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1.
Forensic Sci Rev ; 33(1): 37-65, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518514

RESUMEN

Heinous crimes and brutalities have decimated humanity throughout human history. In modern times, forensic anthropologists have helped to reconstruct the nature and mechanism, intent and purpose, manner, and circumstances of various inhumane instances of genocides and violent crimes. Anthropologists endeavor to bring closure and comfort to bereaved families by disseminating information about the location, exhumation, and identification of the remains of victims. The methodological armamentarium and scope of forensic anthropology have developed much beyond the realms of the traditional biological profiling casework to the scenarios of humanitarian concerns. Humanitarian forensics focuses on the excavation and identification of the remains of victims and facilitates the dignified burial of the deceased. This review article highlights and exemplifies the significant contributions of forensic anthropological expertise in revealing various crimes against humanity and human rights violations committed in the recent past as well as in some contemporary cases reported from around the globe. It includes cases such as Guatemalan, Cambodian, and Bosnian genocides, as well as other mass killings that illustrate the efficacy of anthropological evidence in reconstructing the nature, mechanism, and circumstances related to these incidences. Special emphasis is given to the Ajnala (India) skeletal remains excavated from an abandoned well - remains reportedly belonging to 282 Indian soldiers killed in 1857 whose corpses were dumped into the said disused well by sanitary workers - indicating the importance of forensic anthropology in authenticating the occurrence of events as mentioned in historical records. Analysis of different case histories reveals that forensic anthropologists have played a significant role in recovery and identification of the victims of the many war crimes, genocides, racial conflicts, and violent cruelties committed against mankind in modern history.


Asunto(s)
Autopsia/historia , Víctimas de Crimen/historia , Crimen , Antropología Forense/historia , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Incidentes con Víctimas en Masa/historia , Restos Mortales , Exhumación , Ciencias Forenses , Historia del Siglo XVIII , Historia del Siglo XIX , Derechos Humanos , Humanos , India
3.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 48: 101832, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373948

RESUMEN

Along with rising levels of the infection around the world, the state of emergency prompted by the COVID-19 pandemic has also been having a heavy legal impact. The situation is posing important criminal challenges, as well as an ocean of social and public health issues around the world. It has not only directly affected constitutionally-guaranteed rights and individual freedoms, but also brought to the fore certain types of criminal offence that had previously been of little practical importance, such as the crime of 'maliciously or unintentionally causing an epidemic'. Different countries and states have introduced policies to manage the emergency at different times and in different ways. The measures adopted have been the object of much criticism, also raising questions of constitutional legitimacy in countries like Italy. The present contribution begins with a brief outline of the different international scenarios. Then we examine some of the medicolegal aspects of criminal offences previously envisaged and newly introduced since the arrival of the pandemic. We suggest the need for a sort of 'code of public health laws for the time of coronavirus', that could also be applied to other public health emergencies, pandemic or otherwise. The idea is to give operators in the sector and the general population the opportunity to identify clear and simple rules to follow in the current complex global situation. We need a new, appropriate interpretation of the 'boundaries' of our individual rights in relation to the need to safeguard the wider community and its more vulnerable members.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Derechos Civiles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Regulación Gubernamental , Política de Salud/legislación & jurisprudencia , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , Responsabilidad Legal , Pandemias
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243226, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326467

RESUMEN

Body-worn video is increasingly relied upon in the criminal justice system, however it is unclear how viewing chest-mounted video may affect a police officer's statement about an event. In the present study, we asked whether reviewing footage from an experienced event could shape an individual's statement, and if so, whether reporting before reviewing may preserve an officer's original experience. Student participants (n = 97) were equipped with chest-mounted cameras as they viewed a simulated theft in virtual reality. One week later, half of the participants recalled the event in an initial statement while the other half did not. Participants then viewed either their body-worn video or a control video. Finally, participants provided their statement (no initial statement condition) or were given the opportunity to amend their original account (initial statement condition). Results revealed that viewing body-worn video enhanced the completeness and accuracy of individuals' free recall statements. However, whilst reviewing footage enabled individuals to exclude errors they had written in their initial statements, they also excluded true details that were uncorroborated by the camera footage (i.e., details which individuals experienced, but that their camera did not record). Such camera conformity is discussed in light of the debate on when an officer should access their body-worn video during an investigation and the influence of post-event information on memory.


