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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239156, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970742

RESUMEN

A study evaluating apparent digestibilities of protein and amino acids and their corresponding digestion rates in four small intestinal sites in broiler chickens was completed to further investigate dietary optimisation via synchronised nutrient digestion and absorption. A total of 288 male Ross 308 broiler chickens were offered semi-purified diets with eight protein-rich feedstuffs, including; blood meal (BM), plasma protein meal (PPM), cold pressed (CCM) and expeller-pressed (ECM) canola meal, high (SBM HCP) and low (SBM LCP) crude protein soybean meals, lupins and peas. Diets were iso-caloric, iso-nitrogenous and the test ingredient was the sole source of dietary nitrogen. Each diet was offered to 6 bioassay cages with 6 birds per cage from day 21 to 28 post hatch. On day 28, all birds were euthanized and digesta samples were collected from the proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, proximal ileum and distal ileum to determine apparent protein and amino acids digestibility coefficients, digestion rates and potential digestible protein and amino acids. Dietary protein source significantly influenced energy utilisation, nitrogen retention, apparent protein (N) digestibilities, digestion rates and potential digestible protein along the small intestine. Diets containing BM and SBM LCP exhibited the highest protein digestion rate and potential digestible protein, respectively. Digestibility coefficients and disappearance rates of the majority of amino acids in four sections of the small intestine were influenced by dietary protein source (P < 0.01) and blood meal had the fastest protein digestion rate. In general, jejunal amino acid and protein digestibilities were more variable in comparison to ileal digestibilities, and the differences in protein and amino acid disappearance rates were more pronounced between types of feedstuffs than sources of similar feedstuffs.


Asunto(s)
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Pollos/fisiología , Proteínas en la Dieta/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/administración & dosificación , Aminoácidos/análisis , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Proteínas en la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Proteínas en la Dieta/análisis , Íleon/metabolismo , Yeyuno/metabolismo , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238982, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32931518

RESUMEN

Over the past decade, pastoralists in Kunene Region, Namibia, have endured recurrent drought and flood events that have culminated in the loss of their primary form of livelihood-pastoralism. Most pastoralists are finding it difficult to sustain their livelihoods, and their communities have fallen into extreme poverty. Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) approaches are increasingly acknowledged as having the potential to enhance the adaptive capacity of vulnerable communities. The first step is to develop an understanding of how affected communities live, their perceptions of and how they respond to climate change and the biophysical impacts of climate change in their communities. This study aims to collect this information in order to explore the use of EbA to help pastoralists adapt to climate change. We examined an isolated pastoral Himba community, to understand their perceptions, experiences and understanding of climate change and its related impacts on their livelihoods. A nested mixed-methods approach using structured interviews was employed to address the study objectives. Interview results revealed that pastoralists lack scientific knowledge of climate change, and they have no access to climate change information. Though pastoralists have coping and adaptation approaches at the community level (such as making gardens, fishing, etc.), these have become ineffective as climatic uncertainty and change persist. Furthermore, pastoralists no longer get benefits from the environment, such as food and fodder. Despite this, there are currently no biodiversity interventions at the community level to address the impacts of climate change. Pastoralists have indicated their adaptation needs, particularly the provision of water supply to grow food. This is an open avenue to explore EbA approaches, specifically ecological restoration, while still addressing the need of the pastoralists. There is an urgent need to develop new practical adaptation strategies, including restoration options that will strengthen their adaptive capacity.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/tendencias , Aclimatación , Biodiversidad , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales/métodos , Sequías , Ecosistema , Inundaciones , Humanos , Conocimiento , Namibia
3.
Acta Vet Scand ; 62(1): 48, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Microbiological examination of lesions found in slaughtered animals during meat inspection is an important part of public health protection as such lesions may be due to zoonotic agents that can be transmitted by meat. Examination of inflamed lymph nodes also plays a particular important role, as lymphadenitis may reflect a more widespread infection. Such lesions in sheep are mainly caused by pyogenic bacteria but also mycobacteria are occasionally found. Meat inspection data from 2017 to 2018 from southern Poland, especially from the Malopolska region, indicate that purulent or caseous lymphadenitis involving the mediastinal and tracheobronchial lymph nodes (MTLNs) is a common finding. The primary aim of the current study was to determine the aetiology of these lesions. Furthermore, it was investigated how presence of lesions was correlated with age and grazing strategy of affected sheep. RESULTS: Post-mortem examination revealed purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of 49 out of 284 animals (17.3%). Subsequent microbiological examination revealed the presence of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis (34.7%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (34.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (8.2%), Enterococcus spp. (2.0%), Trueperella pyogenes (2.0%), and ß-haemolytic strains of Escherichia coli (2.0%). Mycobacterium spp. and Rhodococcus equi were not detected. In older sheep, the probability of the presence of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis was higher than in younger, and the risk was increasing by 1.5% with each month of life. Sheep grazing locally had 4.5-times greater risk of having purulent or caseous lymphadenitis than individuals summer grazing in the mountains. CONCLUSION: The most common aetiological agents of purulent or caseous lymphadenitis in the MTLNs of sheep in the Malopolska region were C. pseudotuberculosis and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Particular attention during post-mortem examination should be paid to the carcasses of older sheep and sheep grazing on permanent pastures, as they seem more prone to develop purulent or caseous lymphadenitis.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Inspección de Alimentos , Microbiología de Alimentos , Ganglios Linfáticos/patología , Linfadenitis/veterinaria , Carne/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Mataderos , Factores de Edad , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Infecciones Bacterianas/epidemiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/patología , Ganglios Linfáticos/microbiología , Linfadenitis/epidemiología , Linfadenitis/microbiología , Linfadenitis/patología , Polonia , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/microbiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/patología , Oveja Doméstica
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236143, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790679

