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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 16, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910816

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a genus of common intestinal protozoa, members of which cause diarrhea in a wide variety of hosts. Previous studies on Cryptosporidium in China have mainly focused on diarrhea sufferers, children, and immunodeficient individuals such as HIV/AIDS patients. However, the epidemiological characteristics of Cryptosporidium in the population in rural areas remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the prevalence of, and risk factors for, Cryptosporidium in rural areas of Binyang County, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, and genetically characterized the Cryptosporidium isolates we obtained. METHODS: From August to December 2016, two villages in Binyang County, Guangxi, were sampled using a random cluster sampling method. Fresh fecal samples were collected from all eligible residents (residence time > 6 months). Molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium was carried out based on its SSU rRNA, gp60, actin and hsp70 gene sequences. Fisher's exact test were conducted to assess the risk factors for Cryptosporidium infection. RESULTS: A total of 400 fecal samples were collected from 195 males (48.8%) and 205 females (51.2%). Two samples (0.5%) were positive for Cryptosporidium and were identified as C. viatorum and C. occultus respectively. Moreover, a new C. viatorum subtype XVaA3h was identified based on the sequence of the gp 60 gene. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. viatorum and C. occultus infections in humans in China and of C. viatorum subtype XVaA3h. The findings provide important information on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in the Chinese population, and expand the range of Cryptosporidium species known to infect people in China.


Asunto(s)
Secuencia de Bases/genética , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , ADN Protozoario/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Niño , Preescolar , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
2.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3555-3559, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722067

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to survey the Cryptosporidium species in peafowls (Pavo cristatus) in Henan Province, China. A total of 143 fecal specimens collected from a breeding farm were tested for Cryptosporidium by nested PCR targeting the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA), 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70), and actin genes of Cryptosporidium followed by sequence analysis. Only one isolate from an asymptomatic host was obtained, and the isolate differed from a new C. xiaoi-like genotype by one nucleotide and from C. xiaoi or C. bovis at the SSU rRNA locus by six nucleotides. Likewise, the actin gene shared 99% identity with the C. xiaoi-like genotype, accompanied by four nucleotide mutations. A complete sequence of the HSP70 gene was obtained, and exhibited 96% similarity with that from C. xiaoi and differed by one nucleotide from that with the C. xiaoi-like genotype. Phylogenetic analysis of the current isolate revealed genetic relatedness to the C. xiaoi-like genotype and distinction from C. xiaoi and C. bovis. Therefore, our results provided the first documentation of avian infection with a C. xiaoi-like genotype in China and further insight into the diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. in avians.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , ADN Protozoario/genética , Heces/parasitología , Galliformes/parasitología , Genotipo , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , ARN Ribosómico/genética
3.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 31(5): 474-478, 2019 Oct 08.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713374

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and molecular features of Cryptosporidium in sheep and goats from Anhui Province and neighboring provinces. METHODS: A total 832 and 781 fresh fecal samples were collected from seven large-scale sheep farms and ten large-scale goat farms in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces of Henan, Jiangsu and Shandong. The prevalence and species of Cryptosporidium were investigated in the fecal samples from the sheep and goats in the study areas using nested PCR assay based on the Cryptosporidium-specific SSU rDNA gene, and the subgenotypes of C. parvum and C. ubiquitum were characterized by amplification and sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 5.8% (48/832) in sheep and 8.7% (68/781) in goats in Anhui Province and neighboring provinces, respectively. The SSU rDNA gene-based PCR assay identified C. xiaoi and C. ubiquitum in sheep and C. parvum in goats, and subtyping revealed that all C. ubiquitum subgenotypes belonged to XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subgenotypes belonged to IIdA19G1. CONCLUSIONS: The identification of zoonotic C. ubiquitum XIIa subtype 2 and C. parvum subtype IIdA19G1 suggests that sheep and goats may serve as a potential source for human Cryptosporidium infections.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium , Enfermedades de las Cabras , Enfermedades de las Ovejas , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/genética , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Enfermedades de las Cabras/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Cabras/parasitología , Cabras , Humanos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Ovinos , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Ovejas/parasitología
4.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3195-3204, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724068

