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1.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 31(1): 60-76, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350527

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Various combinations of childhood conduct problems, callous traits and anxiety may confer increased risk of offending, psychopathic traits and mental disorders. Knowledge of these outcomes in adulthood is limited. AIMS: To compare adult criminal convictions, psychopathy checklist scores and mental disorders between five groups of men, variously defined in childhood by: (1) callous traits, (2) conduct problems, (3) conduct problems and callous traits, (4) conduct problems and callous traits and anxiety or (5) developing typically. METHOD: Teachers rated conduct problems, callous traits and anxiety at ages 6, 10 and 12 years. Criminal convictions from age 12 to 24 were extracted from official records. The Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) and diagnostic interviews were completed at age 33. RESULTS: Relative to the typically developing group, the groups with conduct problems, with and without callous traits and anxiety, showed 5-fold elevations in risks of violent convictions and 3 to 4-fold elevations in risk for antisocial personality disorder, while the groups with conduct problems only and with conduct problems plus callous traits plus anxiety were at increased risk for borderline personality disorder. All risk groups obtained higher PCL-R total scores than the typically developing childhood group. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: It is widely accepted that childhood conduct problems in boys are associated with increased risks of criminal convictions and poorer mental health, but our findings suggest that teachers can identify different subgroups and these have different trajectories. As some subgroups were small, replication is recommended, but our findings offer preliminary support for trialling specific interventions for at risk boys.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Trastorno de la Conducta/psicología , Crimen , Criminales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Agresión , Niño , Conducta Infantil , Trastorno de la Conducta/complicaciones , Humanos , Masculino , Problema de Conducta , Trastornos Psicóticos , Adulto Joven
2.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 49-63, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144420

RESUMEN

Resumen El objetivo De este artículo es visibilizar y cuantificar la dificultad analítica que se presenta al momento de interpretar los índices de criminalidad, debido al rezago temporal del registro en el instante en que se comete el delito y la fecha de ingreso de la denuncia. Ese rezago temporal genera un sesgo benévolo en la medición del crimen y la interpretación criminal para la toma de decisiones, cuando se comparan periodos parciales (años anteriores y vigencia actual). La metodología Utilizada es exploratoria con un enfoque cuantitativo en el tratamiento de los datos registrados desde el año 2005 hasta el 2018, y consolidados en los sistemas Penal Oral Acusatorio (SPOA) de la Fiscalía General de la Nación y de Información Estadístico Delincuencial, Contravencional y Operativo (SIEDCO) de la Policía Nacional de Colombia. Para el análisis se compararon los datos de los delitos de homicidio, hurto, lesiones personales, violencia intrafamiliar y delitos sexuales durante los primeros cuatro y cinco meses de cada periodo anual con los siguientes meses del año. Como Resultado Se evidenció que el rezago temporal promedio en los homicidios fue del 2,85%; en el hurto del 11,8%; en las lesiones personales del 12,7%; en la violencia intrafamiliar del 18,9% y en los delitos sexuales del 30,5%.


Abstract The purpose Of this article is to visualize and quantify the analytic difficulty that arises in interpreting crime indicators due to the time lag between the time when the crime took place and the date on which the crime report was filed2. This time lag creates a lenient bias in crime measurement and interpretation for decision-making effects when time periods are compared (previous periods against the current period). The methodology Used is exploratory with a quantitative approach in the treatment of data recorded from 2005 to 2018, and consolidated in the Oral Criminal Prosecution System (SPOA, for the Spanish original) of the National Prosecutor's Office (Fiscalía) and in the Crime, Infraction and Operations Statistical System (SIEDCO, for the Spanish original) of the National Police of Colombia. Data on the crimes of homicide, theft, personal injuries, intra-family violence and sexual crimes during the first four and five months of each annual period were compared to the data from the subsequent months of the year. As a result It was found that the average time lag was 2.85% for homicides; 11.8% for theft; 12.7% for personal injuries; 18.9% for intra-family violence and 30.5% for sexual crimes.