RESUMEN

The focus of gastro-intestinal parasite control in the sheep industry is increasingly on finding a balance between maintaining productivity of the flock whilst minimising selection for anthelmintic resistance to preserve anthelmintic efficacy for the future. Periparturient ewes represent the major source of gastro-intestinal parasites for growing lambs and are therefore a priority for parasite control. This study examines the impact on ewe faecal egg counts (FECs), lamb FECs, lamb daily live weight gains (DLWGs) and pasture larval counts of treating groups of ewes two weeks prior to lambing with either, a long-acting moxidectin treatment, short-acting doramectin or control. Six groups of twenty ewes were allocated to individual paddocks, two groups allocated to each treatment, and weekly faecal sampling was performed throughout from the ewes and from six weeks after the start of lambing in the lambs. Treatment group was found to have a significant effect on both ewe FEC (p<0.001) and lamb FEC (p = 0.001) with the group receiving the long-acting anthelmintic having the lowest ewe and lamb FECs. There was no significant effect on the DLWGs of the lambs. Pasture larval counts at the end of the study period were lowest in the long-acting wormer treatment group. The use of long-acting moxidectin may be helpful as part of a parasite control programme by reducing the worm burdens of ewes and their lambs, decreasing the number of anthelmintic treatments required in that year and by reducing pasture contamination for those sheep which will graze the pasture in the next year. However, like all anthelmintics, its use should be judicious to avoid selection for resistance.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Antihelmínticos/administración & dosificación , Infecciones por Nematodos/veterinaria , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/tratamiento farmacológico , Ovinos/parasitología , Animales , Antihelmínticos/farmacocinética , Granjas , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Semivida , Ivermectina/administración & dosificación , Ivermectina/análogos & derivados , Ivermectina/farmacocinética , Larva , Macrólidos/administración & dosificación , Macrólidos/farmacocinética , Nematodos/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Nematodos/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Nematodos/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por Nematodos/parasitología , Recuento de Huevos de Parásitos/veterinaria , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología
5.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234610, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645008