Asunto(s)
Recuerdo Mental , Policia , Grabación en Video , Adulto , Crimen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Memoria , Robo , Adulto Joven
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(51): e23552, 2020 Dec 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33371081

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: Maintaining a physically active life is an important determinant of overall health and psychosocial wellbeing among adults. Physical exercise behavior can be influenced by various social and environmental circumstances including neighborhood safety. Using data from South Africa Quality of life Survey 2015/16, this study aimed to assess the hypothesis that lack of perceived neighborhood safety (PNS) can reduce the likelihood of engaging in physical exercise (PE). The participants were 30,002 men and women aged 18 years and above. The association between self-reported PE behavior and neighborhood safety were assessed by multivariable regression method while adjusting for potentially confounding factors. Less than a quarter (23.41%) of the participants reported taking exercise on daily basis whereas 27.90% reported never taking any. Respectively 6.0% and 38.1% of the participants reported feeling very unsafe walking in the neighborhood during day and night. In regression analysis, both the pooled and stratified models indicated that lack of PNS was inversely associated with regular PE. Lack of PNS (bit unsafe) during day was associated with lower odds of PE both among men (OR = 0.776, P < .001) and women (OR = 0.874, P < .001). The negative association between lack of PNS and PE during day was significant among those living with disability (OR = 0.758, P < .001). Further analysis showed that the negative association between lack of PNS with regular PE during day was significant in Johannesburg (OR = 0.800, P < .001), Tshwane (OR = 0.735, P < .001) and Emfuleni (OR = 0.619, P < .001) only, while that during night was significant in Johannesburg (OR = 0.737, P < .001), Ekurhuleni (OR = 0.673, P < .001), Emfuleni (OR = 0.418, P < .001), Lesedi (OR = 0.385, P < .001), Mogale City (OR = 0.693, P < .001), and Randfontein (OR = 0.565, P < .001). Overall, the findings highlight a significantly inverse association between lack of PNS and PE behavior. In light of the current findings, it is recommended that PE promotion programs pay special attention on population living in the neighborhoods fraught with crime concerns.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Grupos Étnicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Calidad de Vida , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Sudáfrica , Caminata , Adulto Joven
6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352648

RESUMEN

Little is known about how the neighborhood social environment (e.g., safety, crime, traffic) impacts child physical activity. We examine the mechanism by which the neighborhood social environment is associated with child physical activity, moderated by individual-level cultural factors (e.g., language at home, immigrant generation) and mediated by neighborhood physical activity-related social norms (e.g., seeing walkers in the neighborhood). Data included 2749 non-Hispanic White and Hispanic children from the Healthy Communities Study. Multilevel regression was performed. The neighborhood social environment was not associated with physical activity in the full sample. However, Hispanic children speaking both English and Spanish and first- or second-generation Hispanic children engaged in more physical activity when the quality of the neighborhood social environment was higher (b = 1.60, p < 0.001 for Hispanic children speaking English and Spanish; b = 2.03, p < 0.01 for first-generation Hispanic children; b = 1.29, p < 0.01 for second-generation Hispanic children). Neighborhood physical activity-related social norms mediated the association between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among Hispanic children speaking English and Spanish (b = 0.33, p < 0.001) and second-generation Hispanic children (b = 0.40, p < 0.001). Findings suggest heterogeneity in how neighborhood social environments impact physical activity by cultural factors. Health promotion programs may need to enhance neighborhood social environments to increase Hispanic children's physical activity.