RESUMEN

Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) and comparative genomics are increasingly used in the characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. They are facilitated by the establishment of procedures for WGS analysis of clinical specimens without laboratory propagation of pathogens. Results of recent comparative genomics analysis suggest that gene duplication might be associated with broad host ranges of some zoonotic Cryptosporidium species and subtypes, while genetic recombination could be involved in the emergence of virulent subtypes. The availability of WGS data has further facilitated the development of advanced molecular typing tools. The use of these tools together with comparative genomics analyses has begun to improve the investigations of outbreaks in industrialized nations. More WGS data, however, are needed from both industrialized nations and developing countries before we can have in-depth understanding of the population genetics and evolution of Cryptosporidium spp. and genetic determinants of various phenotypic traits in human-pathogenic subtypes.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Genómica , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/patogenicidad , Genoma de Protozoos/genética , Genotipo , Especificidad del Huésped/genética , Humanos , Epidemiología Molecular , Virulencia/genética
5.
Ann Parasitol ; 65(3): 237-243, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599539

RESUMEN

Rabbits are commonly reared by households and farmers in Nigeria as a source of meat, but there is no information available on Cryptosporidium genotypes occurring in rabbits in Nigeria. Fecal samples were collected from 107 rabbits and examined by modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique for the presence of Cryptosporidium oocysts. An infection rate of 3.7% (4/107) was obtained and all microscopy-positive samples were genotyped and subtyped to determine the circulating Cryptosporidium species using sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene and 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene, respectively. All the four microscopy-positive samples were identified as C. parvum by 18S rRNA gene. However, analysis of the gp60 gene revealed the presence of C. parvum subtype IIc, which is commonly found in humans in two isolates. These findings indicate natural infection of rabbits with C. parvum and underscore the need to investigate the probable role of animal hosts in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection. This is the first report on genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium infecting rabbits in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis , Cryptosporidium parvum , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales , Animales , Criptosporidiosis/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Parasitarias en Animales/parasitología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Conejos , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , Sialoglicoproteínas/genética
6.
Parasitol Res ; 118(12): 3509-3517, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624910

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis are protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea in humans and animals. Molecular data on Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis in calves in the Republic of Korea (ROK) is limited; thus, we investigated the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in pre-weaned calves, analyzed the association between these parasites and diarrhea, and identified their zoonotic potential for human infection. Fecal samples were collected from 315 pre-weaned calves aged 1-60 days from 10 different regions in the ROK and screened for Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis using PCR. Overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. and G. duodenalis was 4.4% (n = 14) and 12.7% (n = 40), respectively. Co-infection was not detected. All Cryptosporidium-positive samples were identified as C. parvum after sequence analysis of a small subunit rRNA fragment and further subtyped into zoonotic IIaA15G2R1 (n = 13) and IIaA18G3R1 (n = 1) by DNA sequencing of the 60-kDa glycoprotein gene. To our knowledge, this is the first report of C. parvum IIaA15G2R1 subtype in calves in the ROK. Based on ß-giardin (bg) gene, G. duodenalis-positive samples belonged to assemblages E (n = 36) and A (n = 4), with the latter belonging to subtype A1, the zoonotic genotype. Six subtypes of assemblage E were identified at the bg locus: E1 (n = 6), E2 (n = 3), E3 (n = 13), E5 (n = 1), E8 (n = 1), and E11 (n = 1). The occurrence of C. parvum and G. duodenalis was not associated with diarrhea in pre-weaned Korean native calves. The present results suggest that the prevalence of C. parvum is not related to calf age; in contrast, the prevalence of G. duodenalis was significantly higher in 41-50-day-old calves (odds ratio = 9.90, 95% confidence interval 2.37-41.34; P = 0.001) than in 1-10-day-old calves. Therefore, calves are a potential source of zoonotic transmission, which may have significant public health implications.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Giardia/genética , Giardiasis/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/fisiopatología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/fisiopatología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genotipo , Giardia/clasificación , Giardia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Giardiasis/parasitología , Giardiasis/fisiopatología , Masculino , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , República de Corea/epidemiología , Destete
7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 808, 2019 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521133

