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1.
An. psicol ; 36(3): 400-407, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-195655

RESUMEN

La literatura ha encontrado que las necesidades no-criminogénicas también son un factor de riesgo de delincuencia juvenil y, por tanto, han de ser objeto de intervención. Se diseñó un estudio de campo con el objetivo de conocer si el ajuste individual, social y psicológico (necesidades no-criminogénicas) difieren entre menores infractores, menores de protección y normalizados. Para ello se evaluó a 450 adolescentes (150 menores de reforma, 150 de protección y 150 normalizados) en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico. Los resultados mostraron un efecto significativo en el ajuste individual, social y psicológico para el factor población. Sucintamente, los menores de protección y reforma manifestaron un mayor desajuste individual en los niveles personal y familiar que los normalizados, y, adicionalmente, los de reforma a nivel social. Asimismo, los menores de protección e infractores exhibieron un mayor desajuste social consistente en más retraimiento social, ansiedad social/timidez y liderazgo que los normalizados, y los menores infractores un menor ajuste social en la consideración hacia los demás que los normalizados. En el ajuste psicológico, los menores de reforma y protección informaron de más sintomatología obsesivo-compulsiva, de sensibilidad interpersonal, depresiva, de hostilidad, de ansiedad-fóbica y psicótica que los normalizados, y los de protección más somática, ansiosa (generalizada) y paranoide que los normalizados. Se cuantificaron los déficits en estas dimensiones para estimar la magnitud de las necesidades. Se discuten las implicaciones teóricas de los resultados y para el diseño de programas de prevención de la delincuencia y de recaídas


Literature has found that non-criminogenic needs also are a juvenile delinquency risk factor and, consequently, should be target of intervention. With the aim of knowing if individual, social and psychological adjustment differ between juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents with normal adolescents was designed. A total of 450 adolescents (150 juvenile offenders, 150 foster care adolescents, and 150 normal adolescents) were evaluated in individual, social and psychological adjustment. The results showed a significant effect in the individual, social and psychological adjustment for the population factor. Succinctly, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents displayed a higher individual maladjustment in the personal and family level than normal adolescents, and, additionally, juvenile offenders in the social level. Likewise, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents exhibited a higher social maladjustment consisting in more social withdrawal, social anxiety/shyness, and leadership than normal adolescents; and juvenile offenders revealed less consideration for others than normal adolescents. In psychological adjustment, juvenile offenders and foster care adolescents reported more obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, hostile, phobic-anxiety, and psychotic symptomology than normal adolescent; and foster care adolescent more somatic, anxiety (generalized) and paranoid symptoms than normal adolescents. The deficits in these needs were quantified as to estimate the magnitude of the intervention. Theoretical and practical implications for intervention of the results are discussed


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Ajuste Social , Adaptación Psicológica , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Evaluación de Necesidades/estadística & datos numéricos , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Análisis Multivariante , Factores Socioeconómicos , Colombia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238019, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911485

RESUMEN

Physical, technological, and social networks are often at risk of intentional attack. Despite the wide-spanning importance of network vulnerability, very little is known about how criminal networks respond to attacks or whether intentional attacks affect criminal activity in the long-run. To assess criminal network responsiveness, we designed an empirically-grounded agent-based simulation using population-level network data on 16,847 illicit drug exchanges between 7,295 users of an active darknet drug market and statistical methods for simulation analysis. We consider three attack strategies: targeted attacks that delete structurally integral vertices, weak link attacks that delete large numbers of weakly connected vertices, and signal attacks that saturate the network with noisy signals. Results reveal that, while targeted attacks are effective when conducted at a large-scale, weak link and signal attacks deter more potential drug transactions and buyers when only a small portion of the network is attacked. We also find that intentional attacks affect network behavior. When networks are attacked, actors grow more cautious about forging ties, connecting less frequently and only to trustworthy alters. Operating in tandem, these two processes undermine long-term network robustness and increase network vulnerability to future attacks.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Tráfico de Drogas/prevención & control , Drogas Ilícitas/provisión & distribución , Modelos Teóricos , Red Social , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Simulación por Computador , Humanos , Intención , Violencia/psicología
3.
Am J Public Health ; 110(9): 1386-1392, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673115