Asunto(s)
Características Culturales , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes/psicología , Ejercicio Físico , Hispanoamericanos/psicología , Características de la Residencia , Medio Social , Adolescente , Niño , Preescolar , Crimen , Ejercicio Físico/fisiología , Ejercicio Físico/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Normas Sociales
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375538

RESUMEN

The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance pose a threat to public health globally. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes can disseminate among environments, animals and humans. Therefore, investigation into potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant bacteria is of great importance to the understanding of putative transmission routes of resistant bacteria and resistance genes. This study aimed to report the occurrence of Escherichia coli harboring the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing gene (blaKPC) in Psittaciformes rescued from wildlife trafficking in Paraíba State, Brazil. Cloacal swabs were collected from thirty birds and cultured by conventional microbiology using MacConkey and serum tryptone glucose glycerol (STGG) media supplemented with selective antimicrobials. E. coli isolates (n = 43) were identified by phenotypic tests and confirmed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles were determined by means of Kirby-Bauer test. All isolates were further screened for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, and putative genes encoding ESBL were investigated by PCR. Additionally, blaKPC-harboring strains were genotyped by REP-PCR. A total of 43 E. coli phenotypically resistant isolates were recovered. The highest resistance rate was observed against ciprofloxacin. Among the resistance genes, only blaKPC was found in seven different birds from three species. According to the genotyping, these seven isolates belonged to four different strains. To date, this is the first report on the occurrence of KPC-E. coli in Psittaciformes rescued from trafficking in Northeastern Brazil. Due to the high clinical importance of KPC-E. coli, our findings suggest that wild animals in captivity at wildlife rescue centers can play a role as reservoirs of bacteria that are resistance to Critically Important antimicrobials in human medicine.


Asunto(s)
Proteínas Bacterianas/genética , Escherichia coli , Psittaciformes/microbiología , beta-Lactamasas/genética , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Brasil/epidemiología , Crimen , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana Múltiple , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Klebsiella pneumoniae/enzimología , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana
8.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 103-118, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144423

RESUMEN

Resumen El presente artículo desarrolla un análisis descriptivo cuantitativo sobre el desempeño del sistema a través del cual el Gobierno Colombiano implementa su política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal y penitenciario. Este estudio no se realiza desde el punto de vista del derecho, sino desde la perspectiva de la evaluación de su efectividad, entendiendo la criminalidad como un problema social. El impacto de este artículo radica en la posibilidad de entender y abordar el fenómeno de la criminalidad desde un enfoque preventivo. Esto, al identificar un desequilibrio dinámico de los componentes del sistema que refuerza el problema, evidenciando deficiencias en la finalidad de la política criminal como política pública debería propender por la prevención del crimen y por el contrario refuerza un ciclo vicioso que incrementa impunidad. Este ciclo ha desgastado operativamente al Estado y ha generado un alto costo como resultado de los altos índices de criminalidad.


Abstract This article performs a descriptive, quantitative analysis of the performance of the system through which the Colombian Government implements its criminal public policy: judicial, criminal justice and penitentiary systems. This study is not performed from the point of view of law, but from a perspective evaluating its effectiveness, considering crime a social issue. This article impacts the possibility of understanding and facing the phenomenon of crime from a preventive approach. This, upon identifying a dynamic imbalance of the system's components, which strengthens the problem, shows deficiencies in the purpose of criminal policy as a public policy that promotes prevention and emphasizes a vicious cycle that increases impunity. This cycle has operationally worn-out the Government and has generated high costs as a result of high crime indices.


Resumo Este artigo desenvolve uma análise descritiva quantitativa sobre o desempenho do sistema por meio do qual o Governo colombiano implementa sua política pública criminal: sistema judicial, penal e penitenciário. Este estudo não é realizado do ponto de vista do direito, mas da perspectiva de avaliar sua eficácia, entendendo o crime como problema social. O impacto deste artigo reside na possibilidade de compreender e abordar o fenómeno do crime a partir de uma abordagem preventiva. Isto, ao identificar um desequilíbrio dinâmico dos componentes do sistema que reforça o problema, mostra deficiências na finalidade da política criminal como política pública que visa à prevenção e acentua um ciclo vicioso que aumenta a impunidade. Este ciclo desgastou operacionalmente o Estado e gerou um custo elevado em decorrência dos altos índices de criminalidade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prisiones , Crimen , Violaciones de los Derechos Humanos , Derechos Humanos
9.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 49-63, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144420