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. are prevalent zoonotic parasites associated with a high burden among children. To date only limited molecular epidemiological data on E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. in humans living in Thailand has been published. METHODS: PCR-based tools were used to detect and characterize E. bieneusi and Cryptosporidium spp. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene was used to investigate E. bieneusi, and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene was used to investigate Cryptosporidium spp., and 697 fecal samples from villagers and school children in rural areas in Thailand were analyzed. RESULTS: The infection rates were 2.15% (15/697) for E. bieneusi and 0.14% (1/697) for Cryptosporidium spp. The prevalence of E. bieneusi was significantly high in Loei province. Sequence analysis indicated that the Cryptosporidium isolate was C. parvum. Nine E. bieneusi genotypes were identified, EbpC, Peru12, TMH6, TMH3, TMH7, H, D, and two novel genotypes TMLH1 and TMLH2. E. bieneusi prevalence was significantly higher in male participants than in female participants, and in children aged 3-15 years than in participants aged > 15 years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence, genotypes, and zoonotic potential of E. bieneusi were found to vary significantly high even in one country. Transmission routes and key animal carriers of E. bieneusi may be associated with differences in hygiene, sanitation, and cultural behaviors. Further molecular studies including longitudinal studies will be required to unveil epidemiological characteristics of these opportunistic intestinal protozoa in all over the countries.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Enterocytozoon/clasificación , Microsporidiosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Adolescente , Animales , Gatos , Niño , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/aislamiento & purificación , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Higiene , Masculino , Microsporidiosis/parasitología , Microsporidiosis/transmisión , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Población Rural , Saneamiento , Porcinos , Tailandia/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
8.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 453, 2019 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31521186

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium spp. are causative agents of gastrointestinal diseases in a wide variety of vertebrate hosts. Mortality resulting from the disease is low in livestock, although severe cryptosporidiosis has been associated with fatality in young animals. METHODS: The goal of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to review the prevalence and molecular data on Cryptosporidium infections in selected terrestrial domestic and wild ungulates of the families Bovidae (bison, buffalo, cattle, goat, impala, mouflon sheep, sheep, yak), Cervidae (red deer, roe deer, white-tailed deer), Camelidae (alpaca, camel), Suidae (boar, pig), Giraffidae (giraffes) and Equidae (horses). Data collection was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct and Cochran databases, with 429 papers being included in this systematic analysis. RESULTS: The results show that overall 18.9% of ungulates from the investigated species were infected with Cryptosporidium spp. Considering livestock species (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, horses and buffaloes), analysis revealed higher Cryptosporidium infection prevalence in ungulates of the Cetartiodactyla than in those of the Perissodactyla, with cattle (29%) being the most commonly infected farm animal. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the investigated domestic ungulates are considered potential sources of Cryptosporidium contamination in the environment. Control measures should be developed to reduce the occurrence of Cryptosporidium infection in these animals. Furthermore, literature on wild populations of the named ungulate species revealed a widespread presence and potential reservoir function of wildlife.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Animales/epidemiología , Animales Salvajes , Artiodáctilos , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Equidae , Ganado , Animales , Prevalencia
9.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 21(9): 589-594, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542902

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major threat to water supplies worldwide. Various biases and obstacles in case identification are recognized. In Israel, Cryptosporidiosis was included among notifiable diseases in 2001 in order to determine the burden of parasite-inflicted morbidity and to justify budgeting a central drinking water filtration plant. OBJECTIVES: To summarize the epidemiologic features of 14 years of Cryptosporidium surveillance and to assess the effects of advanced water purification treatment on the burden of disease. METHODS: From 2001 to 2014, a passive surveillance system was used. Cases were identified based on microscopic detection in stool samples. Confirmed cases were reported electronically to the Israeli Ministry of Health. Overall rates as well as age, gender, ethnicity and specific annual incidence were calculated per 100,000 population in five age groups: 0-4, 5-14, 15-44, 45-64, > 65 years. RESULTS: A total of 522 Cryptosporidium cases were reported in all six public health districts. More cases were detected among Jews and among males, and mainly in young children, with a seasonal peak during summer. The Haifa sub-district reported 69% of the cases. Most were linked to an outbreak from the summer of 2008, which was attributed to recreational swimming pool activity. Cases decreased after installation of a central filtration plant in 2007. CONCLUSIONS: As drinking water in Israel is treated to maximal international standards, the rationale for further inclusion of Cryptosporidium among mandatory notifiable diseases should be reconsidered. Future surveillance efforts should focus on timely detection of outbreaks using molecular high-throughput testing.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Monitoreo Epidemiológico , Política de Salud , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Costo de Enfermedad , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Israel/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Vigilancia de la Población/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Factores Sexuales , Purificación del Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Abastecimiento de Agua/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
10.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1144, 2019 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429732

