The avian beak is a multipurpose organ playing a vital role in a variety of functions, including feeding, drinking, playing, grasping objects, mating, nesting, preening and defence against predators and parasites. With regards to poultry production, the beak is the first point of contact between the bird and feed. The beak is also manipulated to prevent unwanted behaviour such as feather pecking, toe pecking and cannibalism in poultry as well as head/neck injuries to breeder hens during mating. Thus, investigating the beak morphometry of poultry in relation to feeding and other behaviours may lead to novel insights for poultry breeding, management and feeding strategies. Beak morphometry data may be captured by advanced imaging techniques coupled with the use of geometric morphometric techniques. This emerging technology may be utilized to study the effects of beak shape on many critical management issues including heat stress, parasite management, pecking and feeding behaviour. In addition, existing literature identifies several genes related to beak development in chickens and other avian species. Use of morphometric assessments to develop phenotypic data on beak shape and detailed studies on beak-related behaviours in chickens may help in improving management and welfare of commercial poultry.


Asunto(s)
Pico , Pollos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Pico/cirugía , Conducta Animal , Plumas , Femenino , Aves de Corral
10.
J Vis Exp ; (167)2021 01 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554967

RESUMEN

Excitotoxic necrosis is a leading form of neurodegeneration. This process of regulated necrosis is triggered by the synaptic accumulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate, and the excessive stimulation of its postsynaptic receptors. However, information on the subsequent molecular events that culminate in the distinct neuronal swelling morphology of this type of neurodegeneration is lacking. Other aspects, such as changes in specific subcellular compartments, or the basis for the differential cellular vulnerability of distinct neuronal subtypes, remain under-explored. Furthermore, a range of factors that come into play in studies that use in vitro or ex vivo preparations might modify and distort the natural progression of this form of neurodegeneration. It is therefore important to study excitotoxic necrosis in live animals by monitoring the effects of interventions that regulate the extent of neuronal necrosis in the genetically amenable and transparent model system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This protocol describes methods of studying excitotoxic necrosis in C. elegans neurons, combining optical, genetic, and molecular analysis. To induce excitotoxic conditions in C. elegans, a knockout of a glutamate transporter gene (glt-3) is combined with a neuronal sensitizing genetic background (nuls5 [Pglr-1::GαS(Q227L)]) to produce glutamate receptor hyperstimulation and neurodegeneration. Nomarski differential interference contrast (DIC), fluorescent, and confocal microscopy in live animals are methods used to quantify neurodegeneration, follow subcellular localization of fluorescently labeled proteins, and quantify mitochondrial morphology in the degenerating neurons. Neuronal Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting (FACS) is used to distinctly sort at-risk neurons for cell-type specific transcriptomic analysis of neurodegeneration. A combination of live imaging and FACS methods as well as the benefits of the C. elegans model organism allow researchers to leverage this system to obtain reproducible data with a large sample size. Insights from these assays could translate to novel targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative diseases.


Asunto(s)
Caenorhabditis elegans/citología , Imagenología Tridimensional , Degeneración Nerviosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Degeneración Nerviosa/patología , Neurotoxinas/toxicidad , Envejecimiento/patología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Apoptosis , Tampones (Química) , Caenorhabditis elegans/efectos de los fármacos , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Citometría de Flujo , Ácido Glutámico/metabolismo , Mitocondrias/efectos de los fármacos , Mitocondrias/patología , Necrosis , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neuronas/patología , Neuroprotección/efectos de los fármacos , ARN/aislamiento & purificación , Factores de Riesgo , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 125-137, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541694

RESUMEN

Estrus synchronization and manipulation are a tool that has been used by producers to provide uniform lamb and kid meat production and dairy sheep and goat milk production, to concentrate work and labor cost, and to plan for the lambing and kidding time. Breeders can also use estrus synchronization to stimulate ewes and does to exhibit estrus and ovulate outside of the breeding season, although both the ovulation rate and pregnancy rate may be decreased. To increase the ovulation rate outside of the breeding season, a variety of estrus synchronization methods have been used.


