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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 71-79, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183601

RESUMEN

Priority given to investigating the onset and maintenance of criminal behavior in the past is currently giving way to a new focus on the process of criminal desistance. Early narratives of future desistance are the first step in this process and, although they do not assure withdrawal from crime, they are the beginning of the personal change that precedes a progressive desistance from criminal activity. This study analyzes early desistance narratives of offenders still in prison and whether these narratives differed depending on their personal, criminal, and social characteristics. Participants were 44 imprisoned male offenders, aged between 20 and 50 years old at different stages of their sentence and in three different prison regimes. They were interviewed using Cid and Martí's protocol and their accounts were accordingly coded in three categories: early narratives towards a non-criminal identity, perceived self-efficacy to desist from crime, and will to desist. The results show that participants' early desistance narratives vary depending on their personal, criminal, and social variables. Results on the periods of sentence completion and prison regimes are discussed in terms of how prisons could contribute to enhancing the narratives of desistance from crime


La prioridad otorgada en el pasado a la investigación sobre el inicio y mantenimiento de la conducta delictiva está dando paso actualmente al análisis del proceso de desistimiento delictivo. Las narrativas tempranas del desistimiento futuro son el primer paso en este proceso y, aunque no aseguran dicho desistimiento, son el comienzo del cambio personal que precede al abandono progresivo de la actividad delictiva. Este estudio analiza las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de delincuentes aún en prisión y si estas narrativas difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los participantes fueron 44 varones encarcelados, con edades comprendidas entre los 20 y los 50 años, en diferentes fases de su sentencia y en tres grados penitenciarios distintos. Fueron entrevistados utilizando el protocolo de Cid y Martí y sus relatos fueron codificados en tres categorías: narrativas tempranas sobre una identidad no delictiva, autoeficacia percibida para desistir del delito y voluntad para desistir. Los resultados muestran que las narrativas tempranas de desistimiento de los participantes difieren según sus características personales, delictivas y sociales. Los resultados relativos a la fase de la sentencia y a los grados penitenciarios se discuten en términos de cómo las prisiones pueden contribuir a potenciar las narrativas de desistimiento delictivo


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Conducta Criminal , Criminales/psicología , Autoeficacia , Terapia Narrativa/métodos , Evaluación de Eficacia-Efectividad de Intervenciones , Psicología Criminal/métodos
2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(2): 93-97, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183603

RESUMEN

Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators were categorized based on whether they were generally violent (GV) or family only violent (FO) using self-report or arrest records. Classification criteria to assess recidivism in perpetrators of IPV were evaluated herein to determine the incremental validity of using a perpetrator's criminal history in addition to their self-report information for categorization purposes. The concordance rates for categorizing subtypes of male perpetrators were compared for two methods, namely, self-report versus criminal history data. Categorizations were made based on self-reported history of violence and federal criminal records separately. Between measures consistency was defined as whether or not the self-report categorizations matched federal criminal record categorizations. It was hypothesized that self-report would not be sufficient as the sole method of categorizing male perpetrators, and the use of criminal history data would add to the validity of the categorization system. Self-reports of aggression were higher than criminal records of aggression. Using data sources together may yield the best outcomes for offenders and society. Implications are discussed


Se clasificaron los varones que ejercen violencia en las relaciones de pareja (VP) en función de si eran violentos en general (VG) o solo en el entorno familiar (VF), empleando registros de autoinformes o de arrestos. Se analizaron los criterios de clasificación para evaluar la reincidencia de los infractores de VP con el fin de determinar la validez incremental del uso de los antecedentes penales del infractor, además de la información procedente de su autoinforme para la clasificación. Se compararon los índices de concordancia para categorizar los subtipos de infractores masculinos para dos métodos: los datos procedentes de autoinforme y los de antecedentes penales. La categorización se basó en la historia de violencia autoinformada y en los antecedentes penales por separado. La congruencia entre medidas se definió como la coincidencia o discrepancia de la categorización de autoinforme con la categorización de antecedentes penales. Se planteó la hipótesis de que el autoinforme no bastaba como único método para clasificar a los infractores masculinos y que el uso de datos procedentes de antecedentes penales aumentaba la validez del sistema de categorización. Hubo más autoinformes sobre agresión que antecedentes penales de agresión. El uso conjunto de ambos podría tener mejores resultados, tanto para los delincuentes como para la sociedad. Se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Violencia de Género/clasificación , Criminales/psicología , Agresión/clasificación , Conducta Peligrosa , Violencia contra la Mujer , Autoinforme/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 471-474, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31509039