RESUMEN

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the physical form of starter and inclusion of hay in the diet of preweaning dairy calves on performance, digestibility, ruminal development, and mRNA expression of genes involved in ruminal metabolism. Holstein × Gyr crossbred male calves (n = 38 1day old) were assigned to 3 treatments for 9 weeks: Control (n = 13; pellet starter with 4 mm diameter and 18 mm length and 4% steam-flaked corn), Ground (n = 12; same starter of the control but ground pass through a 4.0 mm sieve), or Ground plus 5% chopped Tifton hay GH (n = 13). All calves were fed 4 L/d of whole milk up to 63 d of age and were abruptly weaned at 64 d of age. Water and diets were offered ad libitum. Samples of ruminal contents were obtained from all animals at 30, 45, and 60 d of age to evaluate pH, ammonia nitrogen, and volatile fatty acids (VFA). At 55 d of age, an apparent digestibility assay was performed using 18 animals (n = 6/ treatment). At 65 d of age, the 18 animals were euthanized to evaluate the development of the digestive tract. The physical form of starter and the dietary inclusion of hay did not influence starter intake (Control 326 g/d, Ground 314 g/d and GH 365 g/d), daily weight gain (Control 541g/d, Ground 531g/d and GH 606g/d), feed efficiency, apparent nutrient digestibility, energy partitioning, nitrogen balance, ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen concentration, VFA, the development of the digestive tract and the mRNA expression of genes involved in AGV metabolism.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal/análisis , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Dieta/veterinaria , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Peso Corporal , Bovinos , Fibras de la Dieta/metabolismo , Masculino , Leche/metabolismo , Nutrientes , Rumen/metabolismo , Destete , Aumento de Peso , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13405, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613715

RESUMEN

This study investigated the effects of beak trimming on a local broiler breed. A total of 648 one-day-old birds were randomly allocated into three treatments: no trimming (NBT), infrared beak trimming (IRBT), and hot-blade beak trimming (HBBT). The performance, beak length, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality were inspected. The body weight (BW) from 7 to 35 days in the IRBT group was significantly lower than that in the NBT group, and the BW from 7 to 49 days was lower than that in the HBBT group (p < .05). Compared with untrimmed birds, birds in the IRBT group had lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) from 15 to 21 days, and higher heart percentage and L* value in the breast muscle. The upper beak length at 28 and 49 days of age were longest in untrimmed birds, intermediate in birds in the HBBT group, and shortest in the IRBT groups (p <.05). No evidence was found that HBBT caused changes in performance, behavior, carcass traits, organ percentages, and meat quality except for lower change in spleen percentage. Taken together, IRBT had more influence at inhibiting early BW, ADFI, and upper beak length than HBBT in the local broiler breed.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Pico , Conducta Animal , Pollos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Pollos/fisiología , Ingestión de Alimentos , Vivienda para Animales , Carne , Animales , Pico/anatomía & histología , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Calidad de los Alimentos , Masculino , Bazo/anatomía & histología
7.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13414, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618028

RESUMEN

The purpose of this paper was to utilize the decision trees technique to determine the factors responsible for high monthly milk yield in Polish Holstein-Friesian cows from 27 herds equipped with milking robots. The applied statistical method-the decision tree technique-showed that the most important factors responsible for monthly milk yield of dairy cows using robots were, in descending order of importance: milking frequency, lactation number, month of milking, and type of lying stall. At the same time, it has been ascertained that the highest monthly milk yield (47.24 kg) can be expected from multiparous cows kept in barns with a deep bedding that were milked more frequently than three times per day. On the other hand, the lowest milk production (13.56 kg) was observed among dairy cows milked less frequently than two times a day, with an average number of milked quarters lower than 3.97. The application of the decision trees technique allows a breeder to select appropriate levels of environmental factors and parameters that will help to ensure maximized milk production.