RESUMEN

Resumen El objetivo De este artículo es visibilizar y cuantificar la dificultad analítica que se presenta al momento de interpretar los índices de criminalidad, debido al rezago temporal del registro en el instante en que se comete el delito y la fecha de ingreso de la denuncia. Ese rezago temporal genera un sesgo benévolo en la medición del crimen y la interpretación criminal para la toma de decisiones, cuando se comparan periodos parciales (años anteriores y vigencia actual). La metodología Utilizada es exploratoria con un enfoque cuantitativo en el tratamiento de los datos registrados desde el año 2005 hasta el 2018, y consolidados en los sistemas Penal Oral Acusatorio (SPOA) de la Fiscalía General de la Nación y de Información Estadístico Delincuencial, Contravencional y Operativo (SIEDCO) de la Policía Nacional de Colombia. Para el análisis se compararon los datos de los delitos de homicidio, hurto, lesiones personales, violencia intrafamiliar y delitos sexuales durante los primeros cuatro y cinco meses de cada periodo anual con los siguientes meses del año. Como Resultado Se evidenció que el rezago temporal promedio en los homicidios fue del 2,85%; en el hurto del 11,8%; en las lesiones personales del 12,7%; en la violencia intrafamiliar del 18,9% y en los delitos sexuales del 30,5%.


Abstract The purpose Of this article is to visualize and quantify the analytic difficulty that arises in interpreting crime indicators due to the time lag between the time when the crime took place and the date on which the crime report was filed2. This time lag creates a lenient bias in crime measurement and interpretation for decision-making effects when time periods are compared (previous periods against the current period). The methodology Used is exploratory with a quantitative approach in the treatment of data recorded from 2005 to 2018, and consolidated in the Oral Criminal Prosecution System (SPOA, for the Spanish original) of the National Prosecutor's Office (Fiscalía) and in the Crime, Infraction and Operations Statistical System (SIEDCO, for the Spanish original) of the National Police of Colombia. Data on the crimes of homicide, theft, personal injuries, intra-family violence and sexual crimes during the first four and five months of each annual period were compared to the data from the subsequent months of the year. As a result It was found that the average time lag was 2.85% for homicides; 11.8% for theft; 12.7% for personal injuries; 18.9% for intra-family violence and 30.5% for sexual crimes.


Resumo O objetivo Deste artigo é tornar visível e quantificar a dificuldade analítica que surge na interpretação dos índices de criminalidade, devido à defasagem temporal do registro no momento em que o crime é cometido e na data de apresentação da denúncia3. Esse lapso temporal gera um viés benevolente na medição e interpretação do crime para a tomada de decisões, quando são comparados períodos parciais (anos anteriores e validade atual). A metodologia Utilizada é exploratória com abordagem quantitativa no tratamento dos dados registados de 2005 a 2018, e consolidados no sistema Penal Oral Acusatório (SPOA) da Procuradoria Geral da Nação e no sistema de Informação Estatístico Delinquencial, Contravencional e Operativo (SIEDCO) da Polícia Nacional da Colômbia. Para a análise foram comparados os dados dos crimes de homicídio, furto, lesões pessoais, violência doméstica e crimes sexuais durante os primeiros quatro e cinco meses de cada período anual com os meses seguintes do ano. Como resultado Constatou-se que a média do lapso temporal nos homicídios foi de 2,85%; no furto de 11,8%; nas lesões pessoais de 12,7%; na violência doméstica de 18,9% e nos crimes sexuais foi de 30,5%.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Crimen , Política , Robo , Criminales
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/tendencias , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Derecho Penal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240077, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052950

RESUMEN

This paper uses resilience as a lens through which to analyse disasters and other major threats to patterns of criminal behaviour. A set of indicators and mathematical models are introduced that aim to quantitatively describe changes in crime levels in comparison to what could otherwise be expected, and what might be expected by way of adaptation and subsequent resumption of those patterns. The validity of the proposed resilience assessment tool is demonstrated using commercial theft data from the COVID-19 pandemic period. A 64 per cent reduction in crime was found in the studied city (China) during an 83-day period, before daily crime levels bounced back to higher than expected values. The proposed resilience indicators are recommended as benchmarking instruments for evaluating and comparing the global impact of COVID-19 policies on crime and public safety.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Resiliencia Psicológica , China , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239840, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970775