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidiosis is a pathological condition caused by infection with coccidian protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium. Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrhea in developing countries. So far, no data has been published on its prevalence among children with diarrhea in Cameroon. This study was therefore, designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidiosis among children within the ages 0-5 years suffering from diarrhea and being attended to at the Limbe Regional Hospital. METHODS: The study was a hospital based analytical cross-sectional study involving children within the ages 0-5 years (n = 112) hospitalized or consulted in the pediatric departments of the hospital between April 2018 and May 2018. Stool specimens were processed using the modified acid-fast staining method, and microscopically examined for Cryptosporidium infection. RESULTS: A total of 112 participants were recruited out of which 67 presented with diarrhea. A high prevalence 9/67 (13.40%) of Cryptosporidium was noticed in children with diarrhea than children without diarrhea 1/45 (2.2%). There was a significant relationship (p = 0.041) between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and the presence of diarrhea in children within the ages 0-5 years in the Limbe Regional Hospital. It was realized that children from parents with primary level of education, children whose parents did not respect exclusive breastfeeding and those whose parents were giving them pipe borne water for drinking recorded a higher prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed an overall prevalence of 8.9% for Cryptosporidium among children of ages 0-5 years that attended the Limbe Regional Hospital. The prevalence among children that presented with diarrhea was 13.4%. The study clearly demonstrated that Cryptosporidium is an important protozoal etiologic agent for children with diarrhea in Limbe.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium , Diarrea/parasitología , Animales , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Camerún/epidemiología , Preescolar , Estudios Transversales , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Países en Desarrollo , Escolaridad , Femenino , Hospitales/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Padres , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(7): e0007607, 2019 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348795