Asunto(s)
Sincronización del Estro/métodos , Cabras/fisiología , Ovinos/fisiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Femenino , Ovulación/efectos de los fármacos , Embarazo , Índice de Embarazo , Estaciones del Año
12.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 149-174, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541696

RESUMEN

Staphylococcus aureus is the most important cause of clinical mastitis in goats, and non-aureus staphylococci is the most common isolate from subclinical mastitis. Environmental streptococci are a severe problem. Somatic cell counts and California mastitis test are a screening test for mastitis and an indicator of poor udder health, but values should be interpreted differently than with dairy cattle. Somatic cell scores likely are a more useful way of viewing data. High bacterial counts in milk are common; mastitis may be involved as a cause. Proper udder preparation, milking procedure, and postmilking management are key factors in mastitis control.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Industria Lechera/métodos , Enfermedades de las Cabras/prevención & control , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/fisiología , Mastitis/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Cabras/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Cabras/microbiología , Cabras , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/microbiología , Mastitis/diagnóstico , Mastitis/microbiología , Mastitis/prevención & control , Leche/microbiología , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/prevención & control , Infecciones Estafilocócicas/veterinaria
13.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 209-219, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541700

RESUMEN

Sheep operations will be subject to movement controls during a US foot and mouth disease outbreak and should be prepared to manage animal and product movement disruptions. The voluntary Secure Sheep and Wool Supply (SSWS) Plan for Continuity of Business provides tools for the sheep industry to develop contingency plans, write enhanced, operation-specific biosecurity plans, and learn about disease surveillance opportunities and challenges. The SSWS Plan is science-based and risk-based, funded by the American Sheep Industry Association, and developed collaboratively with industry, government officials, and veterinarians at Iowa State University. For more information, visit www.securesheepwool.org.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Fiebre Aftosa/prevención & control , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control , Ovinos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Lana/crecimiento & desarrollo , Agricultura , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Animales , Brotes de Enfermedades/veterinaria , Fiebre Aftosa/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Industria Textil , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
14.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 37(1): 33-54, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541701

RESUMEN

This article discusses key welfare issues for small ruminants and gives practical management advice. Welfare assessment is vital to ensure that optimal conditions are provided. Practitioners can play a key role in identifying areas of potential welfare compromise and implement interventions. With the knowledge and careful identification of indicators of welfare, practitioners and producers can develop a management plan that can ensure proper nutrition, environment, and health to allow for natural behaviors and a positive affective state; identification of animal health and management issues; and (3) allocation of adequate resources to improve the welfare of sheep and goats.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bienestar del Animal/organización & administración , Cabras , Ovinos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Bienestar del Animal/normas , Animales , Enfermedades de las Cabras/prevención & control , Rumiantes , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/prevención & control
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(15): 19064-19078, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394430

RESUMEN

Pollutant gas emissions from animal barns affect indoor air quality, the health and well-being of farmers, and the surrounding environment. This study was carried out in four sheep barns (SB) in Bursa, an important region for animal husbandry operations. Concentrations of NH3, CO2, H2S, and CH4 were measured in four sheep barns by monitoring throughout 24 h in 1 year. Pollutant gas emissions from barns were also calculated and modeled. The average pollutant gas emissions obtained in this study were 5 kg day-1 barn-1 for NH3, and 18 kg day-1 barn-1 for CH4. The average NH3 and CH4 emissions from each barn were 2.1 and 2.7 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB1; 9.4 and 12.9 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB2; 4.0 and 3.6 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB3; and 4.5 21 kg day-1 barn-1 for SB4, respectively. There are statistically significant differences between daytime and nighttime for pollutant gas emissions. Pollutant gas emissions in the monitored barns are generally higher in summer than in other seasons. Models for estimating NH3, and CH4 emissions were developed using measured temperature and relative humidity values in the barns. These models can only be used in the Bursa region. The results of this study were compared with other studies under similar conditions in the literature.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire Interior , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire Interior/análisis , Amoníaco/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Dióxido de Carbono/análisis , Metano/análisis , Estaciones del Año , Ovinos
16.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 54, 2021 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33389207

