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1.
Science ; 376(6593): 567-568, 2022 05 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35511974

RESUMEN

As prosecutors evaluate complaints from animal rights groups, labs try to reduce surplus.


Asunto(s)
Derechos del Animal , Crimen , Animales , Alemania
2.
J Health Econ ; 83: 102623, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35500418

RESUMEN

We document the effect of violent media on crime. Specifically, we evaluate the effects of The Ultimate Fighter, a hit TV show that features fighters competing in violent mixed martial arts and which brought Ultimate Fighting Championship into the mainstream. We estimate the effect of exposure to the show's earliest episodes using panel data from police agencies across the United States and a strategy that uses network ratings prior to the show's premier as an instrumental variable. We show that this exposure significantly reduced crime: these effects are particularly evident for assault, began in the month the show premiered, and persisted for many years. These estimates do not reflect systematic differences across geographic areas in their trends in crime rates prior to 2005. To complement our main results, we also investigate the effects of "UFC Main Events," which air in bars and on Pay-Per-View. This analysis additionally suggests reductions in violence caused by viewership.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia , Crimen , Humanos , Estados Unidos
3.
Sci Justice ; 62(3): 310-326, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598924

RESUMEN

Forensic investigation involves gathering the information necessary to understand the criminal events as well as linking objects or individuals to an item, location or other individual(s) for investigative purposes. For years techniques such as presumptive chemical tests, DNA profiling or fingermark analysis have been of great value to this process. However, these techniques have their limitations, whether it is a lack of confidence in the results obtained due to cross-reactivity, subjectivity and low sensitivity; or because they are dependent on holding reference samples in a pre-existing database. There is currently a need to devise new ways to gather as much information as possible from a single trace, particularly from biological traces commonly encountered in forensic casework. This review outlines the most recent advancements in the forensic analysis of biological fluids, fingermarks and hair. Special emphasis is placed on analytical methods that can expand the information obtained from the trace beyond what is achieved in the usual practices. Special attention is paid to those methods that accurately determine the nature of the sample, as well as how long it has been at the crime scene, along with individualising information regarding the donor source of the trace.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Dermatoglifia del ADN , Crimen , Humanos
4.
Sci Justice ; 62(3): 327-335, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598925

RESUMEN

Cosmetic smears are a form of trace evidence that can link the crime scene, suspects, and victims. Foundation and lipstick are the most common sources of cosmetics that can easily smear, with most current research focused on the evidential analysis of lipsticks. This research aims to create a database of cosmetic foundations on different materials and to access the robustness of using Near-infrared with chemometrics as a non-destructive technique to identify unknown samples collected from a crime scene. Small amounts of six shades of three brands of foundations were smeared on clothing materials, which were then analysed with a combination of Near-infrared with chemometric analysis. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce data dimensionality and explore potential patterns in sample separation and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) was utilised to assign unknown samples to one of the established classes. The selected techniques proved to be promising for database construction and as a preliminary method of analysis, with 93% of the spectra being correctly classified. Notably, darker foundation shades were less likely to be correctly classified (90% classified correctly) compared to lighter ones (96.7% classified correctly). This could not be improved with Standard Normal Variate (SNV) data pre-treatment or selecting specific NIR regions. This finding is of particular importance; according to the Crime Survey for England and Wales (year ending March 2020) police recorded sexual offences demonstrated that those in Mixed and Black or Black British ethnic groups were significantly more likely to be a victim of sexual assault compared to White, Asian or Other ethnic groups. It is, therefore, crucial to add a wide range of foundation shades, particularly of darker tones, to the future database.


Asunto(s)
Cosméticos , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta , Cosméticos/análisis , Cosméticos/química , Crimen , Análisis Discriminante , Humanos , Análisis de Componente Principal , Espectroscopía Infrarroja Corta/métodos
5.
Sci Justice ; 62(3): 385-398, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35598931

RESUMEN

Data from mobile phones are regularly used in the investigation of crime and court proceedings. Previously published research has primarily addressed technical issues or provided operational manuals for using forensic science evidence, rather than analysing human factors and the implementation of forensic tools in investigation settings. Moreover, previous research has focused almost entirely on western countries, and there is a dearth of research into the uses of forensic evidence in China. In this study, a review was carried out of court sentencing documents referring to mobile phone evidence in China over the period 2013-2018. Automated content analysis was used to identify the specific evidence types utilised and the sentencing outcome for each case. Results show that mobile phone evidence was used in 3.3% of criminal proceedings. Among various data types mentioned in criminal proceedings, call records sustained as the most frequently used type of data. After which, instant messaging tools (e.g. WeChat) are an increasing proportion of all mobile phone evidence, from 1% in 2015 to 25% in 2018. For cases that utilised mobile phone data, the analysis of instant messaging and online transaction tools is routine, with little variation in the use of each application (WeChat, Alipay, QQ) for investigations of different types of crime. However, in the majority of criminal cases, mobile phone data function as subsidiary evidence and posed limited impacts on verdict reached. The current findings indicate that a large amount of mobile phone evidence was transformed into other evidence formats or filtered out directly before court proceedings.