Resumo O objetivo Deste artigo é tornar visível e quantificar a dificuldade analítica que surge na interpretação dos índices de criminalidade, devido à defasagem temporal do registro no momento em que o crime é cometido e na data de apresentação da denúncia3. Esse lapso temporal gera um viés benevolente na medição e interpretação do crime para a tomada de decisões, quando são comparados períodos parciais (anos anteriores e validade atual). A metodologia Utilizada é exploratória com abordagem quantitativa no tratamento dos dados registados de 2005 a 2018, e consolidados no sistema Penal Oral Acusatório (SPOA) da Procuradoria Geral da Nação e no sistema de Informação Estatístico Delinquencial, Contravencional e Operativo (SIEDCO) da Polícia Nacional da Colômbia. Para a análise foram comparados os dados dos crimes de homicídio, furto, lesões pessoais, violência doméstica e crimes sexuais durante os primeiros quatro e cinco meses de cada período anual com os meses seguintes do ano. Como resultado Constatou-se que a média do lapso temporal nos homicídios foi de 2,85%; no furto de 11,8%; nas lesões pessoais de 12,7%; na violência doméstica de 18,9% e nos crimes sexuais foi de 30,5%.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Crimen , Política , Robo , Criminales
3.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 39-48, sep.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144419

RESUMEN

Abstract Cali is one of the cities in Colombia and Latin America with the highest rate of homicides, with around one third of homicides being attributed to street gang-related violence. In 2016, the Mayor's office from Santiago the Cali - Colombia, the Police Department and the Cisalva institute from Universidad del Valle worked together to develop an holistic intervention, "TIP -Youth without frontiers", to reduce street gang-related violence in Cali's communes. The intervention comprised six components focusing on developing personal/emotional skills, improving access to health and other public services, reducing substance use, connecting youth with employment and educational opportunities, promoting participation in sports and recreational activities, and improving the restitution of citizen rights to street gang members. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and implementation of this transformative street gang program and to describe changes in street gang-related homicides that could be associated with the implementation of this program. The program started contacting street gangs in January 2016, recruiting the first street gang members in August 2016. As of December 2018, 2.107 youth (from 84 Police identified street gangs) have participated in the program. A reduction in street gang-related homicides was observed in Cali's communes from 2015 to 2018. In intervened communes these homicides decreased on average by 80%, suggesting that the program could have contributed to the reduction of street gang-related violent behavior in these areas.


Resumen Cali es una de las ciudades de Colombia y de Latinoamérica con la tasa de homicidios más alta, con alrededor de un tercio de los homicidios atribuidos a la violencia entre pandillas. En 2016, la Alcaldía de Santiago de Cali - Colombia, la Policía Nacional y el Instituto Cisalva de la Universidad del Valle trabajaron juntos para desarrollar una intervención holística, "TIP - Jóvenes sin fronteras", con el fin de reducir la violencia relacionada con las pandillas en las comunas de Cali. La intervención abarcó seis componentes centrados en desarrollar habilidades personales/emocionales, mejorar el acceso a los servicios de salud y otros servicios públicos, reducir el consumo de sustancias, conectar a los jóvenes con oportunidades laborales y educativas, fomentar la participación en actividades deportivas y recreativas, y restituir los derechos cívicos a integrantes de las pandillas. El objetivo de este estudio era describir las características y la implementación de este programa de transformación de pandillas, y describir los cambios en la tasa de homicidios relacionados con pandillas que podrían estar asociados con la implementación de este programa. El programa comenzó contactando a las pandillas en enero del 2016, reclutando a los primeros miembros de estas en agosto del 2016. A diciembre del 2018, 2.107 jóvenes (de 84 pandillas identificadas por la policía) han participado en el programa. Se observó una reducción de los homicidios relacionados con pandillas en las comunas de Cali entre 2015 y 2018. En las comunas intervenidas, estos homicidios disminuyeron en promedio un 80%, lo que sugiere que el programa podría haber contribuido a la reducción del comportamiento violento relacionado con las pandillas en estas áreas.