RESUMEN

Purpose: We investigated whether psychopathy-associated personality traits and behavioral styles affect the manner in which homicides are committed or the motives underlying them. Materials and methods: Using three nationwide registries and an in-house homicide database based on court verdicts, we identified all cases of homicide in Sweden during the years 2007, 2008 and 2009. In 72 male offenders who had undergone assessment using the Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R), the manner of homicide was categorized as instrumental or expressive, and the motive as belonging to one of five categories: (1) intimate-partner or family-related homicide; (2) homicide occurring during altercations, (3) robberies or burglaries, or (4) criminal conflicts; or (5) sexual homicide. Results and conclusions: Offenders who had committed homicide in an instrumental manner or with a sexual motive had higher scores on PCL-R factor 1 than offenders displaying an expressive manner or other motives, suggesting that partially adaptive personality traits influence the crime-scene behavior of the former type of offenders more than maladaptive behavioral styles.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Homicidio/psicología , Trastornos de la Personalidad/psicología , Personalidad , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Homicidio/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastornos de la Personalidad/epidemiología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Suecia/epidemiología
4.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 22: e190051, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553358

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of depression is high in the prison system, and the differences between sex regarding associated risk factors are still not clear. We analyzed the correlated factors of depression among incarcerated men and women in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional study with stratified and multi-stage probabilistic sample was performed. Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was applied for psychiatric diagnostic classification, as well as a questionnaire on criminal history with 1,192 men and 617 women. Lifetime prevalence of mental disorder was calculated, and association analysis performed by multinomial logistic regression stratified by sex. A dependent variable was categorized into depression, any other mental disorder and no mental disorder (reference). RESULTS: The prevalence of depression was of 33.3% -(30.3 - 36.5) in women and 12.9% (11.1 - 15.0) in men. Depression was associated with disciplinary penalty, being in a stable relationship, physical health problems and history of infringement in adolescence in men. Regarding other mental illnesses, the correlated factors were historical transgression during adolescence and re-offense. Among women, depression was associated with physical health problems, drug crimes, violent crimes and being imprisoned. DISCUSSION: Results confirmed the differences between associated factors with depression regarding sex. CONCLUSION: Differences in the profile between men and women require effective specialized programs, considering the need for coping strategies for incarcerated men and health-related rehabilitation for women with depression.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/epidemiología , Prisioneros/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiología , Criminales/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/diagnóstico , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Sexuales , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
5.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 189-195, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483552

RESUMEN

Looking in from the outside, what would the ordinary person expect of forensic mental health services? I suggest that there are three questions he or she would ask: (a) Are there public health measures that can be introduced to prevent those with mental disorder going on to commit crimes? (b) Can we identify in advance the individual who is likely to go on and commit a violent act because of his or her mental health difficulties, and prevent that or limit damage? (c) If a seriously harmful act has already been committed, what interventions might prevent a repetition? All of these questions are about prevention of an untoward event in the future and anticipate knowledge. How secure can we be that current forensic mental health practitioners can make adequately evidenced responses? I fear that examination of current literature would indicate that they and their academic colleagues would fall short of these expectations. Reasons for this are undoubtedly numerous. The issues are complex, with the interplay of many variables from the vagaries of human nature through varying presentations of disorders, still often classified rather than diagnosed, to widely differing environments which, further, may suddenly change in a critical way. The impact of a serious offence can be so catastrophic that officialdom often decides that "something must be done." Yet, without a good evidence base, such decision-making is often ineffective and wasteful of resources. The limited evidence base has not been helped by the virtual extinction of an academic forensic psychiatry infrastructure and funding within British universities and the National Health Service. This does not bode well for the future.