Asunto(s)
Teléfono Celular , Criminales , Envío de Mensajes de Texto , China , Crimen , Humanos
6.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 788, 2022 04 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440076

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This paper investigates trends in rape-related crimes against women and girls reported in the Indian administrative data from 2001 to 2018 to assess the burden of crime, describe sub-national variations, and highlight data gaps to address sexual violence effectively in India. METHODS: Data on five rape-related crimes were extracted from the annual reports of National Crimes Record Bureau (NCRB), and included assault with the intent to outrage modesty of woman, rape, insult to the modesty of women, attempt to commit rape, and murder with rape/gang-rape. Rates for all categories combined, and for each crime were estimated for women and girls for India and its states. Trends for type of offender for rape, mean number of people arrested, and legal status of the cases was also assessed. RESULTS: The rate of all rape-related crime increased from 11.6 in 2001 to 19.8 in 2018 per 100,000 women and girls. Most of the 70.7% increase in rate between 2001 and 2018 was post 2012 following a gang-rape and murder case in India's capital. The largest proportion of crimes was recorded as assault with the intent to outrage modesty of the woman, followed by rape. The cited offender in rape cases was for the majority a close known person (44·3%) or other known person (43·1%). By the end of 2018, only 9·6% of the cases had completed trials, with acquittals in 73% cases. CONCLUSIONS: The wide variations in the yearly crime rates at state-level highlighted significant issues in data quality including under-reporting, non-comparability, possible bias in data reporting in NCRB, definition of rape-related crime in India, and access in reporting of crimes. Addressing barriers to reporting, improving quality and scope of administrative data recorded on sexual violence is urgently needed for India to meet SDG targets of eliminating all forms of violence against women and girls.


Asunto(s)
Peste , Violación , Delitos Sexuales , Crimen , Femenino , Homicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6858, 2022 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35477955

RESUMEN

Corruption crimes demand highly coordinated actions among criminal agents to succeed. But research dedicated to corruption networks is still in its infancy and indeed little is known about the properties of these networks. Here we present a comprehensive investigation of corruption networks related to political scandals in Spain and Brazil over nearly three decades. We show that corruption networks of both countries share universal structural and dynamical properties, including similar degree distributions, clustering and assortativity coefficients, modular structure, and a growth process that is marked by the coalescence of network components due to a few recidivist criminals. We propose a simple model that not only reproduces these empirical properties but reveals also that corruption networks operate near a critical recidivism rate below which the network is entirely fragmented and above which it is overly connected. Our research thus indicates that actions focused on decreasing corruption recidivism may substantially mitigate this type of organized crime.


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Criminales , Brasil , Análisis por Conglomerados , Humanos , España
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 377(1851): 20210153, 2022 05 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369755

RESUMEN

Both inter- and intragroup interactions can be important influences on behaviour, yet to date most research focuses on intragroup interactions. Here, we describe a hitherto relatively unknown behaviour that results from intergroup interaction in the cooperative breeding pied babbler: kidnapping. Kidnapping can result in the permanent removal of young from their natal group. Since raising young requires energetic investment and abductees are usually unrelated to their kidnappers, there appears no apparent evolutionary advantage to kidnapping. However, kidnapping may be beneficial in species where group size is a critically limiting factor (e.g. for reproductive success or territory defence). We found kidnapping was a highly predictable event in pied babblers: primarily groups that fail to raise their own young kidnap the young of others, and we show this to be the theoretical expectation in a model that predicts kidnapping to be facultative, only occurring in those cases where an additional group member has sufficient positive impact on group survival to compensate for the increase in reproductive competition. In babblers, groups that failed to raise young were also more likely to accept extragroup adults (hereafter rovers). Groups that fail to breed may either (i) kidnap intergroup young or (ii) accept rovers as an alternative strategy to maintain or increase group size. This article is part of the theme issue 'Intergroup conflict across taxa'.


Asunto(s)
Passeriformes , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Crimen , Reproducción
9.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 88: 102351, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427851

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP) has provided better understanding of various phenotypic features (e.g., height, skin colour, eye colour, structure and shape of scalp hair, baldness, facial features etc.) and associated genetic variations. The current study was designed to investigate the genetic variants and their potential contribution towards accurate phenotype prediction systems. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) based DNA typing method can be uninformative or with little potential to solve a crime in absence of suspect DNA profile in the database. Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), prediction of externally visible characteristics (EVCs) from the crime scene DNA would certainly provide a new dimension to personal identification. The aim of this review paper is to highlight the significance and future prospects of FDP. RESULTS: A comprehensive literature review was conducted using PubMed and similar e-databases with keywords from two main components-phenotype and the associated genetic variants. To ensure a thorough literature review, searches were extended using the snowballing technique from reference lists. Key data extracted were type of study, sample characteristics (sample size, age, geographical location and ancestry), details of SNPs studied and prediction accuracies. CONCLUSION: Phenotyping tools based on genotyping and statistical analysis for the prediction of human pigmentation are propitious in solving cold cases. This indicates the inevitability of future studies for the identification of new genetic markers for accurate prediction of phenotype or EVCs via genome-wide association study (GWAS) in diverse global populations.