RESUMEN

Objectives. To determine the impact of California's recreational marijuana legalization on marijuana use among justice system-involved (JSI) adolescents and young adults, and to distinguish whether any changes resulted from legalization (passing the law) or from implementation of the law.Methods. We compared changes in JSI youths' marijuana use in 2 states: California (n = 504), where recreational marijuana use was recently legalized, and Pennsylvania (n = 478), where recreational use is still prohibited. Furthermore, we examined changes in marijuana use across 3 key time periods (October 2015-June 2018): before legalization, after legalization but before implementation, and after implementation.Results. California JSI youths did not demonstrate a significant increase in marijuana use after legalization (b = -0.010; P = .950) or implementation (b = -0.046; P = .846). However, in Pennsylvania, rates of marijuana use increased significantly after legalization (b = 0.602; P = .001) but not after implementation (b = 0.174; P = .533).Conclusions. Although recreational marijuana legalization was not associated with changes in marijuana use among youths in California, we observed increased rates of use in Pennsylvania after legalization in California. Recreational marijuana laws may be indirectly related to youths' marijuana use by supporting more permissive national attitudes toward marijuana.


Asunto(s)
Conducta del Adolescente , Uso de la Marihuana/epidemiología , Uso de la Marihuana/legislación & jurisprudencia , Adolescente , California/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Legislación de Medicamentos , Masculino , Pennsylvania/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
4.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 172-182, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32510787

RESUMEN

Criminal career duration has not been well investigated. There are very few longitudinal data sets that last long enough and enough subjects to investigate criminal career duration, and especially the characteristics and risk profiles of especially life course persistent offenders. The aim of the study was to describe the predictability of criminal career duration based on both official records and self-reports of offending, and to put the results in the context of the Moffitt theory of "adolescent limited" and "life course persistent" offenders. The Pittsburgh Youth Study (n = 1517) is a seminal longitudinal study based on a community sample of high-risk boys from the city of Pittsburgh. Data was used from the oldest sample of boys in the PYS (N = 506). The participants were first assessed on average at age 12, and data was used up until age 36 for self-reported offending, and age 40 for police charges. The analyses were conducted on moderate and serious violence and moderate and serious theft. Career duration was based on self-reports and official charges in combination. The results show the extent to which commonly accepted and well validated risk factors predict criminal career duration with a special focus on individuals showing high rate/persistent offending in adolescence. Results show more pathways of delinquent development than have previously been described by Moffitt, (Psychological Review, 1993, 100(4), 674-701). Results also show that there is limited predictability of delinquency and offending over time. In addition, results show that only a small number of risk factors distinguish high and low rate adolescent offenders who become continuous offenders. Examples are peer factors. Implications for policy making and intervention science are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Derecho Penal , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
5.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 159-171, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573036

RESUMEN

It has been argued that the predictors of all criminal career features are the same, and that childhood risk factors do not predict life-course-persistent offenders. Little is known about childhood predictors of the duration of criminal careers. The aim is to investigate childhood (aged 8-10 years) risk factors for criminal career duration, in comparison with childhood risk factors for other criminal career features. The Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development is a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males from age 8, with conviction records up to age 61. Life-course-persistent (LCP) offenders were defined as those with a criminal career lasting at least 20 years. The strongest predictors of LCP offenders were harsh discipline, poor parental supervision, a convicted father and parental conflict. Childhood risk factors for LCP offenders and criminal career duration were different from childhood risk factors for the prevalence of offending (convicted versus unconvicted males). These results should be taken into account in developmental and life-course criminology theories, risk assessment instruments and risk-focused interventions.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Reincidencia , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Londres/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Prevalencia , Estudios Prospectivos , Recurrencia , Factores de Riesgo
6.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 30(4): 196-209, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: As our previous study indicated, almost half of juvenile delinquents continued offending in adulthood, while the rest ceased to do so. We compared these groups with each other and with non-offenders in the life-course use of alcohol, identity development and life situation. METHODS: Based on the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, four groups were formed at age 42 for men and women: persistent, adolescence-limited and adult-onset offenders and non-offenders. Longitudinal data (N = 369; 53% males) have been collected at ages 8, 14, 20, 27, 36, 42 and 50. RESULTS: Persistent offending, but not adolescence-limited offending, was associated with the accumulation of problems in adulthood and an elevated risk of death before age 54. For males, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking from adolescence to middle age, diffuse identity, high divorce rates and poverty. For females, persistent offending was associated with heavy drinking in adulthood and a higher rate of being outside the workforce in middle age. In males, adolescence-limited offending was associated with more controlled drinking in adulthood, and in females, with early divorce from the partner and advanced identity. CONCLUSIONS: Detecting the risks of the accumulation of problems and potential for positive transitions of juvenile delinquents until middle age will be important for prevention and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/diagnóstico , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Niño , Crimen/psicología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Personalidad , Determinación de la Personalidad , Recurrencia , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
7.
J R Soc Med ; 113(3): 110-118, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160121