Asunto(s)
Crimen/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Femenino , Psiquiatría Forense , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental
6.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1952-1966, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31485985

RESUMEN

Risky behavior is common among traumatized youth and is associated with juvenile offending. This study examined predictors of posttraumatic risky behavior, the unique contribution of posttraumatic risky behavior in predicting offending, and tested whether a distinct class of youth was characterized by high levels of posttraumatic risky behavior. Participants were 400 adolescents (25% girls) between the ages of 12 and 19 years old (M = 15.97, SD = 1.25) who were involved in the Utah juvenile justice system. Approximately 54% of the sample identified as an ethnic minority. Youth completed self-report measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic risky behavior, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and offending. Formal legal records of offending were also collected. The results indicated that female sex was significantly related to posttraumatic risky behavior, though age was not significantly associated with posttraumatic risky behavior. Age and ethnicity were associated with both self-reported and formal offending, and male sex was associated with formal offending. Posttraumatic risky behavior was not related to formal offending, but was related to self-reported offending in some of the tested models. Latent class analysis identified 92 youth characterized by high levels of posttraumatic risky behavior; these youth also evidenced the highest rates of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptom severity, and self-reported offending. There were no ethnic, age, or sex differences between youth in the high and low posttraumatic risky behavior groups. These results add to the extant literature documenting the associations among exposure to trauma, posttraumatic stress, and juvenile offending.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Grupos Minoritarios/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Adolescente , Grupos Étnicos/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Asunción de Riesgos , Utah
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 617, 2019 Sep 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477102

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Long stay in forensic psychiatric hospitals is common in patients who are defined as "not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder". However, little is known about how these patients experience and perceive the long stay within these settings. The aim of this study is to explore the perception and needs of long-stay patients in forensic psychiatric hospitals in China. METHODS: In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants who had lived in the forensic psychiatry hospital for more than 8 years. We used thematic analysis strategies to analyse the qualitative data. RESULTS: Participants' perceptions clustered seven themes: hopelessness, loneliness, worthlessness, low mood, sleep disturbances, lack of freedom, and lack of mental health intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The views and opinions expressed by long-stay patients showed that psychological distress is prevailing in forensic psychiatric hospitals. Adequate and effective care and mental health interventions are recommended to be tailored for their special needs.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense , Hospitales Psiquiátricos , Trastornos Mentales , Satisfacción del Paciente , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Investigación Cualitativa , Autoimagen
8.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1869-1882, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478119

RESUMEN

To understand the etiology and consequences of child sexual abuse it is important to study the victims' subjective reactions to such incidents. Because researchers have not been able to survey children about sexual abuse, not much is known about how subjective reactions are related to gender, age, age difference, and the social relationship between the offender and victim. The present study fills this gap using data gathered from a large, nationally representative sample of Finnish children ages 11 to 17 (N = 32,145). Analyses of abuse are based on a sample of 1520 children (78% girls), while analyses of peer sexual experiences are based on a sample of 3551 children (55% girls). Multivariate analyses adjusted for the use of coercion, the intimacy of the sexual experience, and other incident characteristics. It was hypothesized that, as a result of sex differences in sexuality and attitudes toward deviant behavior, girls are more sensitive than boys to age and age difference. Three findings supported the hypothesis: (1) girls were more likely than boys to have a negative reaction to sexual encounters regardless of the age difference; (2) for girls, age was negatively associated with the likelihood of a negative reaction, but age had no effect for boys; and (3) girls reacted negatively to age difference while boys did not. However, girls did not react more negatively unless the offender was at least eight years older. The results highlight the susceptibility of adolescent boys to encounters with older women. They further suggest that ignoring the role of the victim limits understanding of the vulnerability of young people to sexual abuse.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Coerción , Criminales/psicología , Grupo Paritario , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Adolescente , Niño , Víctimas de Crimen , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 207-217, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478274