Resumo Cali é uma das cidades da Colômbia e da América Latina com a maior taxa de homicídios, com cerca de um terço dos homicídios atribuídos à violência de gangues. Em 2016, a Prefeitura de Santiago de Cali - Colômbia, a Polícia Nacional e o Instituto Cisalva da Universidad del Valle trabalharam juntos para desenvolver uma intervenção holística, "TIP - Jovens sem fronteiras", a fim de reduzir a violência das gangues nas comunas de Cali. A intervenção abrangeu seis componentes focados no desenvolvimento de habilidades pessoais/emocionais, melhoria do acesso aos serviços de saúde e outros serviços públicos, redução do uso de substâncias, conexão dos jovens com oportunidades de emprego e educação, incentivo à participação em atividades esportivas e recreativas, e a restauração dos direitos cívicos para os membros das gangues. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as características e a implementação do programa de transformação de gangues e descrever as mudanças na taxa de homicídios por gangues que poderiam estar associadas à implementação deste programa. O programa começou contatando as gangues em janeiro de 2016 e foram recrutados os primeiros membros das gangues em agosto de 2016. Em dezembro de 2018, participaram do programa 2.107 jovens (de 84 gangues identificadas pela polícia). Uma redução dos homicídios relacionados a gangues nas comunas de Cali foi observada entre 2015 e 2018. Nas comunas intervencionadas, esses homicídios diminuíram em média 80%, sugerindo que o programa possa ter contribuído para a redução do comportamento violento relacionado a gangues nessas áreas.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Homicidio , Violencia , Conflictos Armados , Criminales
4.
Rev. crim ; 62(3): 25-38, sep.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144418

RESUMEN

Resumen Perú no solo tiene una de las mayores tasas de victimización en Latinoamérica (24%), sino también la menor en delitos denunciados (15%) (Latinobarómetro, 2016). En este trabajo, el objetivo fue identificar las características del crimen y las características individuales que predicen la decisión de denunciar cuatro delitos patrimoniales distintos (robo de hogares, de auto, de autopartes y de moto). Para ello, se emplearon siete años de una encuesta de hogares a nivel nacional en Perú (2010-2016). Las estimaciones se realizaron mediante regresión logística multinivel de efectos mixtos a fin de controlar las características del ambiente que también influyen en la decisión de denuncia. El uso de arma de parte del delincuente es el factor que eleva en mayor proporción la probabilidad de denunciar cualquiera de los cuatro delitos evaluados. La victimización reiterada es también un predictor importante, aunque para menos delitos. La confianza en la policía no está asociada a la decisión de denunciar. Este estudio es el primero que analiza cuantitativamente los factores que afectan la decisión de denunciar en el Perú. Sus resultados son útiles para un mejor entendimiento de la baja tasa de denuncias en el país.


Abstract Peru has not only one of the highest victimization rates in Latin America (24%), but also the lowest rate of reported crimes (15%) (Latinobarometro, 2016) The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of the crimes and the characteristics of the individuals that predict the decision of reporting four different property crimes (burglary, auto theft, auto parts theft, and motorcycle theft). To this end, a seven-year survey of households at the national level in Peru was used (2010-2016). The estimations were made using multilevel mixed effects logistics regression, in order to control for characteristics of the environment that also influence the decision to report. Use of a weapon by the criminal is the factor that most increases the probability of reporting any of the four assessed crimes. Repeated victimization is also an important predictor, although for a lower number of crimes. Trust in the police is not associated to the decision to report. This is the first study to quantitatively analyze the factors that affect the decision to report in Peru. Its results are useful for a better understanding of the low reporting rates in the country.