RESUMEN

Poultry production contributes significantly to the livelihoods of Ethiopian farmers and to the national economy although it is hampered by different factors, including poultry diseases. There is scarcity of published evidences on the occurrence and impacts of poultry diseases although such evidences are important for policy makers in designing appropriate interventions. A total of 595 households were interviewed and 11 FGDs were conducted to collect data on the occurrence of diseases and the number of dead chickens in the last 12 months. Hence, respiratory diseases, sudden death, and eye-face-head diseases were mentioned in all of the FGDs as the most frequently occurring disease in the districts. Of households interviewed, 86.1% reported poultry disease occurrence in the last 12 months, and gastrointestinal, eye-face-head, and neurological diseases were identified to be the top three ranked diseases of chickens in the districts. Flocks with access to diagnostic services (Adj. OR = 4.16; P = 0.004) and/or access to animal health providers (Adj. OR = 10.50; P = 0.001) were more likely to report disease occurrence. In the studied population, the diseases resulted in deaths of 2219 chickens valued at 352,219.5 Birr (11,740.65 USD) and a mean crude mortality of 31.87%. Female-lead households (mean difference = 5.95%; P = 0.018) and multiple age units present on the farm (mean difference = 20.92%; P = < 0.000) had higher chicken mortality. Similarly, higher mortality was reported in flocks without access to diagnosis (mean difference = 9.97%; P = < 0.000) and vaccination (mean difference = 12.34%; P = < 0.000) services. The high occurrence of disease and mortalities might be explained by a lack of an organized poultry health service delivery system in the country. Therefore, a carefully designed health service delivery system addressing needs of poultry producers, supported by relevant policy and corresponding strategies, is recommended to address the indicated challenges. Moreover, private health providers with well-defined roles need to be engaged to successfully and sustainably solve the poultry disease problems.


Asunto(s)
Pollos , Granjas/estadística & datos numéricos , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/mortalidad , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Estudios Transversales , Etiopía/epidemiología , Composición Familiar , Agricultores , Granjas/economía , Femenino , Humanos , Aves de Corral , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/economía , Productos Avícolas , Vacunación/veterinaria
17.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 1017-1020, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480584

RESUMEN

Beginning 01 January 2016, for all animals transferred into the collection, Disney's Animal Kingdom used a risk-based process that relies on pathogen hazard identification and then assessment and mitigation of the risk for each identified pathogen hazard. Data on morbidity, mortality, and disease introduction was compared for birds transferred in pre- and post-risk-based processes used during the period 2013-2018. When assessing morbidity within 3 mo of acquisition, logistic regression revealed that birds entering "straight to collection" had lower morbidity rates than those entering with either "standard quarantine" or "risk-based standard quarantine" methods (P = 0.032). Mortality within 3 mo of acquisition was not significantly different between straight-to-collection and standard quarantine or risk-based standard quarantine methods (P = 0.40). In addition, no transmissible pathogens of concern were introduced with acquired birds using either method. Implementation of a risk-based approach to animal transfers between zoos and aquariums may be an alternative method that does not pose a greater risk to animal morbidity or mortality while still protecting the collection from disease introduction.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales de Zoológico , Enfermedades de las Aves/prevención & control , Cuarentena/veterinaria , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/mortalidad , Enfermedades de las Aves/transmisión , Aves , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
18.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 78, 2021 Jan 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409648