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a major pathogen associated with diarrheal disease in young children. We studied Cryptosporidium diarrhea in children enrolled in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) in rural Gambia. METHODS: We recruited children <5 years of age with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) for 3 years (2008-2010), and children with either MSD or less severe diarrhea (LSD) for one year (November 2011-November 2012) at sentinel health centers. One or more randomly selected controls were matched to each case. Stool samples were tested to identify Cryptosporidium by immunoassay. A subset of randomly selected case-controls pairs were tested for Cryptosporidium species. We investigated the epidemiology of, and evaluated possible risk factors for, Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea. RESULTS: We enrolled 1938 cases (1381 MSD, 557 LSD) and 2969 matched controls; 231/1929 (12.0%) of diarrhea cases and 141/2962 (4.8%) of controls were positive for Cryptosporidium. Most Cryptosporidium diarrhea cases (85.7%, 198/231) were aged 6-23 months, and most (81.4%, 188/231) occurred during the rainy season. Cryptosporidium hominis (C. hominis) was the predominant (82.6%) species. We found associations between increased risk of Cryptosporidium-positive MSD or LSD, or both, with consumption of stored drinking water and certain animals living in the compound-cow, cat (MSD only) and rodents (LSD only). Larger households, fowl living in the compound, and the presence of Giardia infection were associated with decreased risk of Cryptosporidium MSD and LSD. CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea is prevalent in this setting, especially at 6-23 months of age. The preponderance of Cryptosporidium infection in the rainy season and increased risk of Cryptosporidium-positive diarrhea with consumption of stored drinking water suggest water-borne transmission. Further investigation is needed to clarify the role of animals and contamination of stored drinking water in Cryptosporidium transmission.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Diarrea Infantil/epidemiología , Factores de Edad , Preescolar , Criptosporidiosis/complicaciones , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Cryptosporidium , Diarrea Infantil/parasitología , Heces , Femenino , Gambia/epidemiología , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales
12.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 350, 2019 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Non-human primates are often infected with human-pathogenic Cryptosporidium hominis subtypes, but rarely with Cryptosporidium parvum. In this study, 1452 fecal specimens were collected from farmed crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) in Hainan, China during the period April 2016 to January 2018. These specimens were analyzed for Cryptosporidium species and subtypes by using PCR and sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA and 60 kDa glycoprotein (gp60) genes, respectively. RESULTS: Altogether, Cryptosporidium was detected using 18S rRNA-based PCR in 132 (9.1%) sampled animals, with significantly higher prevalence in females (12.5% or 75/599 versus 6.1% or 43/706), younger animals (10.7% or 118/1102 in monkeys 1-3-years-old versus 4.0% or 14/350 in those over 3-years-old) and animals with diarrhea (12.6% or 46/365 versus 7.9% or 86/1087). Four Cryptosporidium species were identified, namely C. hominis, C. parvum, Cryptosporidium muris and Cryptosporidium ubiquitum in 86, 30, 15 and 1 animal, respectively. The identified C. parvum, C. hominis and C. ubiquitum were further subtyped by using gp60 PCR. Among them, C. parvum belonged to subtypes in two known subtype families, namely IIoA14G1 (in 18 animals) and IIdA19G1 (in 2 animals). In contrast, C. hominis mostly belonged to two new subtype families Im and In, which are genetically related to Ia and Id, respectively. The C. hominis subtypes identified included ImA18 (in 38 animals), InA14 (in six animals), InA26 (in six animals), InA17 (in one animal) and IiA17 (in three animals). The C. ubiquitum isolates belonged to subtype family XIId. By subtype, ImA18 and IIoA14G1 were detected in animals with diarrhea whereas the remaining ones were mostly found in asymptomatic animals. Compared with C. parvum and C. muris, higher oocyst shedding intensity was observed in animals infected with C. hominis, especially those infected with the Im subtype family. CONCLUSIONS: Data from the study suggest that crab-eating macaques are infected with diverse C. parvum and C. hominis subtypes. The C. parvum IIo subtype family previously seen in rodents in China has apparently expanded its host range.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium/genética , Macaca fascicularis/parasitología , Enfermedades de los Monos/parasitología , Factores de Edad , Animales , China/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Cryptosporidium parvum/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Protozoario/genética , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Genotipo , Especificidad del Huésped , Enfermedades de los Monos/epidemiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , ARN Ribosómico 18S/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(7): 2079-2086, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187226

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidiosis of calves is caused by the enteroprotozoan Cryptosporidium spp. The disease results in intense diarrhea of calves associated with substantial economic losses in dairy farming worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine calf, herd, and within-herd Cryptosporidium prevalence and identify Cryptosporidium species and subtypes in calves with diarrhea in intensive dairy herds in central Argentina. A total of 1073 fecal samples were collected from 54 randomly selected dairy herds. Cryptosporidium-oocysts were isolated and concentrated from fecal samples using formol-ether and detected by light microscopy with the modified Ziehl-Neelsen technique. Overall prevalence of oocyst-excreting calves was found to be 25.5% (274/1073) (95% C.I. 22.9; 28.1%). Of the herds studied, 89% (48/54) included at least one infected calf, whereas within-herd prevalence ranged from the absence of infection to 57% (20/35). A highly significant association was found between the presence of diarrhea and C. parvum infection (χ2 = 55.89, p < 0.001). For species determination, genomic DNA isolated from oocyst-positive fecal samples was subjected to PCR-RFLP of the 18S rRNA gene resulting exclusively in Cryptosporidium parvum identification. C. parvum isolates of calves displaying diarrhea and high rate of excretion of oocysts were subtyped by PCR amplification and direct sequencing of the 60 kDa glycoprotein (GP60) gene. Altogether five GP60 subtypes, designated IIaA18G1R1, IIaA20G1R1, IIaA21G1R1, IIaA22G1R1, and IIaA24G1R1 were identified. Interestingly, IIaA18G1R1 and IIaA20G1R1 were predominant in calves with diarrhea and high infection intensity. Notably, IIaA24G1R1 represents a novel, previously unrecognized C. parvum subtype. The subtype IIaA18G1R1, frequently found in this study, is strongly implicated in zoonotic transmission. These results suggest that calves might be an important source for human cryptosporidiosis in Argentina.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium parvum/clasificación , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Diarrea/veterinaria , Animales , Argentina/epidemiología , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Cryptosporidium parvum/genética , Cryptosporidium parvum/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Glicoproteínas/genética , Humanos , Oocistos , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa/veterinaria , Polimorfismo de Longitud del Fragmento de Restricción , Prevalencia , Zoonosis
14.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 68(25): 568-572, 2019 Jun 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246941