Resumo O Peru não apenas tem uma das taxas mais altas de vitimização em América Latina (24%), mas também a mais baixa em crimes denunciados (15%) (Latinobarómetro, 2016). Neste trabalho, o objetivo foi identificar as características do crime e as características individuais que predizem a decisão de denunciar quatro diferentes crimes patrimoniais (furto de casa, carro, autopeças e motocicleta). Para isso, foram utilizados sete anos de dados de uma pesquisa domiciliar nacional no Peru (2010-2016). As estimativas foram feitas usando regressão logística multinível de efeitos mistos a fim de controlar as características ambientais que também influenciam na decisão de denunciar. O uso de arma de fogo pelo delinquente é o fator que aumenta em maior proporção a probabilidade de denúncia de qualquer um dos quatro crimes avaliados. A vitimização repetida também é um indicador importante, embora para menos crimes. A confiança na polícia não está associada à decisão de denunciar. Este estudo é o primeiro a analisar quantitativamente os fatores que afetam a decisão de denunciar no Peru. Seus resultados são úteis para um melhor entendimento da taxa baixa de denúncias no país.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Robo , Víctimas de Crimen , Armas , Criminales
5.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161655

RESUMEN

Nowadays, the most important place in medicine is occupied by ethical and legal aspects of organization of medical care and the provision of qualitative medical services to citizens. The main mechanism of functioning of the patient-centric health care system is implementation of the rights of patients as described in our country within the framework of international legal acts, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Civil, the Civil Procedure and Criminal Codes of the Russian Federation, as well as the Legislation on the protection of health of citizen. Since the mid of twentieth century, in many countries was widely discussed possibility of ensuring one of the most controversial and non-obvious rights of patient - the right to death. In medical practice, the mechanisms implementing this right are the acts of euthanasia, the assisted suicide, the voluntary death (refusal of water and food), "murder out of sympathy", terminal sedation and the phenomenon of "double effect" as well. The article presents review of scientific publications presented in national and international databases, highlighting prerequisites of implementation of euthanasia into practice and international experience of applying this mechanism of demise as well.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Eutanasia , Suicidio Asistido , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Humanos , Federación de Rusia
6.
Wiad Lek ; 73(9 cz. 2): 2020-2025, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148853

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim: The aim of this work is to identify the compliance level of modern practice of placement of a person in a medical institution in order to conduct the FPE to international standards and legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person; formulation of scientifically substantiated proposals on the synchronization directions of national practices with the specified international standards. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: During the preparation of the article the following was processed: scientific research on ensuring the rights of persons suffering from mental disorders in criminal proceedings; provisions of international agreements on the provision of psychiatric care; legal positions of the ECHR on the observance of persons' rights suffering from mental disorders (15 judgments on this topic); criminal procedural legislation of individual states; results of generalization of national law enforcement practice; the results of a survey conducted by the authors of 18 psychiatrists who practice in the field of forensic psychiatric examinations (psychiatrists working in state psychiatric clinics in Odesa, Poltava, Kharkiv were interviewed). In the process of research a set of general scientific and special methods of cognition was used (comparative-legal method, system-structural method, generalization method, method of analysis and synthesis, method of sociological research, method of expert assessments, etc.). RESULTS: Results: According to the research results: a) legal positions of the ECHR on the observance of the rights of persons suffering from mental disorders are identified and generalized; b) the compliance level of modern practice of placing a person in a medical institution in order to conduct the FPE with international standards and legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person (§ 1 of Article 5 of the Convention); c) the degree of extrapolation of these positions to the activities of psychiatrists is analyzed; d) the optimal ways of solving the existing problems in the aspect of ensuring the rights of a person when placing them in a medical institution for an inpatient FPE are proposed. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The current national practice of placing a person in a medical institution for an inpatient FPE does not fully comply with the legal positions of the ECHR in terms of ensuring the right to liberty and security of person (in particular, there are deviations from the positions of the ECHR on: determining the documentary basis for the appointment of an inpatient FPE; interaction of police and medical workers in the field of psychiatry during the detention of a person with a mental disorder).