RESUMEN

The association between alcohol outlets and violence has long been recognised, and is commonly used to inform policing and licensing policies (such as staggered closing times and zoning). Less investigated, however, is the association between violent crime and other urban points of interest, which while associated with the city centre alcohol consumption economy, are not explicitly alcohol outlets. Here, machine learning (specifically, LASSO regression) is used to model the distribution of violent crime for the central 9 km2 of ten large UK cities. Densities of 620 different Point of Interest types (sourced from Ordnance Survey) are used as predictors, with the 10 most explanatory variables being automatically selected for each city. Cross validation is used to test generalisability of each model. Results show that the inclusion of additional point of interest types produces a more accurate model, with significant increases in performance over a baseline univariate alcohol-outlet only model. Analysis of chosen variables for city-specific models shows potential candidates for new strategies on a per-city basis, with combined-model variables showing the general trend in POI/violence association across the UK. Although alcohol outlets remain the best individual predictor of violence, other points of interest should also be considered when modelling the distribution of violence in city centres. The presented method could be used to develop targeted, city-specific initiatives that go beyond alcohol outlets and also consider other locations.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Ciudades/estadística & datos numéricos , Crimen/clasificación , Vivienda/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Restaurantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal , Reino Unido
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239280, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956423

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Suicide rates in India are among the highest in the world, equating to over 200,000 suicide deaths annually. Crime reports of suicide incidents routinely feature in the Indian mass media, with minimal coverage of suicide as a broader public health issue. To supplement our recently published content analysis study, we undertook qualitative interviews to examine media professionals' perspectives and experiences in relation to media reporting of suicide-related news in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 2017-18, semi-structured qualitative interviews with twenty-eight print media and television media professionals with experience reporting on suicide-related news were undertaken across north (New Delhi and Chandigarh) and south (Chennai) India. A semi-structured interview guide was designed to initiate discussions around; 1) perspectives on why suicide incidents are regularly reported on by mass media in India, 2) a description of experiences and processes of covering suicide incidents on the crime beat; and 3) perspectives on the emergence of health reporter coverage of suicide. Interviews were digitally audio-recorded and transcribed. A deductive and inductive thematic analytic approach was used, supported by the use of NVivo. RESULTS: Suicides were typically seen as being highly newsworthy and of interest to the audience, particularly the suicides of high-status people and those who somewhat matched the middle-class profile of the core audience. Socio-cultural factors played a major role in determining the newsworthiness of a particular incident. The capacity to link a suicide incident to compelling social narratives, potentially detrimental social/policy issues, and placing the suicide as a form of protest/martyrdom increased newsworthiness. Reporters on the crime beat worked in close partnership with police to produce routine and simplified incident report-style coverage of suicide incidents, with the process influenced by: informal police contacts supporting the crime beat, the speed of breaking news, extremely tight word limits and a deeply fraught engagement with bereaved family members. It was articulated that a public health and/or mental health framing of suicide was an emerging perspective, which sought to focus more on broader trends and suicide prevention programs rather than individual incidents. Important challenges were identified around the complexity of adopting a mental health framing of suicide, given the perceived pervasive influence of socioeconomic and cultural issues (rather than individual psychopathology) on suicide in India. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings delve into the complexity of reporting on suicide in India and can be used to support constructive partnerships between media professionals and suicide prevention experts in India. Policymakers need to acknowledge the socio-cultural context of suicide reporting in India when adapting international guidelines for the Indian media.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio , Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Suicidio , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Crimen/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Policia/psicología , Vigilancia de la Población , Distribución por Sexo , Violencia/psicología
15.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(5): 4-7, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930526