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium is a parasite that causes cryptosporidiosis, a profuse, watery diarrhea that can last up to 3 weeks in immunocompetent patients and can lead to life-threatening malnutrition and wasting in immunocompromised patients.* Fecal-oral transmission can occur by ingestion of contaminated recreational water, drinking water, or food, or through contact with infected persons or animals. For the period 2009-2017, public health officials from 40 states and Puerto Rico voluntarily reported 444 cryptosporidiosis outbreaks resulting in 7,465 cases. Exposure to treated recreational water (e.g., in pools and water playgrounds) was associated with 156 (35.1%) outbreaks resulting in 4,232 (56.7%) cases. Other predominant outbreak exposures included contact with cattle (65 outbreaks; 14.6%) and contact with infected persons in child care settings (57; 12.8%). The annual number of reported cryptosporidiosis outbreaks overall increased an average of approximately 13% per year over time. Reversing this trend will require dissemination of prevention messages to discourage swimming or attending child care while ill with diarrhea and encourage hand washing after contact with animals. Prevention and control measures can be optimized by improving understanding of Cryptosporidium transmission through regular analysis of systematically collected epidemiologic and molecular characterization data.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/microbiología , Jardines Infantiles , Preescolar , Criptosporidiosis/transmisión , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Diarrea/microbiología , Humanos , Lactante , Piscinas , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Microbiología del Agua
15.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 43(2): 74-77, 2019 Jun 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204459

RESUMEN

Objective: Intestinal infections are common in the elderly, presented with atypical symptoms and may be the cause of mortality with a more severe clinical manifestation. The weakening of cellular and humoral immunity by aging affects the intestinal flora and increases the risk of infection in the presence of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of possible parasitic agents in the intestinal system of ≥65-year-old nursing home residents through fecal examination, and to determine the demographic features (age and gender) of this elderly group. Methods: A total of 82 stool samples were examined (100x, 40x) with saline and iodine preparations, formol-ethyl acetate concentration process, trichrome and modified Erlich Ziehl Neelsen stained preparations. Results: One or more parasitological agents were detected in 17 (20.7%) of the 82 stool samples examined. The most common agent was Blastocystis spp. (13.4%), followed by Cryptosporidium spp. (2.4%) and Dientamoeba fragilis (2.4%). Conclusion: In this study, it was determined that attention should be given to elderly population with regard to intestinal parasitic infections. Because of changes in the immune system, more opportunistic factors could be detected. More frequent screening in public areas such as nursing homes is important for preventing infections.


Asunto(s)
Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Animales , Infecciones por Blastocystis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Dientamebiasis/epidemiología , Entamebiasis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Giardia lamblia/aislamiento & purificación , Giardiasis/epidemiología , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/mortalidad , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Casas de Salud , Prevalencia
16.
Infez Med ; 27(2): 168-174, 2019 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31205040