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Derechos Humanos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Pacientes Internos
7.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 183-195, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33241611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This article serves as our memorial for the outstanding contribution of Rolf Loeber to developmental criminology. His salient paper on the future of the study of the age-crime curve (2012) is the focal point. AIMS: Follow some research trails that Rolf Loeber proposed in his 2012 paper. METHODS: Recent data on official offending from the Montréal Two Samples Four Generations Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Studies (MTSFGCLS) are analysed. The data were gathered for two generations of juvenile court males; five birth cohorts born around 1960 and followed from age 8 to 61, and five birth cohorts born around 1980, males and females traced from age 12 to 45. The age-crime curves are presented for the total prevalence. Epidemiological data are displayed for career descriptors: number of years active in offending, frequency, variety, onset, offset and duration. RESULTS: The age-crime curves of the two generations display the habitual shape reported in the literature. The epidemiological data shows that the population sample has a much lower curve in comparison to the court sample; this sort of difference is also observed between females and males. CONCLUSION: The difference between the two generations in the age-crime curves are interpreted in light of three evolutions in Québec from 1960 to 2000: (a) a radical change in the delinquency law, social and criminal justice policies, and treatment for juvenile delinquents; (b) a reduction of the juvenile and adult crime rates; (c) a significant increase in the wellbeing of the population on education, health and welfare services.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/tendencias , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Derecho Penal , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia
8.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(5): 556-560, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028465

RESUMEN

People who use drugs (PWUD) face concurrent public health emergencies from overdoses, HIV, hepatitis C, and COVID-19, leading to an unprecedented syndemic. Responses to PWUD that go beyond treatment--such as decriminalization and providing a safe supply of pharmaceutical-grade drugs--could reduce impacts of this syndemic. Solutions already implemented for COVID-19, such as emergency safe-supply prescribing and providing housing to people experiencing homelessness, must be sustained once COVID-19 is contained. This pandemic is not only a public health crisis but also a chance to develop and maintain equitable and sustainable solutions to the harms associated with the criminalization of drug use.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hepatitis C/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Sindémico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/complicaciones , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Criminales , Sobredosis de Droga/complicaciones , Sobredosis de Droga/epidemiología , Sobredosis de Droga/prevención & control , Servicios Médicos de Urgencia , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Hepatitis C/complicaciones , Hepatitis C/prevención & control , Vivienda , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/complicaciones , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Prescripciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/prevención & control , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , United States Public Health Service
9.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 400-407, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195655

RESUMEN

La literatura ha encontrado que las necesidades no-criminogénicas también son un factor de riesgo de delincuencia juvenil y, por tanto, han de ser objeto de intervención. Se diseñó un estudio de campo con el objetivo de conocer si el ajuste individual, social y psicológico (necesidades no-criminogénicas) difieren entre menores infractores, menores de protección y normalizados. Para ello se evaluó a 450 adolescentes (150 menores de reforma, 150 de protección y 150 normalizados) en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico para el factor población. Sucintamente, los menores de protección y reforma manifestaron un mayor desajuste individual en los niveles personal y familiar que los normalizados, y, adicionalmente, los de reforma a nivel social. Asimismo, los menores de protección e infractores exhibieron un mayor desajuste social consistente en más retraimiento social, ansiedad social/timidez y liderazgo que los normalizados, y los menores infractores un menor ajuste social en la consideración hacia los demás que los normalizados. En el ajuste psicológico, los menores de reforma y protección informaron de más sintomatología obsesivo-compulsiva, de sensibilidad interpersonal, depresiva, de hostilidad, de ansiedad-fóbica y psicótica que los normalizados, y los de protección más somática, ansiosa (generalizada) y paranoide que los normalizados. Se cuantificaron los déficits en estas dimensiones para estimar la magnitud de las necesidades. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas de los resultados y para el diseño de programas de prevención de la delincuencia y de recaídas


Literature has found that non-criminogenic needs also are a juvenile delinquency risk factor and, consequently, should be target of intervention. With the aim of knowing if individual, social and psychological adjustment differ between juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents with normal adolescents was designed. A total of 450 adolescents (150 juvenile offenders, 150 foster care adolescents, and 150 normal adolescents) were evaluated in individual, social and psychological adjustment. The results showed a significant effect in the individual, social and psychological adjustment for the population factor. Succinctly, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents displayed a higher individual maladjustment in the personal and family level than normal adolescents, and, additionally, juvenile offenders in the social level. Likewise, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents exhibited a higher social maladjustment consisting in more social withdrawal, social anxiety/shyness, and leadership than normal adolescents; and juvenile offenders revealed less consideration for others than normal adolescents. In psychological adjustment, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents reported more obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostile, phobic-anxiety, and psychotic symptomology than normal adolescent; and foster care adolescent more somatic, anxiety (generalized) and paranoid symptoms than normal adolescents. The deficits in these needs were quantified as to estimate the magnitude of the intervention. Theoretical and practical implications for intervention of the results are discussed