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Research suggests that antisocial lifestyles constitute significant health risks. However, there are marked individual differences in the stability of antisocial behaviour. These different offending pathways may bear differential risks for adult health. DESIGN: Injury and illness data were collected prospectively in the longitudinal Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development. SETTING: Working-class inner-city area of South London. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included the 411 men from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, with interview data collected at ages 18, 32 and 48 years for each individual. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Organic illness, hospitalisation and injuries. RESULTS: By age 48, adjusted odds ratios showed that the incidence of organic illness was higher among Life-Course-Persistent, Late-Onset offenders and offenders in general. Based on adjusted odds ratios at age 32, the incidence of hospitalisations was higher for Late-Onset offenders. Adjusted odds ratios at age 48 also showed that the incidence of hospitalisations was higher for all three offender types and offenders in general. Our results also provide evidence that offenders were more likely to suffer injuries than non-offenders. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study imply that preventing individuals from offending is likely to have substantial benefits for health.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Estilo de Vida , Salud Mental , Admisión del Paciente/tendencias , Medición de Riesgo , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Incidencia , Londres/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Medio Social , Adulto Joven
8.
Psychol Assess ; 32(5): 493-508, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068419

RESUMEN

The present study examined the assessment of protective factors and their linkages to treatment change, institutional and community recidivism, and positive community outcomes in a high-risk treated sample of violent male offenders. Participants included 178 federally incarcerated adult male violent offenders who participated in a high-intensity violence reduction program and were followed up 10 years postrelease in the community. A collection of risk- and protective-factor measures were rated archivally at multiple time points-the Violence Risk Scale (Wong & Gordon, 1999-2003), Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 (Version 2; Webster, Douglas, Eaves, & Hart, 1997), Structured Assessment of Protective Factors (SAPROF; De Vogel, De Ruiter, Bouman, & De Vries Robbé, 2009), and Protective Factors (PF) List. Measures of community and institutional recidivism and positive community outcomes were coded. Large correlations were observed between risk and protection scores, suggesting shared risk variance. The SAPROF and PF List each predicted decreased community recidivism and, to a lesser degree, decreased institutional recidivism. Positive changes in protective factors were significantly associated with reductions in violent and general community recidivism and serious institutional misconducts after controlling for baseline scores. In addition, risk and protection scores significantly predicted most positive community outcomes; improvements in protective factors were linked to an increase in positive outcomes. Protective factors are more than the inverse of risk factors and might have important benefits in violence risk assessment and treatment planning when other positive community outcomes are considered. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Protectores
9.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 22(3): 10, 2020 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025821

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review highlights recent literature regarding online sexual offending, including the prevalence, characteristics, a brief review of recent typology literature, victimization risk factors, risk factors of being a "crossover" offender, rates and risk factors for recidivism, and a discussion of prevention efforts. RECENT FINDINGS: Online sexual offenders are overwhelmingly White men with relationship problems who were rarely previously arrested for felonies. They score lower on measures of antisocial behavior, compared to offenders who commit contact sexual offenses against children. Individuals who commit pornography offenses are at lower risk to commit contact offenses and their risk factors include having sexual interest in children and antisocial attitudes. Online offenders are different from contact sexual offenders and from offenders who commit both types of offenses. Recidivism in online noncontact offenders is difficult to assess due to the lack of empirically supported tools and the inappropriateness of using popular actuarial tools that lack norms on these offenders, but a new measure (CPORT) is being studied for use with this population.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Literatura Erótica , Internet , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(3): 378-384, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944850