Asunto(s)
Genética Forense , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Crimen , ADN/análisis , Genética Forense/métodos , Humanos , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple
10.
Soc Sci Res ; 104: 102682, 2022 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400393

RESUMEN

Prior research has noted that women have played an important role in both organized hate groups and organized racial violence. Most hate crimes, however, are not committed by hate groups and very little research has examined the role of women in more common, otherwise unorganized, forms of bias-motivated violence. This omission has resulted in a disconnect between our understanding of women's involvement in organized bigotry relative to more common forms of bias-motivated violence. Following this, the current research explicitly considers the role of women in hate-motivated violence using data from the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS), 2010-2016. Results demonstrate that, while women are indeed less likely to be involved in bias-motivated violence relative to men, there is significant variation in this pattern, such that women are more likely to be involved in racially motivated violence than other offenses, but especially unlikely to be involved in violence motivated by sexual orientation bias. Further, results from multinomial logistic regression analyses indicate significant differences in incident characteristics according to both female involvement and bias motivation, suggesting that the nature of violence varies by both gender and bias motivation. The results suggest the importance of considering gendered differences in hate crime offending.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Odio , Crimen , Femenino , Identidad de Género , Humanos , Masculino , Violencia
11.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 264, 2022 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418045

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the recidivism of mentally disordered offenders after discharge from forensic psychiatric services. This is problematic because such knowledge could (i) help professionals who encounter this group to better plan interventions to prevent recidivism, (ii) clarify the rates of recidivism post-discharge from forensic psychiatric care and (iii) further develop instruments for specific risk assessment. The aim of this study was to investigate the new crimes of mentally disordered offenders who had been reconvicted after discharge from forensic psychiatric care. METHODS: Included in this study were all individuals (n = 1142) who had been discharged from forensic psychiatric care in Sweden during 2009-2018, were included in the Swedish National Forensic Psychiatric Register, and had been reconvicted in a criminal court within the follow-up period of 2009-2018 (n = 157, 14% of the population). The follow-up times of the discharged patients within the period varied from 4 to 3644 days, (m = 1697, Md = 1685). Retrospective registry data along with coded data from criminal court judgments (n = 210) were used to create a database. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and descriptive statistical analysis was performed. RESULTS: 75% of included individuals were reconvicted for at least one violent crime, but only 9 individuals were reconvicted for a serious violent crime, which can be compared to the 44 individuals with serious violent index crimes. The most common crime was "Other violent". The most common sentence was probation. The offender's most common relationship to the victim was having no known relationship, followed by the victim being a person of authority. The most common circumstance of the crime leading to the reconviction was that it occurred without apparent provocation; other common circumstances were related to the exercise of public authority. The most common crime scene was a public place. CONCLUSIONS: Even though the reconvictions of this group included many violent crimes, there were very few serious violent crimes. The findings that the victims of the crimes of mentally disordered offenders are most commonly either unknown to the perpetrator or persons of authority, and that the crimes are often perpetrated without apparent provocation or reason, are important information for all professionals who encounter this group and should be taken into consideration to assess risk more accurately.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Mentales , Cuidados Posteriores , Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos
12.
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 22(1): 169, 2022 03 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35255853

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Heroin-assisted treatment has proven effective in reducing criminal offenses in opioid dependent individuals. Few studies attempted to explain the observed crime reduction and the reasons why these patients keep offending and getting incarcerated have to date not been explored. METHODS: Patients with a history of incarcerations during the time of participating in heroin-assisted treatment (n = 22) were invited to a semi-structured, narrative interview. Findings were evaluated with Mayring's qualitative content analysis framework. Additionally, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test and the multiple-choice vocabulary intelligence test used to assess cognitive impairment and premorbid intelligence levels. RESULTS: Three main categories emerged in patients' narratives on their incarcerations: cocaine use, impaired functioning, and financial constraints. Lifetime prevalence of cocaine use disorder was 95.5% and their cocaine use often led to patients getting incarcerated. Impaired functioning mainly constituted the inability to receive and open mail. Financial constraints led to incarcerations in lieu of payment in 16 participants (72.7%). Categories overlapped notably and often occurred in close temporal proximity. A fourth category on the likelihood of getting incarcerated again in the future was inhomogeneous and ranged from the strong conviction to complete rejection of the scenario. Average premorbid intelligence levels were found, whereas the cognitive assessment suggested severe cognitive impairment in our sample. CONCLUSION: Participants mainly reported to have committed minor offenses and not being able to pay for resulting fines. The resulting prison sentences are an unconvincing practice from a medical and economic perspective alike. Public expenditure and the interruptions of the continuum of care could be reduced by legislatively protecting these marginalised patients.