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Ajuste Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Evaluación de Necesidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Multivariante , Factores Socioeconómicos , Colombia
10.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 418-426, oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195657

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in the effectiveness of a Batterer Intervention Programme (BIP) for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) perpetrators depending on the participants' countries of origin (i.e., Spanish or Latin American immigrants). The sample included 425 male offenders who participated in a court-mandated standard BIP in Spain. Official recidivism and risk of recidivism were considered the final outcomes. Intention to change, responsibility attribution, adherence to treatment and treatment compliance were taken as the proximal outcomes. No differences were found in risk of recidivism, intention to change, responsibility attribution to the legal system and to the victim between the Spanish and Latin American participants. Significant differences between both groups were found for the variable treatment compliance. The results suggest that, at least for the Latin American immigrants participating in BIPs in Spain, it is apparently not necessary to adjust BIPs to cultural differences as adopting motivational strategies to promote change suffices


El objetivo de este estudio es comprobar si existen diferencias en la efectividad de un programa de intervención para hombres condenados por violencia de género, en función del lugar de procedencia de los participantes (i.e., españoles e inmigrantes latinoamericanos). Se utilizó una muestra de 425 hombres penados por violencia de género que participaban en un programa estándar de intervención en España. Se consideraron como variables finales la reincidencia oficial y el riesgo de reincidencia y como variables proximales la intención de cambio, la asunción de responsabilidad, la adherencia al tratamiento y el compromiso con la intervención. No se encontraron diferencias entre participantes españoles y latinoamericanos en las variables riesgo de reincidencia, intención de cambio, asunción de responsabilidad al sistema legal y a la víctima. Únicamente se encontraron diferencias significativas entre estos dos grupos en la variable compromiso con la intervención. Los resultados sugieren que, al menos para los inmigrantes latinoamericanos que se encuentran participando en programas de intervención con hombres condenados por violencia de género en España, no parece necesario ajustar la intervención en función de las diferencias culturales, siendo suficiente el uso de estrategias motivacionales para promover el cambio


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Terapia Conductista/métodos , Criminales/psicología , Violencia de Pareja/etnología , Terapia Conductista/estadística & datos numéricos , Comparación Transcultural , Estado Civil , Factores Socioeconómicos , Análisis de Varianza , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , América Latina , Resultado del Tratamiento , España
11.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 427-435, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195658

RESUMEN

La evaluación de la eficacia del tratamiento de maltratadores en los Registros Oficiales o los Informes de las parejas no es válida, al tiempo que las intervenciones eficaces se dirigen a dotarlos de competencia cognitiva y conductual. Por ello diseñamos un estudio de campo para medir los efectos de la intervención en la competencia cognitiva. Un total de 100 condenados por violencia de género que completaron un programa penitenciario de tratamiento en la comunidad fueron evaluados pre- y post-tratamiento en la competencia cognitiva, esto es, auto-concepto, inteligencia emocional, atribución de responsabilidad, destrezas cognitivas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja, expresión y control de la ira, y creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo del tratamiento en la adquisición de las destrezas cognitivas. Sucintamente, el tratamiento potenció el auto-concepto general el 18.2% y las dimensiones internas del auto-concepto auto-satisfacción el 33.5% y comportamiento el 25.6%; y la claridad para discriminar las emociones el 31.8%. Además, el tratamiento incrementó la asunción interna de responsabilidad el 31.8%; el control de la ira el 19.1%; y el uso de estrategias adaptativas para el afrontamiento de eventos estresantes en pareja entre el 48.9% y el 61.3%. Finalmente, el tratamiento redujo el uso de estrategias desadaptativas entre el 25.6% y el 35.1%; y las creencias irracionales y pensamientos distorsionados relacionados con el uso de la violencia, rol de género y dependencia emocional, en el 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, respectivamente. No obstante, no todos los maltratadores se beneficiaron del tratamiento