Asunto(s)
Bovinos/fisiología , Industria Lechera/instrumentación , Árboles de Decisión , Lactancia/fisiología , Leche , Robótica , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Industria Lechera/métodos , Ambiente , Femenino , Vivienda para Animales , Factores de Tiempo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233910, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502215

RESUMEN

Farmers face difficulties in redeeming their investment in larger litter sizes since this comes with larger litter heterogenicity, lower litter resilience and risk of higher mortality. Dietary oligosaccharides, given to the sow, proved beneficial for the offspring's performance. However, giving oligosaccharides to the suckling piglet is poorly explored. Therefore, this field trial studied the effect of dietary short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS; 1g/day; drenched) supplementation to low (LBW, lower quartile), normal (NBW, two intermediate quartiles) and high (HBW, upper quartile) birth weight piglets from birth until 7 or 21 days of age. Performance parameters, gut microbiome and short-chain fatty acids profile of feces and digesta were assessed at birth (d 0), d 7, weaning (d 21.5) and 2 weeks post-weaning (d 36.5). Additional parameters reflecting gut health (intestinal integrity and morphology, mucosal immune system) were analysed at d 36.5. Most parameters changed with age or differed with the piglet's birth weight. Drenching with scFOS increased body weight by 1 kg in NBW suckling piglets and reduced the post-weaning mortality rate by a 100%. No clear difference in the IgG level, the microbiota composition and fermentative activity between the treatment groups was observed. Additionnally, intestinal integrity, determined by measuring intestinal permeability and regenerative capacity, was similar between the treatment groups. Also, intestinal architecture (villus lenght, crypt depth) was not affected by scFOS supplementation. The density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes and the expression profiles (real-time qPCR) for immune system-related genes (IL-10, IL-1ß, IL-6, TNFα and IFNγ) were used to assess mucosal immunity. Only IFNγ expression, was upregulated in piglets that received scFOS for 7 days. The improved body weight and the reduced post-weaning mortality seen in piglets supplemented with scFOS support the view that scFOS positively impact piglet's health and resilience. However, the modes of action for these effects are not yet fully elucidated and its potential to improve other performance parameters needs further investigation.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Oligosacáridos/administración & dosificación , Sus scrofa/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/inmunología , Animales , Animales Lactantes/fisiología , Peso Corporal/fisiología , Heces/microbiología , Femenino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/inmunología , Inmunidad Mucosa , Mucosa Intestinal/inmunología , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiología , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Destete
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234477, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525934

RESUMEN

Soil aggregation is closely related to the soil organic carbon sequestration, both of which plays an important role in the stability of the soil carbon pool. However, the results of the impact of yak grazing intensity on the soil carbon process in alpine meadows have been unclear. With the marsh meadow as the research object in the Gahai wetland of the east Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, we analyzed the influence of different grazing intensities on the allocation of mass, stability and aggregate-associated organic carbon content of aggregates in the surface soil (0-20cm) of pasture by the Le Bissonnais method. The results showed that the mass of aggregates in the particle size class of > 0.2-mm was the highest among the pastures with different grazing intensities. Compared with the no grazing grassland, light grazing promoted the formation of macro aggregates in the particle size class of > 1-mm and improved the stability of soil aggregates. The degree of soil agglomerations and stability of aggregates decreased, and the macro aggregates gradually transformed into micro aggregates (< 0.05-mm class) in moderately and heavily grazed pastures. The > 2-mm and < 0.05-mm classes of particle size had a strong fixation effect on organic carbon. Light grazing promoted the accumulation of organic carbon in this particle size aggregate, and moderate and heavy grazing accelerated the decomposition of organic carbon. There was no significant difference in organic carbon in other particle size aggregates among different grasslands (P > 0.05). This result shows that light grazing, which is a reasonable yak grazing intensity in the study area, is conducive to the formation of a good soil structure in the area and improves the soil carbon sequestration capacity.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Secuestro de Carbono , Herbivoria , Suelo/química , Animales , Biomasa , Carbono/análisis , Bovinos/fisiología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Pradera , Tibet
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234438, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525945