RESUMEN

The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of different crossbreeds, viz., two-breed crosses including HN-50 (50% Hampshire × 50% Niang Megha) and HN-75 (75% Hampshire × 25% Niang Megha) and three-breed cross, HND (25% Hampshire × 25% Niang Megha × 50% Duroc) for suggesting suitable crossbred pigs with appropriate inheritance for subtropical Eastern Himalayan hilly climate. These crossbreed pigs were reared in standard management conditions in Nucleus Pig Breeding Farm of ICAR RC for NEH region. A total of 1995 records were collected which included data on production performance (n = 1466), reproductive performance (n = 428) and carcass traits (n = 101) from farm record book maintained over a period of 7 years. Productive performance included body weight, ADG and FCR at different stages of growth. The study revealed productive performance was highest in two-breed cross of pigs with 75% H inheritance (HN-75) and three-breed cross (HND) pigs. Reproductive performance included ages at puberty, first conception and first farrowing, along with inter-farrowing interval, pregnancy and farrowing rate as well as litter performance. The HN-75 was found to be having shorter inter-farrowing interval and higher pregnancy rate than other genetic groups. Regarding carcass traits, three-breed cross had a higher dressing percentage and less back-fat thickness than other crossbred pigs. Two breed crosses of pigs were found to be having a higher back-fat thickness than three-breed cross pig, and HN-75 had a better dressing percentage than HN-50. Thus, it was concluded that three-breed cross was recommended for lean meat production, and two-breed cross HN-75 was recommended for both breeding and fattening purposes for subtropical Eastern Himalayan hilly climate.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Reproducción , Sus scrofa/fisiología , Altitud , Animales , Femenino , Hibridación Genética , India , Masculino , Sus scrofa/genética , Clima Tropical
19.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 94, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415457

RESUMEN

The effect of pasture management on CH4 emissions was investigated from goats in a tropical climate. Two experiments were conducted in a "Tanzania Guinea grass" (Panicum maximum Jacq.) pasture to assess enteric CH4 production in a completely randomized design. Emissions from light, moderate, and heavy grazing intensities were analyzed in the first experiment, and variations between grazing days were explored in the second experiment. Grazing intensity was defined as 2.4, 1.6, and 0.8 post-grazing leaf area index. Pasture management employed intermittent grazing with variable stocking rate using Anglo Nubian female adult goats. SF6 tracer gas technique was used to measure CH4 production. Grazing intensity was not found to affect CH4 emissions per animal, dry matter forage intake (DMI), and gross energy (GE) intake. However, the second experiment showed that CH4 production was influenced by the grazing day. CH4 emissions were 18.1 g day-1, and the variables were 0.88 g kg-1 of metabolic weight, 17.45 g kg-1 of DMI, and 5.5% of GE. CH4 production increased linearly with the grazing day, possibly reflecting a reduction in forage quality. These findings suggest that the day of occupation in intermittent grazing has a greater effect on CH4 emissions than that by grazing intensity and that a single day grazing of Tanzania Guinea grass could mitigate CH4 emissions.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Cabras/metabolismo , Metano/metabolismo , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Brasil , Dieta/veterinaria , Femenino , Pradera
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(1): 92, 2021 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33415465

RESUMEN

West Nile fever (WNF) and Rift Valley fever (RVF) are emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases of veterinary and public health importance in Africa. Despite the existence of potential vectors and a wide range of hosts, the transmission of these diseases in domestic animals has not been well documented in the South Omo area of Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the sero-prevalence of IgG antibodies produced against West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) infections among cattle in the South Omo area. Between May and June 2019, blood samples were collected from 397 cattle and screened for IgG antibodies against WNV and RVFV infections using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The overall sero-prevalence of IgG antibody to WNV infection was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.67-6.88%), while it was 5.0% to RVFV infection (95% CI: 2.87-7.18). Compared to 1-3 years old cattle, those in the age group ≥ 7 years had significantly higher odds of being positive for WNV (AOR = 6.82; 95% CI: 1.72-26.99) and RVFV (AOR = 4.38; 95% CI: 1.08-17.88) infections. The occurrence of WNV and RVFV infections in cattle population in the present study area indicates the risk of transmission to humans. Strengthening the surveillance system and conducting further studies to identify active cases in domestic and wild animals as well as in humans is crucial to reduce the risk of possible outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/epidemiología , Virus de la Fiebre del Valle del Rift/fisiología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/veterinaria , Virus del Nilo Occidental/fisiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/virología , Etiopía/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Fiebre del Valle del Rift/virología , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/epidemiología , Fiebre del Nilo Occidental/virología
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