RESUMEN

Objectives. To quantify the association between personal and family history of criminal justice system (CJS) involvement (PHJI and FHJI, respectively), health outcomes, and health-related behaviors.Methods. We examined 2017 New York City Community Health Survey data (n = 10 005) with multivariable logistic regression. We defined PHJI as ever incarcerated or under probation or parole. FHJI was CJS involvement of spouse or partner, child, sibling, or parent.Results. We found that 8.9% reported only FHJI, 5.4% only PHJI, and 2.9% both FHJI and PHJI (mean age = 45.4 years). Compared with no CJS involvement, individuals with only FHJI were more likely to report fair or poor health, hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, heavy drinking, and binge drinking. Respondents with only PHJI reported more fair or poor health, asthma, depression, heavy drinking, and binge drinking. Those with both FHJI and PHJI were more likely to report asthma, depression, heavy drinking, and binge drinking.Conclusions. New York City adults with personal or family CJS involvement, or both, were more likely to report adverse health outcomes and behaviors.Public Health Implications. Measuring CJS involvement in public health monitoring systems can help to identify important health needs, guiding the provision of health care and resource allocation.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Salud de la Familia , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud , Estado de Salud , Alcoholismo/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ciudad de Nueva York/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
J Child Sex Abus ; 29(3): 263-277, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751188

RESUMEN

Research on female-perpetrated child sexual abuse, especially maternal sexual abuse, is scarce. Prevalences are assumed to be lower compared to male-perpetrated abuse; however, representative studies including female perpetrators are rare. Experiences of male- and female-perpetrated child sexual abuse were examined in a representative German sample. Questions included experiences of hands-on and penetrative sexual abuse. The perpetrator-victim relationship was assessed to calculate prevalences of maternal sexual abuse. A total of 2516 participants (54.53% female, 14-91 years) were questioned and prevalences, as well as group differences between victims of male perpetrators compared to female perpetrators, were calculated. Overall, 10.5% of all participants reported experiences of child sexual abuse. Female perpetrators were involved in 9.9% of the cases, i.e. 1.0% of all participants. Victims of female perpetrators were significantly more often male. A quarter of the adult female perpetrators were the mother figure of the child. The findings suggest that the share of female perpetrators in cases of child sexual abuse is rather small; concurrently, female perpetration is insufficiently recognized. Especially male victims seem to be at risk for sexual abuse by female perpetrators. Contacts for children especially within the professional support system need to be aware of the existence of female perpetrators.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
13.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(2): 145-154, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452059

RESUMEN

There is evidence that corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene polymorphisms and indifferent impulsive personality traits play an important role in violent aggression in male adolescents. Genotyping for two tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (rs242924, rs17689966) was conducted using TaqMan SNP for 138 violent young male criminals, 98 nonviolent young male criminals, and 153 noncriminal adults. The general situation and personality traits (SSP) questionnaire was given to the young violent and nonviolent male criminal groups. The results showed that the frequency of the G allele in rs242924 of the CRHR1 gene in the violent aggression group was higher than that in the normal adult controls (P < 0.025, OR = 2.29, 95% CI = 1.13-4.62). The difference in genotype distribution was significant among the three groups (P < 0.05), and when the violent group was compared with the two control groups, no significant difference was found (P > 0.025). The impulsiveness, trait irritability, verbal trait aggression, and physical trait aggression scores in the violent group were significantly higher than those in the nonviolent group of adolescents. These findings suggest that the variance in CRHR1 gene polymorphisms and personality traits may play a role in violent aggression in male adolescents, and that the interaction of the CRHR1 gene and the impulsive personality trait may cause an increased susceptibility to violence towards others.