RESUMEN

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STECs) contamination of produce, as a result of contact with ruminant fecal material, has been associated with serious foodborne illness. Bacteriophages (phages) that infect STECs have primarily been reported to be of cattle origin. However, they likely exist in other environments or in animals that share habitats with cattle, such as goats. To explore the presence and diversity of phages specific to STEC O157 and the top six non-O157 STECs in goat-associated environments, environmental samples consisting of feces (goat and cattle) and soil samples were collected monthly for six months from an organic produce farm. A variety of phages belonging to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, and Podoviridae families were isolated from all goat fecal and half of the soil samples. The most commonly isolated phages belonged to Myoviridae and were lytic against STEC O103. The isolated phages had different host ranges, but collectively, showed lytic activity against O157 and the top six non-O157 STEC strains excluding O121. Two non-O157 STECs (O174: H21 and O-antigen-negative: H18) were isolated from soil and cattle feces, respectively. Although prior studies have reported that goats shed STEC into the environment, the findings of the current study suggest that goat feces may also contain lytic STEC-specific phages. The phages of goat origin have the capacity to infect STECs implicated in causing foodborne outbreaks, making them potential candidates for biocontrol pending additional characterization steps. Further work is needed to determine if the addition of goats to the farm environment could potentially reduce the presence of STECs.


Asunto(s)
Bacteriófagos/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/virología , Cabras/microbiología , Escherichia coli Shiga-Toxigénica/virología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Bacteriófagos/genética , California , Bovinos/microbiología , ADN Viral/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/microbiología , Infecciones por Escherichia coli/prevención & control , Granjas , Alimentos Orgánicos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/microbiología , Enfermedades Transmitidas por los Alimentos/prevención & control , Microbiología del Suelo
11.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2815, 2020 06 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499537

RESUMEN

Understanding the genetic changes underlying phenotypic variation in sheep (Ovis aries) may facilitate our efforts towards further improvement. Here, we report the deep resequencing of 248 sheep including the wild ancestor (O. orientalis), landraces, and improved breeds. We explored the sheep variome and selection signatures. We detected genomic regions harboring genes associated with distinct morphological and agronomic traits, which may be past and potential future targets of domestication, breeding, and selection. Furthermore, we found non-synonymous mutations in a set of plausible candidate genes and significant differences in their allele frequency distributions across breeds. We identified PDGFD as a likely causal gene for fat deposition in the tails of sheep through transcriptome, RT-PCR, qPCR, and Western blot analyses. Our results provide insights into the demographic history of sheep and a valuable genomic resource for future genetic studies and improved genome-assisted breeding of sheep and other domestic animals.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales Salvajes/genética , Factor de Crecimiento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Oveja Doméstica/genética , Alelos , Animales , Cruzamiento , Femenino , Frecuencia de los Genes , Variación Genética , Genética , Genómica , Genotipo , Secuenciación de Nucleótidos de Alto Rendimiento , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento , Mutación , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Selección Genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Ovinos , Especificidad de la Especie , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
12.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233711, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492026

RESUMEN

Animals that experience painful procedures as neonates are more sensitive to pain later in life. We evaluated whether disbudding with a heated iron at 3 (n = 12), 35 (n = 9), or 56 (n = 20) d of age affected heifers' pain responses to vaccine injections at 11 mo of age. Heifers responded to the injection procedure with struggling and changes in eye temperature and heart rate variability compared to a sham procedure the day before, and still had a heightened response 6 d later, regardless of disbudding age. However, some heart rate variability indices suggested increased sympathetic dominance in heifers disbudded at 35 d, compared to the other 2 age groups, independent of the injection procedure. We also found that heifers disbudded at 3 or 35 d had a higher mean heart rate after the injection procedure compared to those disbudded at 56 d. We conclude that: (1) heifers find injections aversive; and (2) there is some evidence that disbudding age influences autonomic nervous system activity later in life.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Animal , Quemaduras/complicaciones , Dolor/etiología , Dolor/prevención & control , Analgésicos/farmacología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Animales Recién Nacidos , Bovinos , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Frecuencia Cardíaca , Cuernos/crecimiento & desarrollo , Inyecciones , Meloxicam/farmacología , Vacunación , Vacunas/administración & dosificación
13.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233926, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492042