RESUMEN

Opportunistic parasites are still important agents causing morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, particularly those living with HIV/AIDS. Few studies in Mexico have attempted to determine the prevalence of opportunistic intestinal parasites causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients. A study was conducted to determine the intestinal parasites in HIV-positive and HIV-negative immunocompromised patients with diarrhea admitted to a tertiary care hospital in Monterrey, Mexico, from 2014 to 2015. Stool samples were examined for trophozoites, cysts, and eggs using the EGRoPe sedimentation-concentration technique and special techniques (modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain, modified trichrome stain). A total of 56 patients were included. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitism was 64% (36/56); 22/36 patients were HIV-positive. Prevalence of opportunistic parasites was 69% in HIV-infected patients compared to 44% in HIV-negative patients (P = 0.06). Microsporidia were the most frequently identified parasites (24/36, 67%), followed by Cryptosporidium sp. (6/36, 17%), Sarcocystis sp. (4/36, 11%), Cystoisospora belli (3/36, 8%), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (1/36, 3%). Overall prevalence rates of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis were 43% and 11%, respectively. Among HIV-infected patients, prevalence rates of microsporidiosis and cryptosporidiosis were 48% and 14%, respectively. We also report the first cases of intestinal sarcocystosis in Mexico, all in HIV-infected patients. In conclusion, microsporidia and coccidia are major parasitic agents causing diarrhea in immunocompromised patients, particularly HIV-infected patients.


Asunto(s)
Huésped Inmunocomprometido , Parasitosis Intestinales/epidemiología , Infecciones Oportunistas/epidemiología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/epidemiología , Infecciones Oportunistas Relacionadas con el SIDA/parasitología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Coccidiosis/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Heces/parasitología , Femenino , Seronegatividad para VIH , Seropositividad para VIH/epidemiología , Seropositividad para VIH/parasitología , Humanos , Parasitosis Intestinales/parasitología , Masculino , México , Microsporidiosis/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones Oportunistas/parasitología , Estudios Prospectivos , Sarcocistosis/epidemiología , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Adulto Joven
17.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e28, 2019 Jun 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241657

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium spp. is a pathogenic protozoan present in the gastrointestinal tract of several hosts. This protozoan was originally classified as within the Coccidia Class and has recently been reclassified to gregarine based on studies that observed the evolutionary phases from the process of excision and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene. Molecular biology techniques have become diagnostic tools and have also been used to understand the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium spp., since several species of this genus are very similar morphologically and morphometrically. Molecular techniques have been used in the identification of parasites, at the species and subtypes levels and to study disease transmission. The laboratory diagnosis of human cryptosporidiosis can be made by parasite detection methods, such as optical microscopy, antigens or genetic material detection, as well as serum antibodies raised to Cryptosporidium spp. Molecular methods were developed and allowed, not only an extensive revision of the taxonomy, but also an improvement in the laboratory diagnosis. In Brazil, there are few reports of Cryptosporidium spp. outbreaks in humans and all of them took place in nurseries. A few epidemiological studies developed in Brazil have used molecular methods for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp., as well as genotyping studies of their species and subtypes. The use of real-time PCR, together with microscopy and immunochromatography techniques, would result in a more precise diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. The analysis of genotypes, subtypes and clonality of Cryptosporidium could be useful to understand and define the prognosis and severity of infections.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , ADN Protozoario/genética , Heces/parasitología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , ADN Protozoario/análisis , Genotipo , Humanos , ARN Ribosómico/genética , Reacción en Cadena en Tiempo Real de la Polimerasa , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
18.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 192, 2019 Apr 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039801

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is an important zoonotic parasite that is commonly found in non-human primates (NHPs). Consequently, there is the potential for transmission of this pathogen from NHPs to humans. However, molecular characterization of the isolates of Cryptosporidium from NHPs remains relatively poor. The aim of the present work was to (i) determine the prevalence; and (ii) perform a genetic characterization of the Cryptosporidium isolated from captive Macaca fascicularis and M. mulatta on Hainan Island in southern China. METHODS: A total of 223 fresh fecal samples were collected from captive M. fascicularis (n = 193) and M. mulatta (n = 30). The fecal specimens were examined for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of the partial small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The Cryptosporidium-positive specimens were subtyped by analyzing the 60-kDa glycoprotein (gp60) gene sequence. RESULTS: Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in 5.7% (11/193) of M. fascicularis. All of the 11 Cryptosporidium isolates were identified as C. hominis. Subtyping of nine of these isolates identified four unique gp60 subtypes of C. hominis. These included IaA20R3a (n = 1), IoA17a (n = 1), IoA17b (n = 1), and IiA17 (n = 6). Notably, subtypes IaA20R3a, IoA17a, and IoA17b were novel subtypes which have not been reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first reported detection of Cryptosporidium in captive M. fascicularis from Hainan Island. The molecular characteristics and subtypes of the isolates here provide novel insights into the genotypic variation in C. hominis.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Cryptosporidium/genética , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Enfermedades de los Primates/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Islas , Macaca fascicularis/parasitología , Macaca mulatta/parasitología , Filogenia , Prevalencia , Enfermedades de los Primates/epidemiología
19.
Parasite ; 26: 28, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081495