Asunto(s)
Agresión , Personalidad/genética , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores de Hormona Liberadora de Corticotropina/genética , Adolescente , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino
14.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(2-3): 210-231, 2020 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216919

RESUMEN

Advancing towards modernization and urbanization, China is currently witnessing a soaring increase in intimate partner homicide (IPH). The present study sought to explore the characteristics of IPHs in China. Data from 979 judgments of this lethal serious crime were analyzed. In comparison with studies from other parts of the world, this study determined the characteristics of IPHs in China in terms of perpetrators, victims, incidents, and types of intimate relationships. Although the previous theoretical research has given reasonable explanations for IPHs, the relationship between perpetrator and victim is actually a neglected area in the study of IPHs. In this study, we found that the relationship between them played a leading role in understanding IPHs in China.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Homicidio/tendencias , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia de Pareja/tendencias , China , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Cambio Social , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Psychol Assess ; 32(3): 265-276, 2020 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697111

RESUMEN

The current study tested whether a self-report measure of aggression (i.e., the Peer Conflict Scale; PCS) would predict later delinquency, after controlling for other risk factors, and tested whether the different forms and functions of aggression contributed independently to this prediction. Self-report of aggression was assessed at the time of first arrest, and both self-report of delinquency and official arrests were assessed at 5 different time points over a 30-month follow-up period in a sample of male adolescent offenders (N = 1,216; Mage = 15.12, SD = 1.29 years) arrested in 3 regions (i.e., western, southern, northeast) of the United States. Aggression predicted both later total and later violent self-reported delinquency (odds ratio [OR] = 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.01, 1.02]), even after controlling for youths' self-reported lifetime history of delinquent acts and callous-unemotional (CU) traits (i.e., Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits) collected at initial arrest. Further, only self-reported aggression (but not lifetime delinquency and CU traits) contributed independently (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [1.00, 1.03]) to the prediction of arrests for violent offenses. Finally, the predictive utility of aggression was largely accounted for by physical and reactive aggression, with limited incremental prediction provided by relational and proactive aggression. These findings support the potential utility of self-reports of aggression, such as the PCS, when assessing risk for future violence. Findings also suggest that the utility of these self-reports of aggression cannot be solely accounted for by other risk factors often included in typical risk assessment tools. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Reincidencia/psicología , Autoinforme , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Masculino , Grupo Paritario , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 79-100, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226446

RESUMEN

The Sexual Sadism Scale (SeSaS) was developed to assist in the diagnosis of sexual sadism, and it revealed adequate psychometric properties in prior research. This study cross validated the SeSaS in Switzerland using a sample of 179 male sex offenders. Specifically, the SeSaS conformed to a Mokken model of double monotonicity (scalability coefficient [H] = .46, coefficient of reproducibility [CR] = .89), indicating that it measures a unidimensional construct of sexual sadism with hierarchically ordered items. The reliability of the scale was acceptable to high (ρ = .80, λ2 = .75, κ = .88). In addition, the SeSaS was strongly associated with sexual sadism diagnoses based on mental health manuals (rpb = .60, odds ratio [OR] = 13.02, area under the curve [AUC] = 1) but not with recidivism. The results suggest that the use of the SeSaS may improve the validity and reliability of sexual sadism diagnoses, therefore playing a role in the assessment and management of sex offenders.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Sadismo/diagnóstico , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/epidemiología , Psicometría , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Medición de Riesgo , Sadismo/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Suiza/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
17.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 101-124, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238826

RESUMEN

Sex offenders who cross over in victims' age, gender and relationship usually have a greater number of victims, which is associated with sexual recidivism. This investigation aimed to examine the prevalence of crossover index offending in Portugal, and to explore the predictive ability of sociodemographic and criminological variables on this outcome. A retrospective sample of 247 male individuals incarcerated for sex offenses in a Portuguese prison was drawn from official records. From those offenders with multiple victims (n = 94), 48% had victims of different age categories, 10% had both gendered victims, and 12% had intrafamilial and extrafamilial victims. Comparative statistics and logistic regressions were able to identify variables that distinguished noncrossover and crossover offenders and that predicted crossover, respectively. While likely underestimates of the prevalence of victim crossover, these findings are compared to previous international studies and provide a better understanding of the phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Víctimas de Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Literatura Erótica , Violación/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Distribución por Edad , Anciano , Niño , Familia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Portugal , Estudios Retrospectivos , Distribución por Sexo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
18.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(5): 602-613, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31762094