Asunto(s)
Cocaína , Prisioneros , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Crimen , Heroína , Humanos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología
14.
Nature ; 603(7900): 297-301, 2022 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35236986

RESUMEN

Social ties often seem symmetric, but they need not be1-5. For example, a person might know a stranger better than the stranger knows them. We explored whether people overlook these asymmetries and what consequences that might have for people's perceptions and actions. Here we show that when people know more about others, they think others know more about them. Across nine laboratory experiments, when participants learned more about a stranger, they felt as if the stranger also knew them better, and they acted as if the stranger was more attuned to their actions. As a result, participants were more honest around known strangers. We tested this further with a field experiment in New York City, in which we provided residents with mundane information about neighbourhood police officers. We found that the intervention shifted residents' perceptions of officers' knowledge of illegal activity, and it may even have reduced crime. It appears that our sense of anonymity depends not only on what people know about us but also on what we know about them.


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Policia , Interacción Social , Crimen/prevención & control , Emociones , Humanos , Ciudad de Nueva York , Características de la Residencia , Autoimagen
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(13): e2117203119, 2022 03 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35312366

RESUMEN

SignificancePublic databases are an important resource for machine learning research, but their growing availability sometimes leads to "off-label" usage, where data published for one task are used for another. This work reveals that such off-label usage could lead to biased, overly optimistic results of machine-learning algorithms. The underlying cause is that public data are processed with hidden processing pipelines that alter the data features. Here we study three well-known algorithms developed for image reconstruction from magnetic resonance imaging measurements and show they could produce biased results with up to 48% artificial improvement when applied to public databases. We relate to the publication of such results as implicit "data crimes" to raise community awareness of this growing big data problem.


Asunto(s)
Algoritmos , Aprendizaje Automático , Sesgo , Crimen , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistido por Computador
16.
Am J Public Health ; 112(5): 700-702, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324267
17.
Lancet ; 399(10334): 1466-1467, 2022 04 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339229
19.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 77(2): 131-157, 2022 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35277716

RESUMEN

This article examines how early twentieth-century crime of passion trials constructed medical insanity and criminal responsibility by litigating varied interpretations of masculine decision making. Specifically, it looks at how defense lawyers used and applied psychiatric knowledge to their clients' benefit and how psychiatrists, in turn, (re)asserted control over that knowledge by condemning its misuse. The way that these medico-legal narratives played out in the courtroom during crime of passion trials, and in the public discourses that surrounded them, ultimately brought a smoldering competition between distinct understandings of modern masculinity into sharp focus.


Asunto(s)
Defensa por Insania , Psiquiatría , Brasil , Crimen/historia , Crimen/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense/historia , Humanos , Defensa por Insania/historia , Masculino
20.
Int J Drug Policy ; 103: 103647, 2022 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35290926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The expansion of online drugs markets has widened opportunities to purchase drugs, for both personal use and wider distribution, thus creating new potential public health risks. However, there is little research on the motivation of online drug purchasers or the level of risk that such transactions pose to different communities. Greater insights into the intended use of drug parcels arriving by post, and how this varies across communities could help law enforcement and health services develop more effective policies and better allocate resources to reduce drug-related harms. METHODS: We use Scottish administrative data about illegal drug parcels seized by the UK Border Force to create a new classification of 'buyer motivation' (based on type of drug, estimated number of doses purchased, and patterns of drug consumption). We identify three potential types of buyer motivation: personal consumption, heavy use or social dealing, and wholesale dealing; and examine the extent to which each type is associated with a range of drug-related community risk factors, thereby identifying potential variation in levels of public health risk. RESULTS: Communities to which drug parcels were destined differed significantly from the Scottish average across a range of factors; however, this varied by buyer motivation. Parcels thought to be purchased for heavy use or social dealing appeared to pose a greater risk within communities characterised by general deprivation, but especially health-related deprivation, with a high youth population but low unemployment rates; whereas those purchased for wholesale dealing appear most likely to pose a risk in communities with higher crime and unemployment rates. CONCLUSIONS: Administrative data about intercepted drug parcels could be helpful in classifying the motivation of online drug purchasers and monitoring patterns of variation in potential public health risks at a community level. This could support law enforcement and public health agencies to develop more targeted drug-harm reduction strategies.


Asunto(s)
Drogas Ilícitas , Motivación , Adolescente , Crimen , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Factores de Riesgo
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