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Care pathway approaches were introduced into health care in the 1980s and have become standard international practice. They are now being introduced more specifically for health care in the criminal justice system. Care pathway delivery has the theoretical advantage of encouraging a whole-systems approach for health and social care within the criminal justice system, but how well is it supported by empirical evidence? AIMS: The aim of this study is to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. METHOD: We used an exploratory narrative method to review the nature and extent of evidence streams supporting health care delivery within interagency pathway developments since 2000. The available literature was reviewed using a keyword search approach with three databases: PubMed, Medline, and Google Scholar. FINDINGS: Research in this field has covered police custody, courts, prisons, and the wider community, but there is little that follows the entire career through all these elements of offender placement. Main themes in the research to date, regardless of where the research was conducted, have been counting the disorder or the need, development and evaluation of screening tools, and evaluation of clinical intervention styles. Most evidence to date is simply observational, although the possibility of conducting randomised controlled trials of interventions within parts of the criminal justice system, especially prisons, is now well established. CONCLUSIONS: Access to health care while passing through the criminal justice system is essential because of the disproportionately high rates of mental disorder among offenders, and the concept of structured pathways to ensure this theoretically satisfying, but as yet empirically unsupported. Further, substantial cuts in services, generally following government economies, are largely unresearched. Considerable investment in new possibilities, driven by both pressure groups and government, tend to be informed by good will and theory rather than hard evidence and are often not evaluated even after introduction. This must change.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Penal , Criminales/psicología , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Salud Mental , Humanos , Aplicación de la Ley , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Policia/organización & administración , Prisioneros/psicología , Prisiones
10.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 196-206, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478288

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: A small proportion of every nation's young people become sufficiently antisocial to come into contact with the criminal justice system. Many also have disorders of mental health or emotional well-being. Although countries vary in designating age of criminal responsibility, all must provide services for offenders, perhaps as young as 10, both to help them and safeguard their peers and the wider public. AIM: The aim of this article is to map the range of research required to support the development of satisfactory services for young mentally disordered offenders and identify knowledge gaps from a practitioner's perspective. METHODS: Using a public health prevention framework, we identified the main streams of research pertinent to young, mentally disordered offenders and sought examples of each to consider the extent to which they have been used to inform service development in England. FINDINGS: As in most countries, service development seems first driven by unusual, newsworthy cases. Overall, however, current English provision follows sound primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention principles with parallel tiers of service, including public health initiatives. Primary prevention and more specific treatments are likely to be informed by research findings, but service structure tends to emerge from a wider review base, including criminal justice, social and educational practitioner reviews, and also politics. Thus, services and populations of service users may change in advance of research evidence. Substantial reduction in numbers of young offenders in prison in England, for example, is clearly good in principle, but the intensity of need in the residual group is posing new challenges to which there are, yet, few answers. CONCLUSIONS: Although the last 15 years of coordinated service development in England has been broadly theoretically based, it has not been systematically assessed to establish what works best for whom. New problems emerging, such as new drugs of misuse, and new opportunities, such as technology for supporting and monitoring, require model studies. More research focusing on correlates of success is essential.


Asunto(s)
Criminales/psicología , Psiquiatría Forense , Trastornos Mentales/diagnóstico , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Salud Mental , Adolescente , Derecho Penal , Inglaterra , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/terapia
11.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 227-238, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478289

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sexual behaviour towards another person who does not or cannot consent to it causes serious harm to its victims. Understandable tendencies towards isolating or shaming the offenders, however, may actually increase risks of recidivism and further such harms. AIM: The study aims to consider evidence for the effectiveness of interventions for sex offenders, mainly in a U.K. context, across four areas: criminal justice system programmes, medication, interventions for sex offenders with personality disorder and a community-based model for the reintegration-Circles of Support and Accountability, and identify key evidence gaps. METHODS: We searched for reviews in the following four strands of work-psychosocial programmes, medication, personality focused therapies, and Circles of Support and Accountability-and identified gaps in knowledge. FINDINGS: Randomised controlled trials in this field are rare but have been achieved. Findings from more naturalistic outcome studies of sex offender treatment programmes are disappointing, but recidivism rates among released sex offender prisoners are low, regardless. Medication relying on substantial physiological change raises substantial ethical concerns. Not all sex offenders have a mental disorder but up to half have been diagnosed with a personality disorder, which may need specific treatment. Evidence is growing that lay work such as Circles of Support and Accountability is a valuable adjunct to other interventions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH: In this field, where tensions between attributions swing between "madness" and "badness," there is growing evidence for optimism that complexity of history and presentation can be met through cooperation between the many disciplines, integrative strategies, and wider community engagement. The need now is for large, prospective controlled trials of interventions, with long periods of follow-up. Perhaps, the most exciting developments have come from the wider public. More research into the qualities of these volunteers might inform public education and health strategies supporting wider safety.