RESUMEN

This study evaluated 53 primiparous cows (36.8±1.23 months old and 484±40.9 kg of body weight) performance tested (GrowSafe® System) from 22±5 to 190±13 days of lactation in order to obtain daily dry matter intake (DMI). The animals received a high-forage diet (forage-to-concentrate ratio of 90:10). Milk production of the cows was evaluated three times by mechanical milking and the energy-corrected milk yield (ECMY) was calculated. Energy status (through the indicators glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and ß-hydroxybutyrate), protein status (indicators albumin, urea, and creatinine), mineral status (indicators calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium), and hormonal status (indicators insulin and cortisol) were estimated four times throughout lactation. The residual feed intake (RFI) of cows was calculated considering DMI, average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic weight (BW0.75) obtained in early lactation (from 22±5 to 102±7 days), and the animals were classified as negative (most efficient) or positive RFI (least efficient). The RFI model explained 53% of the variation in DMI. The mean DMI, ADG, ECMY, and calf weight as a percentage of cow weight were 12.47±2.70 kg DM/day, 0.632±0.323 kg/day, 10.47±3.23 kg/day, and 36.6±5.39%, respectively. Negative RFI cows consumed 11.5% less DM than positive RFI cows, with performance and metabolic profile being similar to those of positive RFI cows, except for a lower milk protein content and higher blood cholesterol concentration. In conclusion, negative (most efficient) and positive RFI (least efficient) Nellore cows, fed an ad libitum high-forage diet, produced similar amounts of milk, fat and lactose and had similar subcutaneous fat thickness, weight, calf weight as a percentage of cow weight, and blood metabolite concentrations (except for cholesterol). Therefore, there are economic benefits to utilizing RFI in a cow herd since cattle had decreased DMI with similar overall performance, making them more profitable due to lower input costs.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiología , Conducta Alimentaria/fisiología , Lactancia/fisiología , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales , Animales , Femenino , Destete , Aumento de Peso/fisiología
14.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 379-384, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549568

RESUMEN

Pododermatitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in flamingos under human care; management and treatment options vary widely based on subjective assessment from veterinarians or animal care staff (ACS). The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement of pododermatitis severity scores assigned by veterinarians, ACS, and veterinary students when given a standardized rubric. Twenty-four greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus roseus) from a single zoo-managed flock were evaluated over time for pododermatitis. The individual feet of each bird were imaged, blinded, randomized, and scored for hyperkeratosis, fissures, nodules, papillomatous growth, and overall subjective score by seven evaluators (three veterinary specialists, two ACS, and two veterinary students) using a previously established flamingo pododermatitis scoring rubric. Interindividual reliability between evaluators and intraindividual agreement among specialists was determined. Reliable interindividual agreement was seen for fissures (Krippendorff's α [KA] = 0.807) between all seven evaluators, whereas the other individual lesions had very low reliability. Between the specialists, fissures had low interindividual reliability (KA = 0.782). Two specialists had strong intraindividual agreement for fissure score and one specialist had strong intraindividual agreement for overall subjective score (Cohen's κ [CK] 0.8-0.9, P < 0.01). Hyperkeratosis, papillomatous growth, nodules, and overall subjective score had low to moderate inter- and intraindividual reliability or agreement (KA, 0.06-0.49; CK, 0.02-0.8). In conclusion, the current scoring method for flamingo pododermatitis does not supply a reliable method for tracking foot health based on images alone across timepoints, except for fissures. Further analysis of the scoring system being used during a physical examination is warranted.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Enfermedades de las Aves/patología , Aves , Dermatitis/veterinaria , Enfermedades del Pie/veterinaria , Animales , Animales de Zoológico , Dermatitis/patología , Enfermedades del Pie/patología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
15.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234971, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584863