The evaluation of the efficacy of treatment of batterers in Official or Couple Records is not valid, whilst the efficient interventions are focused on the empowerment of cognitive and behavioural competence. A field study for measuring the effects of the treatment on the cognitive competence was designed. A total of 100 batterers who had completed a community penitentiary intervention programme, were assessed pre- and post-treatment in cognitive competence i.e., self-concept, emotional intelligence, attribution of responsivity, cognitive skills to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events, expression and control of anger, and irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts. The results showed a significant effect of the treatment in the acquisition of cognitive competence skills. Succinctly, treatment empowered the general self-concept in 18.2%, and the internal dimensions of self-concept self-satisfaction in 33.5% and behaviour in 25.6%; and clarity to discriminate among moods in 31.8%. Moreover, treatment increased the assumption of internal responsivity in 31.8%; anger control in 19.1%; and the use of adaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 48.9% and 61.3%. Finally, treatment involved a fall in the use of maladaptive strategies to cope intimate-partner-related stressful events between 25.6% and 35.1%; and in the irrational beliefs and distorted thoughts related with the use of violence, in 78.2%, 48.2% y 63.6%, for use of violence, gender roles and emotional dependence, respectively. Nonetheless, not all the batterers benefited from treatment


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Criminales/psicología , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Violencia de Pareja/prevención & control , Escala de Evaluación de la Conducta , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Cognición , Análisis Multivariante , Resultado del Tratamiento , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Autoimagen
12.
Georgian Med News ; (304-305): 182-189, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965272

RESUMEN

The article deals with issues related to the use of specialist medical knowledge by a specialist in the investigation of illegal medical activities. The procedural status of a specialist in criminal procedural legislation of Georgia, Ukraine and certain EU countries has been carried out. The analysis of forms and directions of the use of special knowledge in the course of interaction with the investigator, allows to establish a special value for the process of proving the involvement of a specialist in the field of medicine to conduct procedural actions. It was found that by means of special medical knowledge in the course of the investigation there will be more chances to establish the circumstances to be proven, to properly record the evidence and to increase the effectiveness of the procedural action. Based on the consultations with a medical specialist, in the course of organizational and technical cooperation with the investigator, it will help to identify all circumstances that will influence the qualification of the person's actions in conducting illegal medical activity. On the basis of comparison with the Ukrainian legislation, the role in the form of involvement in procedural actions is determined; coverage of procedural and forensic aspects of using specialist medical knowledge by a specialist. Emphasis is placed on procedural interactions between the investigator and the medical specialist by involving his investigative (search) actions, such as: review of scene of action, search, interrogation and investigative experiment. While characterizing the non-procedural form of interaction between the investigator and medical specialist, the role of the latter in providing consultations on the preparation and conduct of individual procedural actions, reference and advisory assistance regarding the availability of special medical knowledge and consequences resulting from treatment, as well as in formulating questions during the appointment of forensic investigations during the investigation of illicit medical activities has been established.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Georgia (República) , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Ucrania
13.
Am J Nurs ; 120(10): 21, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976143

RESUMEN

Editor's note: The mission of Cochrane Nursing is to provide an international evidence base for nurses involved in delivering, leading, or researching nursing care. Cochrane Corner provides summaries of recent systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library. For more information, see https://nursing.cochrane.org.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Salud Mental
14.
Sud Med Ekspert ; 63(5): 4-7, 2020.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930526