RESUMEN

Over the years, the number of homicides in Italy has progressively decreased, ultimately becoming one of the lowest rates in Europe (357 = 0.7 per 100,000 inhabitants in 2017, according to ISTAT). The number of homicides committed by women was about 9% of the total number of homicides during our study period. The percentage has increased in recent years because the total number of homicides has decreased without a proportionate decrease in the number of female homicides. Indeed, murder is an unusual type of crime for a woman and is often associated with a mental disorder, so when a woman committed a homicide, a psychiatric assessment was often performed. A forensic psychiatry expert was assigned to investigate the offender's psychopathology and mental state at the time of the offense. The root causes of the crime remained unexplained, however, due to the lack of a psychiatric precedent to justify this kind of assessment. The role of psychopathy in homicide has seldom been studied in female offenders, even though psychopathy has an important role in violent crimes. The investigators examined, clinically and historically, a sample of women who committed murder with different levels of criminal responsibility (female homicide offenders found not guilty by reason of insanity, having partial criminal responsibility, and convicted as criminally responsible and sentenced to prison) to identify the prevalence of the psychopathic dimension and its possible role in this sample. Prevalence and degree of psychopathic traits were examined in these female offenders using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised. This study showed that females who had committed homicide were likely to suffer from mental illness; most of the homicidal acts were committed impulsively; and most female homicides occurred within the family, especially among women who were psychotic, but less so if they were psychopathic. Psychopathy tended to co-occur more with personality disorders than with psychotic psychopathology. Psychopathy was more evident among female homicide offenders who had been abused or traumatized. Psychopathic women who killed had high factor F1 scores and low antisocial component of factor F2.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Mujeres , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Homicidio/psicología , Humanos , Conducta Impulsiva , Italia/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/epidemiología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Prevalencia , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Trastornos Psicóticos/psicología , Adulto Joven
19.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 66: 101471, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706405

RESUMEN

Historically, research on violence risk assessments has primarily focused on male psychiatric patients and/or inmates, with minimal attention given to female patients and/or inmates-two populations likely to differ with regard to violence risk conceptualization. To date, there is no known measure of violence risk specifically tailored to predicting risk for this population that is accurate, brief, and cost-effective. As such, the current study exclusively focused on the predictive ability of the Iowa Violence and Victimization Instrument (IVVI) for female parolees over a 30-month follow-up period. Results indicated not only was the IVVI comparable across genders, its predictive power was comparable to more established measures (i.e., Violence Risk Appraisal Guide-Revised, HCR-20 V3). Results also found the IVVI may have greater usefulness with prediction of violent and felony property offenses, but limited usefulness for predicting misdemeanor property and drug offenses. Taken together, findings gathered from the current study suggest while women are reoffending at lower rates than men, yet there are fewer gender differences in risk factors for engaging in violence than expected.


Asunto(s)
Psicología Criminal/instrumentación , Criminales/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Reincidencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Violencia/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Iowa , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Factores de Riesgo , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
20.
Dev Psychol ; 55(12): 2678-2691, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613125

RESUMEN

Recidivism remains a serious issue in the modern criminal justice system, with over 80% of those previously incarcerated being rearrested within 9 years of release (Alper, Durose, & Markman, 2018). Although previous studies have identified risk factors that increase the probability of rearrest, much remains unknown regarding the full constellation of risk factors. One potential risk factor that has received limited attention is intelligence, as individuals with lower IQ scores have been found to be more likely to come into initial contact with the criminal justice system. Collectively, previous studies have provided preliminary evidence of intelligence as a risk factor for rearrest but have not fully explored this association. More specifically, it remains unclear whether the association between IQ and recidivism persists after controlling for time-invariant, individual-specific sources of variance in criminal behavior. The current study aimed to address this limitation and more closely examine the longitudinal association between IQ and rearrest with data from the Pathways to Desistance Study (N = 1,331 individuals). To distinguish variance in intelligence from time-stable, individual-specific variance in criminality, we estimated a latent trait-state-occasion model. A subsequent series of survival models, which included the previously estimated measure of criminality as a covariate, revealed a small and negative association between IQ and rearrest (hazard ratio = .95; 95% confidence interval [.92; .98]), suggesting that IQ may play only a minor role in recidivism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Inteligencia , Delincuencia Juvenil/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Pruebas de Inteligencia , Entrevistas como Asunto , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Estudios Prospectivos , Reincidencia/psicología
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