RESUMEN

Intensive pig management involves in a commercial setting the housing and implementation of certain procedures, such as castration and tail docking, which may be stressful for the animal. Good farming practices include the reduction of stress due to management processes, but assessing the level of stress perceived entirely through behavioural observations can be challenging. The monitoring stress-related physiological markers, like glucocorticoids (GC), can be an accurate alternative that would presumably be more objective. In order to avoid an additional stressor by taking blood, a non-invasive approach is advisable. We used an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test and the effect of transport to examine the suitability of different enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for monitoring adrenocortical function in domestic pigs using saliva and faeces as sample matrices. An assay measuring faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCMs) with a 3ß,11ß-diol group has proven suited to determine adrenocortical activity, showing an overall increase of 180% in fGCM concentrations related to ACTH administration and of 70% related to transport, respectively. A cortisol EIA was used to detect salivary glucocorticoid (sGC) concentrations, revealing a 1100% increase in sGC concentrations after ACTH administration. The stability of fGCM concentrations post-defecation was determined to assess possible changes in measured fGCM concentrations in unpreserved faecal material over time, with fGCM concentrations being relatively stable (maximal 12% change) under natural conditions for approximately two days after defecation. This implicates that untreated faecal material from pigs can be analysed for up to two days after collection without appreciable level of depreciation in fGCM concentrations. Being able to assess the physiological stress response of domestic pigs non-invasively can help to improve the well-being of commercially reared pigs.


Asunto(s)
Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/análisis , Bienestar del Animal , Hidrocortisona/análisis , Estrés Fisiológico , Sus scrofa , Corteza Suprarrenal/metabolismo , Hormona Adrenocorticotrópica/metabolismo , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiología , Heces/química , Femenino , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Saliva/química
16.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13395, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484296

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the effects of whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) on the growth and immunity of mouse pups in artificial rearing (AR) system. Mouse pups were reared in the AR system with artificial milk including 5% WPH (AR with WPH) or not (AR without WPH), and the remaining pups were reared by their mother (dam) for 14 days after birth. The body weight change and body weight gain rates in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those observed in the AR without WPH group and similar to those in the dam group. Moreover the feed and protein efficiencies in the AR with WPH group were significantly higher than those of the AR without WPH group. In addition, the supplement of WPH in the AR system was shown to significantly elevate the number of CD3+ CD8+ , B220+ CD19+ , IA/IE+ CD11c+ , and CD11b+ in the thymocyte and/or splenocyte, and the thymus weight. Furthermore, MALDI-TOF/MS analysis identified the amino acid sequences corresponding to some peptides, and indicated that VRTPEVDDE had the highest relative intensity among the peptides from tested WPH. Therefore, WPH would be required to not only promote growth, but also exert immunomodulatory activities in mouse pups in AR system.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/efectos de los fármacos , Dieta/veterinaria , Inmunomodulación/efectos de los fármacos , Ratones/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ratones/inmunología , Hidrolisados de Proteína/farmacología , Proteína de Suero de Leche , Animales , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Suplementos Dietéticos , Hidrolisados de Proteína/administración & dosificación , Bazo/metabolismo , Timocitos/metabolismo
17.
J Vet Sci ; 21(3): e41, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476315