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium spp. are opportunistic pathogens that cause diarrhea in a variety of animal hosts. Although they have been reported in many animals, no information has been published on the occurrence of Cryptosporidium spp. in red-bellied tree squirrels (Callosciurus erythraeus). A total of 287 fecal specimens were collected from Sichuan province in China; the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., measured by nested-PCR amplification of the partial small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene, was 1.4% (4/287). Three different Cryptosporidium species or genotypes were identified: Cryptosporidium parvum (n = 1), Cryptosporidium wrairi (n = 1), and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n = 2). The present study is the first report of Cryptosporidium infection in red-bellied tree squirrels in China. Although there is a relatively low occurrence of Cryptosporidium, the presence of C. parvum and C. wrairi, which were previously reported in humans, indicates that red-bellied tree squirrels may be a source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in China.


Asunto(s)
Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Sciuridae/parasitología , Animales , China/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/clasificación , Diarrea/parasitología , Heces/parasitología , Genotipo , Filogenia , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa , Prevalencia , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
20.
Microb Pathog ; 132: 193-200, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075427

RESUMEN

Cryptosporidium is the causative agent of cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidium not only has a worldwide distribution, but also can infect various hosts, including dairy cattle and humans. Although numerous researches on Cryptosporidium infection in cattle have been conducted, no nationwide study on the prevalence of Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in mainland China was carried out. In this meta-analysis, five databases, including PubMed, ScienceDirect, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chongqing VIP, and Wanfang, were used to search for published papers regarding Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle in China from inception to February 25, 2019. Our study obtained 60 eligibility studies that reported Cryptosporidium infection in dairy cattle. We estimated the pooled Cryptosporidium prevalence to be 17.0% (3,901/33,313), with 16.9% (722/5,191) in Central China, 17.4% (959/6,162) in Eastern China, 29.8% (404/2,021) in Northeastern China, 15.7% (227/2,344) in Northern China, 15.8% (1,042/11,452) in Northwestern China, 9.5% (494/5,758) in Southern China, and 13.7% (53/385) in Southwestern China. The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in before 2000 group (28.0%, 944/3,417) was significantly higher than in 2000-2010 group (11.1%, 384/3,643) and after 2010 group (13.7%, 2,134/22,411). Cattle with the age of ≤ 12 months (22.5%, 2,142/12,948) had a significantly higher prevalence than those of > 12 months (9.5%, 840/10,282). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in different seasons ranged from 8.2% (343/4,552) in Autumn to 19.5% (285/1,570) in Winter. Diarrhea cattle (38%, 133/477) had a higher Cryptosporidium prevalence than non-diarrhea cattle (13.0%, 367/2423). The pooled prevalence of Cryptosporidium in different provinces was various, with the highest (35.6%, 355/1,667) in Heilongjiang province, and the lowest (4.3%, 15/440) in Tianjin province. The univariate meta-regression analyses indicated that the collection year (P = 0.002) and age of cattle (P = 0.001) might be sources of heterogeneity. This systematic review suggests that China is a country where cryptosporidiosis frequently occurs in cattle. Due to the particular relationship between dairy cattle and feeder, further research is required to investigate the links between cattle ownership and Cryptosporidium infection.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/epidemiología , Cryptosporidium/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Bovinos , Enfermedades de los Bovinos/parasitología , China/epidemiología , Criptosporidiosis/parasitología , Bases de Datos Factuales , Diarrea/epidemiología , Diarrea/parasitología , Mapeo Geográfico , Prevalencia
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