Asunto(s)
Antagonistas de Andrógenos/uso terapéutico , Antipsicóticos/uso terapéutico , Criminales/psicología , Libido/efectos de los fármacos , Trastornos Mentales/tratamiento farmacológico , Grupos de Autoayuda , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual/efectos de los fármacos , Responsabilidad Social , Apoyo Social , Adulto , Antagonistas de Andrógenos/efectos adversos , Antipsicóticos/efectos adversos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Mentales/etiología , Prisioneros , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología
12.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 247-255, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31478306

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mentally disordered offenders may suffer discrimination on the basis of mental disorder, or on the basis of being offenders, or both. AIMS: The aim of this paper is to outline a framework for examining discrimination affecting mentally disordered offenders. It is argued that there should be systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and nonoffenders with mental disorder in order to identify and characterise specific failures to ensure equivalence of mental health care; and systematic comparisons between offenders with mental disorder and offenders without mental disorder in order to identify how mental disorder may constitute a barrier to forms of support and constructive intervention available to other offenders. METHODS: A critical review was conducted of official documents presenting criminal justice and mental health policy for England and Wales, principally since 2012, together with reports of inspectorate and oversight bodies and relevant research studies. FINDINGS: There is evidence that offenders with mental disorder may not be able to access mental health care equivalent to that for nonoffenders with mental disorder. There is also evidence that they may not be able to access interventions available to other offenders. Further disadvantage may arise in the criminal courts since, in England and Wales, if inpatient care is required, the powers of criminal courts to effect hospital admission under Part III of mental health legislation are weakened by the statutory requirement of information that places are available. This is discriminatory against offenders with mental disorder insofar as forms of court disposal for other offenders are not prevented by the capacity of criminal justice agencies. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The review supports the need for systematic comparisons to identify forms of disadvantage and discrimination experienced by mentally disordered offenders in relation to both mental health and criminal justice policies services.


Asunto(s)
Derecho Penal , Criminales/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derecho Penal/legislación & jurisprudencia , Inglaterra , Hospitalización , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos , Gales
13.
Crim Behav Ment Health ; 29(4): 218-226, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The number of older people and their proportion of the prison population in high-income countries is increasing substantially. This pattern is mirrored by the age profile in forensic hospital services, and both trends seem counter to the age-crime curve concept. How do we understand this and what are the mental health needs of this growing group? AIM: The aim of this review is to identify existing research robust enough to inform policy and practice in relation to mental health in older offenders and the knowledge gaps that should drive future research. METHODS: A keyword-based search strategy of the databases Embase, PsychINFO, Medline, and grey literature 2008-2018. Article selection was limited to empirical research with the potential to inform policy or practice and findings synthesised narratively. RESULTS: Much of the research in this field focuses on prevalence and the increased psychiatric morbidity of the older offender population. Older prisoners and those older patients in secure hospitals have needs that differ in some respects from their younger counterparts and community-dwelling older people. There are few studies of interventions for mental health in older prisoners or into the challenges of timely release given their complex needs. Discharge of older individuals from secure settings is also an area where further research is required in order to inform policy and service provision. CONCLUSIONS: The older population in prisons and secure settings is growing, and there is much concern as to how far facilities and services have been able to identify and meet the mental health needs of those of older age. Cooperation between researchers and services and between disciplines will be essential if we are to secure a more robust evidence base in this respect. Engaging service users in such research and considering the whole criminal justice pathway including diversion remains a priority.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/tendencias , Crimen/estadística & datos numéricos , Derecho Penal , Criminales/psicología , Salud Mental , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Crimen/psicología , Humanos , Masculino , Prisioneros/psicología , Prisioneros/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
Nord J Psychiatry ; 73(8): 501-508, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31443617