RESUMEN

The involvement of special knowledge in criminal proceedings has always created the problem of assessing the reliability of conclusions formulated on the basis of their application. At the beginning of the 20th century, one of the ways to solve this problem was the expansion of competition between the parties. For a long time, in criminal proceedings, competition has not been actively developed due to the particular historical development of society and the state. In the same period, it became a separate medical profession and the formation of a domestic forensic medical examination took place. With the adoption in 2001 of the current Code of Criminal Procedure, competition as a principle returned to the domestic criminal proceedings (Article 15 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of Russian Federation. Competition of the parties). In the practice of forensic medical examination, little has changed, since, on the one hand, the involvement of an expert's opponent in the process was difficult to implement, and on the other hand, his participation in criminal proceedings for several reasons had little effect on the outcome of case. At the same time, forensic medical examination remained an unshakable pillar in cases of crimes against health and life (and in other categories of cases whose corpus delicti provides for harm to health). The situation began to change rapidly from April 2017 after the coming into force of a number of federal laws that significantly simplified the organization of opposing an expert in criminal proceedings and created the conditions for a more critical assessment of an expert opinion. The purpose of the work is to analyze the consequences of federal laws for forensic expert practice.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Crimen , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Federación de Rusia
16.
Leg Med (Tokyo) ; 47: 101780, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882537

RESUMEN

New psychoactive stimulants appeared in Hungary in 2010 as in several other European countries. We present our findings from cases where new psychoactive and conventional stimulants (we listed amphetamine, methamphetamine and MDMA as conventional drugs) have been detected in biological specimens between 2010 and 2019. MATERIALS: Biological samples (including urine, blood and body tissues), sent to the Department of Forensic Medicine, University of Pécs, South-West Hungary, in the period 2010-2019. METHOD: High performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD); supercritical fluid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SFC-MS/MS). RESULTS: During the nine-year period between 2010 and 2019, we found new stimulants in 973 (21.1%) cases, and conventional stimulants in 658 (14.2%) cases (out of 4604 analyses -100%- of samples sent to the laboratory for toxicology screening). 594 (12.9%) of all cases were post mortem analyses. The new drugs we've detected could be classified into three groups based on their chemical structure: cathinones (in 960 from our cases), substituted phenethylamines (8), and tryptamines (5). The most frequently identified new psychoactive stimulants were (in the order of decreasing frequency): pentedrone (262), mephedrone (188), N-ethylhexedrone (126), methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV; 98), α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (alpha-PVP; 93), 4-CMC (35). CONCLUSION: The new substances were detected in highest proportion in 2011; by 2018, the number of conventional drugs exceeded the new stimulants in our cases. According to the data of the Hungarian seizures, the decrease was predictable: from 2015, the seizures of traditional stimulants exceeded the seizures of new stimulants. In 2019 the new stimulants were dominated again among the detected substances in the samples.


Asunto(s)
Líquidos Corporales/química , Estimulantes del Sistema Nervioso Central/análisis , Crimen , Consumidores de Drogas/estadística & datos numéricos , Drogas Ilícitas/análisis , Psicotrópicos/análisis , Detección de Abuso de Sustancias/métodos , Cromatografía Líquida de Alta Presión/métodos , Humanos , Hungría/epidemiología , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem/métodos , Factores de Tiempo
17.
Orv Hetil ; 161(36): 1498-1505, 2020 09.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886624

RESUMEN

In recent years, due to the value of health data and the specificities of health processes, data breaches have become increasingly important. In addition to the general data protection rules of the European Union, aspects of general information security, including technology and human behaviour, have been reassessed. In this article, we present the importance of blackmail (ransomware) virus attacks in the health sector. According to international data, especially in the US, one of the most important methods of institutional attacks will be the extortion attack in the coming years, and this is expected to increase in importance, especially in health care where sensitive and valuable data are truly life-giving. Because of the encryption of data and the blocking of core processes, blackmail viruses can also have a significant impact on the effectiveness of therapy and healthcare. In addition to presenting the current international situation, the article also outlines the most important steps that can be taken by those involved in daily patient's care to ensure continuity of patient care. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(36): 1498-1505.