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a serious problem in the laying hen industry worldwide. Currently, the foremost control method for D. gallinae is the implementation of integrated pest management, the effective application of which necessitates a precise monitoring method. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to propose an accurate monitoring method with a reliable protocol for caged-layer poultry farms, and to suggest an objective classification for assessing D. gallinae infestation on caged-layer poultry farms according to the number of mites collected using the developed monitoring method. METHODS: We compared the numbers of mites collected from corrugated cardboard traps, regarding with length of sampling periods, sampling sites on cage, and sampling positions in farm buildings. The study also compared the mean numbers of mites collected by the developed method with the infestation levels using by the conventional monitoring methods in 37 caged-layer farm buildings. RESULTS: The statistical validation provided the suitable monitoring method that the traps were installed for 2 days on feed boxes at 27 sampling points which included three vertical levels across nine equally divided zones of farms. Using this monitoring method, the D. gallinae infestation level can be assessed objectively on caged-layer poultry farms. Moreover, the method is more sensitive than the conventional method in detecting very small populations of mites. CONCLUSIONS: This method can be used to identify the initial stages of D. gallinae infestation in the caged-layer poultry farms, and therefore, will contribute to establishment of effective control strategies for this mite.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Pollos , Infestaciones por Ácaros/veterinaria , Ácaros/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Animales , Larva/crecimiento & desarrollo , Larva/fisiología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/epidemiología , Infestaciones por Ácaros/parasitología , Ácaros/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ninfa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Ninfa/fisiología , Óvulo/fisiología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/parasitología , República de Corea/epidemiología
18.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13394, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32538524

RESUMEN

Our hypothesis suggests an improvement in carcass and meat quality of pasture-finished animals by introducing concentrate feed into diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of protein-energy supplementation on carcass and meat characteristics of Texel lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures, and compare the results with those obtained from confined animals. Thirty 2-month-old intact lambs were divided into five treatments: pasture with mineral supplementation, pasture containing daily supplies of 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% BW protein-energy supplementation, and confinement (reference treatment). All animals were slaughtered 104 days after the beginning of the experiment. Lambs submitted to 1.6% and 2.4% BW supplementation presented similar characteristics to animals kept in confinement and were superior to animals treated with 0 or 0.8% of BW supplementation levels (p < .05). Increases of subcutaneous fat thickness were verified for 0.0, 0.8, 1.6, 2.4% BW, and confinement treatments, being respectively of 0.25, 0.74, 1.61, 1.69, and 1.98. Conversely, treatments had no influence on meat physical-chemical characteristics, being all considered moderately soft, juicy (tender), and with mild tastes and odors. Lambs raised on Brachiaria pastures have high-quality meat, but more protein-energy supplementation is needed to be an alternative for the feedlots for young animals.


Asunto(s)
Alimentación Animal , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales de los Animales/fisiología , Composición Corporal , Constitución Corporal , Brachiaria , Dieta/veterinaria , Calidad de los Alimentos , Herbivoria , Carne , Ovinos/metabolismo , Ovinos/fisiología , Animales , Suplementos Dietéticos , Ácidos Grasos/metabolismo
19.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 375-383, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451031

RESUMEN

Confined cow-calf operations are a relatively new production model in the United States. As with any new technology, there will be a learning curve for producers and veterinarians as we attempt to optimize animal health and profitability. It is critical that cattle are managed properly in these units if disease issues are to be minimized. Allowing for adequate space in the pen and at the feed bunk is a critical factor affecting animal welfare, nutritional management, and disease transmission.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Complejo Respiratorio Bovino/etiología , Vivienda para Animales/normas , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/normas , Bienestar del Animal , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Embarazo , Estados Unidos
20.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 36(2): 497-508, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32451038

RESUMEN

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a persistent negative economic impact on beef and dairy industries and the inability to show any progress in controlling BRD is a source of increasing frustration among animal health professionals and the industry. The complex economic structure of the cattle industry leads to market failures in which cow-calf producers do not have sufficient economic incentive to invest in improved BRD control. This leads to higher costs for stocker and feedlot sectors. An industry-wide comprehensive effort is needed to coordinate and motivate enhanced BRD control focusing on producing healthy calves with less morbidity rather than treatment.


Asunto(s)
Crianza de Animales Domésticos/economía , Complejo Respiratorio Bovino/economía , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Complejo Respiratorio Bovino/prevención & control , Bovinos , Industria Lechera/economía , Industria Lechera/métodos , Femenino , Mercadotecnía/economía , Carne Roja/economía , Enfermedades Respiratorias
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