RESUMEN

Purpose: Schizophrenia is associated with an increased homicide risk. Personality pathology, particularly antisocial personality disorder and psychopathic traits, has been associated with increased violence risk in schizophrenia. Childhood trauma, more specifically physical abuse, has been associated with violence risk in healthy populations and in individuals with mental illness. It is, however, unclear how childhood trauma relates to homicide in schizophrenia. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to concurrently examine personality pathology and childhood trauma in a group consisting solely of homicide offenders with schizophrenia (HOS). HOS is compared to nonviolent participants with the same diagnosis (non-HOS). Additionally, currently assessed demographical and clinical characteristics of a Norwegian sample of HOS are reported. Materials and methods: Two groups of participants with schizophrenia were recruited in collaboration with in and outpatient clinics across Norway, HOS (n= 26) and non-HOS (n= 28). Assessments of personality pathology and childhood trauma were conducted, and information about clinical and demographical characteristics was registered. Results: HOS participants had significantly higher psychopathy scores, and more frequently reported moderate to severe childhood physical abuse than non-HOS participants. When simultaneously added to a logistic regression model, only psychopathy uniquely contributed to explaining group membership. Conclusions: Psychopathy and physical abuse was more prevalent among HOS participants compared to non-HOS, but only psychopathy independently predicted homicidal status. These results confirm the importance of including an evaluation of psychopathic traits in violence risk assessments of individuals with schizophrenia.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Homicidio/psicología , Esquizofrenia , Psicología del Esquizofrénico , Adulto , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/tendencias , Femenino , Homicidio/tendencias , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Noruega/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Esquizofrenia/epidemiología , Violencia/psicología , Violencia/tendencias , Adulto Joven
15.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 689-699, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31464448

RESUMEN

Fearless dominance (FD) generally manifests null to small relations with externalizing problems, leading some researchers to propose alternative paths by which FD features may relate to these problems. The current study provides a test of two possibilities, namely that FD (a) interacts statistically with self-centered impulsivity (SCI) such that FD is associated with externalizing problems only at high levels of SCI and (b) demonstrates curvilinear relations with externalizing problems such that FD is more strongly associated with these problems at high levels. We used a large correctional sample and item-response theory-related statistics to precisely estimate individuals' scores at the extremes of each major psychopathic trait. FD was not significantly associated with externalizing problems in interaction with SCI or at higher levels of FD, suggesting that psychopathic traits linked to boldness are not especially relevant to generalized externalizing behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Conducta Impulsiva/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Fenotipo , Adulto Joven
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(8): 2805-2810, 2019 Aug 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389529

RESUMEN

This research explores the mediational role of mental health in the relationship between early adverse experiences and current self-reported delinquency in young adults with past juvenile justice involvement. Seventy-five young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011 filled out our protocol in 2014/2015 including the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, the Brief Symptom Inventory, and the D-CRIM questionnaire (evaluating delinquency). The global level of adverse experiences during childhood and adolescence was related to mental health problems and self-reported delinquency in young adulthood, while psychopathological symptoms were also related to current self-reported delinquency. The mental health indicator partially mediated the link between early adversity and current self-reported offending in individuals with past juvenile justice involvement. Our results are in line with previous psychological and neurobiological approaches and highlight the importance of mental health services in youth offender rehabilitation. Future directions for research are provided.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/estadística & datos numéricos , Criminales/psicología , Delincuencia Juvenil/psicología , Servicios de Salud Mental/organización & administración , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Delincuencia Juvenil/rehabilitación , Masculino , Salud Mental , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16103, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335669

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Evidence showed that reoffending habits are increasing among offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Given the recidivism rates, a psychotherapeutic intervention becomes imperative. This study examined the efficacy of prison-based cognitive behavioral rehabilitation intervention (PCBRI) on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons. METHOD: A total of45 participants were the sample size. Compulsive Sexual Behavior Inventory and Hypersexual Behavior Inventory were employed in assessing the participants at 3 points. Using a simple random allocation sequence, 23 participants were exposed to PCBRI programme and 22 participants allocated to control condition. The data obtained were analyzed using repeated measures 2-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Results indicated a significant effect of the treatment on violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Nigerian prisons exposed to the PCBRI programme when compared to the no-intervention group. Result also showed a significant interaction effect of time and group on sex offenders with violent sexual behaviors. Follow-up tests showed significant decrease in violent sexual behaviors after 6 months for the PCBRI group in comparison to the control group. CONCLUSION: This study concluded that PCBRI approach is a type of psychotherapy that reduces violent sexual behaviors among sex offenders in Southeast Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Criminales/psicología , Delitos Sexuales , Adulto , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nigeria , Prisiones , Reincidencia/prevención & control , Reincidencia/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/prevención & control , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento
18.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 128(7): 700-709, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318243