Asunto(s)
Seguridad Computacional , Crimen , Sistemas de Información en Salud , Humanos
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236764, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735624

RESUMEN

Do people punish more than they would if the decision costs were more transparent? In two Internet-based vignette experiments, we tested whether juvenile sentencing recommendations among U.S. adults are responsive to variation in the salience of the taxpayer costs and public safety benefits of incarceration. Using a 2 Cost (present vs. absent) x 2 Benefit (present vs. absent) factorial design, Experiment 1 (N = 234) found that exposure to information about the direct costs of incarcerating the juvenile offender reduced sentencing recommendations by about 28%, but exposure to the public safety benefits had no effect on sentences. Experiment 2 (N = 301) manipulated cost-benefit salience by asking participants to generate their own list of costs of incarceration, benefits of incarceration, or an affectively neutral, unrelated word list. Results revealed a similar selective effect whereby sentencing recommendations were reduced in the cost condition relative to the benefits and control conditions, but sentences in the benefit condition did not differ from the control. This combined pattern suggests that laypeople selectively neglect to factor cost considerations into these judgments, thereby inflating their support for punishment, unless those costs are made salient. These findings contribute to the debate on transparency in sentencing.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio/estadística & datos numéricos , Juicio , Castigo , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales , Toma de Decisiones , Femenino , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estados Unidos
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756321

RESUMEN

Stress has been shown to adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Neighborhood crime rates may serve as one publicly available social determinant of health for pregnancy studies that use registry or electronic health record datasets in which individual-level stress data are not available. We sought to determine whether neighborhood violent crime incidents were associated with measured perceived stress in a largely minority, urban pregnancy cohort. We performed a secondary analysis of the 1309 Philadelphia residents participating in the Motherhood and Microbiome cohort (n = 2000) with both neighborhood violent crime and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) data. Generalized linear mixed models accounting for confounding variables and geographic clustering demonstrated that, regardless of race, women with the highest quartile of neighborhood violent crime had significantly elevated odds of high stress compared to women with lower crime. We also found that Black women were more likely to have both the highest quartile of neighborhood violent crime and high stress than non-Black women. Overall, this study demonstrates that neighborhood violent crime is associated with perceived stress in pregnancy. Given disparate exposure to crime and prenatal stress by race, future work is warranted to determine whether urban neighborhood violence and/or stress reduction strategies would improve birth outcome racial disparities.


Asunto(s)
Crimen , Características de la Residencia , Estrés Psicológico , Violencia , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Femenino , Humanos , Philadelphia/epidemiología , Embarazo/psicología , Adulto Joven
20.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 221-227, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830392

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Women with histories of childhood trauma tend to score higher on recidivism risk/needs assessment tools, such as the Level of Service Inventory-Revised: Screening Version (LSI-R: SV). These may affect their chance of leaving custody, but risk scores may be inflated by reliance on additional items which reflect other fixed childhood events. AIMS: We hypothesised that adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) would be related to immutable risk measures according to the LSI-R: SV, such as juvenile arrest history, rather than more mutable factors, such as criminal attitudes. METHODS: Two interviewer-administered questionnaires-one about ACEs and one about criminogenic risk and needs-were given to a cohort of women just after release from jail. Phi coefficients were used to test for associations between ? ACE scale scores and scores on the risk tool-the LSI-R: SV. RESULTS: ACE scale items were related to static risk item scores from the LSI-R: SV, but not to any of the dynamic risk items except psychological health. CONCLUSIONS: Risk reduction is an important task in the criminal justice system, for which systematic risk assessment is an integral part of decision making. Self-reported experience of psychological health apart, only fixed historical variables were related to estimated recidivism risk. There was no relationship between the mutable constructs of attitudes towards crime or employment status and estimated risk. This raises the question of whether the risk of recidivism is increased when there is a background of childhood trauma. Implications for using risk reduction tools to inform the need for trauma-informed correctional care are discussed. Longitudinal research assessing recidivism is needed to test this further.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Reincidencia , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Crimen/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental , Prisiones , Medición de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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