RESUMEN

The involvement of special knowledge in criminal proceedings has always created the problem of assessing the reliability of conclusions formulated on the basis of their application. At the beginning of the 20th century, one of the ways to solve this problem was the expansion of competition between the parties. For a long time, in criminal proceedings, competition has not been actively developed due to the particular historical development of society and the state. In the same period, it became a separate medical profession and the formation of a domestic forensic medical examination took place. With the adoption in 2001 of the current Code of Criminal Procedure, competition as a principle returned to the domestic criminal proceedings (Article 15 of the Code of Criminal Procedure of Russian Federation. Competition of the parties). In the practice of forensic medical examination, little has changed, since, on the one hand, the involvement of an expert's opponent in the process was difficult to implement, and on the other hand, his participation in criminal proceedings for several reasons had little effect on the outcome of case. At the same time, forensic medical examination remained an unshakable pillar in cases of crimes against health and life (and in other categories of cases whose corpus delicti provides for harm to health). The situation began to change rapidly from April 2017 after the coming into force of a number of federal laws that significantly simplified the organization of opposing an expert in criminal proceedings and created the conditions for a more critical assessment of an expert opinion. The purpose of the work is to analyze the consequences of federal laws for forensic expert practice.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Crimen , Testimonio de Experto , Humanos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Federación de Rusia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239046, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941496

RESUMEN

The increasing recidivism rate of sex offenders indicates potential problems in existing recidivism programs. The present study was conducted to determine whether the polygraph examination is a useful technique to obtain a sex offender's concealed past sexual history. We collected fifty-two sex offenders' data and analyzed it. Among the 52 participants, the court ordered 26 sex offenders to take the psychiatric evaluation and the polygraph test. The other half were prisoners at the hospital who were currently undergoing treatment. The participants in the polygraph group disclosed more deviant sexual behaviors and paraphilia interests/behaviors than the comparison group. Thus, the polygraph examination is a powerful tool that can encourage sex offenders to disclose hidden information to help create suitable psychological therapy programs for preventing recidivism in the future.


Asunto(s)
Detección de Mentiras/psicología , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto , Criminales/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Parafílicos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Parafílicos/psicología , Prisioneros/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Revelación de la Verdad/ética
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMEN

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevención & control , Drogas Ilícitas/provisión & distribución , Modelos Teóricos , Red Social , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Intención , Violencia/psicología
18.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(5): 256-267, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896935

RESUMEN

Liaison and Diversion (L&D) has twin objectives: improving mental health outcomes and reducing re-offending. Early diversion from police custody seems promising, but evidence of benefit is required to sustain such programmes. To test the hypothesis that contact with L&D services while in police custody would lead to improved mental health outcomes and a reduction in type and level of offending, we used a pre-post service use design. National Health Service (NHS) records in two counties were searched for evidence that patients had been involved with L&D services while in police custody during the period July 2009-December 2017. We defined January 2009-July 2014 as the pre-intervention period and any time after contact as the post-intervention period. Data from the Police National Computer were gathered for each period for these individuals, to assess their pre-post L&D contact offending histories. NHS Trust data were similarly gathered to assess their pre-post use of mental health legislation. 4,462 individuals were identified who had used L&D services in police custody. There were statistically significant reductions in the amount of offending following contact with the L&D service (whether one or two contacts), regardless of offence type. Statistically significant reductions were also observed in use of the four most commonly used legislative powers for detaining patients in hospital on mental disorder grounds, regardless of offending status (prolific/non-prolific). Our results indicate positive associations between the L&D interventions and change in offending and use of compulsory hospital detention. Whilst our research does not allow a direct causal relationship to be established in either area, the findings go beyond other impact assessments of L&D which have either been with small samples or relied only on qualitative data or expert opinion.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Aplicación de la Ley , Enfermos Mentales/psicología , Policia , Prisioneros/psicología , Adulto , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Trastornos Psicóticos , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
20.
Rev Prat ; 70(1): 25-27, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877024

RESUMEN

Medical liability: until when? A doctor who commits a fault in the exercise of his activity is likely to be held liable several years after his patient has been cared for. While civil and criminal liabilities are subject to limitation periods, disciplinary action against a liberal health professional is imprescriptible. The possibility of litigation several years after the harmful event requires health professionals to adapt their policies on the storage of medical records, which constitute a central means of proof in the event of litigation.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Mala Praxis , Médicos , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Responsabilidad Legal
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