RESUMEN

Although previous research has established a link between early interpersonal callousness (IC) from childhood to adolescence and later antisocial behavior and psychopathic features, the majority of these studies assess more proximal outcomes (e.g., assessed in adolescence). Thus, it is unclear whether youth with early-onset chronic levels of IC will continue to have negative outcomes into adulthood (i.e., roughly 14 years after IC was assessed). The current study used data from the youngest cohort (N = 503) of the Pittsburgh Youth Study to examine how latent classes of youth with different developmental patterns of IC across a 7-year period (∼ages 8 to 15) differed in their official records of juvenile (∼ages 16-17) and young adult (∼ages 18-31) offending, as well as self-reported psychopathic features and aggression in young adulthood (∼age 29). Results indicated that after adjusting for race, early offending, and externalizing behaviors in adolescence, youth with an early-onset chronic pattern of IC had substantially elevated risk for a serious and persistent pattern of offending, particularly violent offending. However, once these covariates were included, IC class no longer significantly predicted psychopathic features in adulthood. Thus, it is possible that the stability from early patterns of IC to adult psychopathic features may have previously been overstated. Future work could examine whether interventions to reduce IC in childhood and adolescence could successfully result in improved outcomes into adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Agresión/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Antisocial/psicología , Criminales/psicología , Emociones/fisiología , Relaciones Interpersonales , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Adulto Joven
19.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(4): 435-451, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31268203

RESUMEN

Deficits in impulse control have been linked to criminal offending, risk of recidivism, and other maladaptive behaviours relevant to the criminal justice system (e.g. substance use). Impulse control can be conceptualized as encompassing the broad domains of response inhibition and impulsive/risky decision-making. Advancements in technology have led to the development of computerized behavioural measures to assess performance in these domains, such as go/no-go and delay discounting tasks. Despite a relatively large literature examining these tasks in offenders, findings are not universally consistent. This systematic review aims to synthesize the literature using computerized neurocognitive tasks to assess two domains of impulse control in offenders: response inhibition and impulsive/risky decision-making. The review included 28 studies from diverse geographic locations, settings, and offender populations. The results largely support the general conclusion that offenders exhibit deficits in impulse control compared with non-offenders, with studies of response inhibition more consistently reporting differences than studies using impulsive and risky decision-making tasks. Findings are discussed in the context of contemporary neuroimaging research emphasizing dysfunction in prefrontal cortex as a key contributor to impulse control deficits in offenders.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Conducta Impulsiva , Reincidencia , Criminales/psicología , Toma de Decisiones , Humanos , Masculino , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología
20.
Behav Sci Law ; 37(4): 452-467, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355480

RESUMEN

Mental health courts (MHCs) use a collaborative justice approach to provide a therapeutic alternative to the traditional justice process for defendants with mental illnesses directly relevant to their alleged criminal offenses. MHCs have proliferated in recent years, in light of early research reports documenting their successes. The aim of this paper is to provide further evaluation of the effects of MHCs by evaluating the impact of the Sacramento County MHC in California. We analyzed quantitative data and conducted interviews with stakeholders and MHC participants to understand how the MHC influenced individual participants' recidivism rates, mental health, and quality of life. Results from the quantitative data analysis indicate that defendants had a lower rate of recidivism after the MHC program than before it. Moreover, graduates were less likely to be rearrested and rehospitalized than non-graduates. Qualitative analyses revealed several core themes regarding participants' views on facilitators and barriers related to the MHC's success. These findings provide further insights into the effectiveness of MHCs.


Asunto(s)
Criminales , Trastornos Mentales , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Reincidencia , California , Criminales/psicología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Salud Mental/legislación & jurisprudencia , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Social , Justicia Social
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